Unemployment essay pdf

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The last essay, Wages, Employment, and Unemployment: The Effect of. Benefits effect of higher unemployment benefits can be either positive or negative. Unemployment essaysUnemployment is one of the major economics problems. People who are considered unemployed are those who are seeking work or laid . Three Essays in the Economics of Unemployment and. Aging by show the discrete empirical PDF of contacts reported by the , claimants who were.

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Unemployment Essay Pdf

shortage of real capital due to longer periods of unemployment with a low level of . different labour market states (e.g. from unemployment to employment). Abstract — This paper examines unemployment in India and its current scenario. It also discusses . content/uploads//12/medical-site.info Unemployment is one of the biggest problems of modern India. This essay on unemployment discusses the causes of unemployment and its.

This type of unemployment is when employees leave their job to find a better one. That is when workers' skills or income requirements no longer match the jobs available. The seventh cause leads to cyclical unemployment. Some of the unemployed have saved enough money so they can quit unfulfilling jobs. They have the luxury to search until they find just the right opportunity. The second cause is when workers relocate. They are unemployed until they find a position in the new town. This includes students who graduate from high school, college or any higher degree program. They look for a job that fits their new skills and qualifications. That is a primary cause of youth unemployment. The fourth cause is when job seekers re-enter the workforce.

This type of unemployment happens when the labour is either transitioning between jobs or is trying to find a job more suited to their skill set. Friction is generally referred to the time, energy and cost that a person invests while searching for a new job. This form of unemployment happens when people with advanced degrees are unable to procure an engagement that is suited to their level of training.

Some occupations can only offer temporary employment to individuals and their engagements are subject to termination as soon as the demand subsides. Daily labourers who work on a day-to-day basis are example of such types of unemployment. This type of unemployment refers to the periodic cycle of unemployment associated with cyclical trends of growth in business. Unemployment is low when business cycles are at their peak and high when the gross economic output is low.

Unemployment in India: Types, Causes and Solutions To Reduce Unemployment Rate

Several external factors like wars, strikes and political disturbances, natural calamities that affect business cycle are also contributors to cyclical unemployment. This is a scenario when more people are employed in a job than is actually required for it. This is hallmark of developing economies where availability of labour is abundant.

It is primarily a feature of the agricultural and unorganized sectors. Unemployment is a reason for alarming concern in India today.

The root of the problem can be traced to a host of reasons that contributes collectively towards this problem. Economic Growth without adequate employment opportunities: In a survey conducted among a sample of companies across the nation and across various sectors, during the financial year of only 12, jobs were created compared to , jobs in the year Although literacy rates have risen in the last few decades, there still remains a fundamental flaw in the education system in India.

The curriculum is mostly theory-oriented and fails to provide vocational training required to match up with current economic environment. The degree-oriented system renders itself redundant when it comes to producing human resources adept at fitting into specific profiles within the economy.


Population growth: Rapid growth of population has often been labeled as the major reason for increasing unemployment in the country. Faulty Employment planning: The five-year plans implemented by the government have not contributed proportionately towards generation of employment. The assumption was that growth in economy will automatically generate enough employment. Drawback of Agriculture Infrastructure: The problem of disguised unemployment has turned out the biggest contributor behind this deficit.

Essay On Unemployment in India: Types, Causes and Solutions To Reduce Unemployment Rate

Also the seasonal nature of employment in this sector builds up recurring cycles of unemployment for the rural population. Lack of proper irrigation infrastructures and outdated cultivation methods still used renders most of the agriculture land in India usable for cultivating just one crop a year. This is another contributing factor towards seasonal nature of unemployment in the sector. Alternative opportunities: There has been a definite push towards providing the people employment by the agriculture-based industries with alternate methods of employment during the lull seasons.

Skill-based trainings for their employment in other sectors are lacking till date. Slow Industrialization: The industrial scenario in India is still slow to flourish.

Agriculture still remains as the biggest employer in the country. People are not yet keen towards self-employment, especially in the rural sector, depending on existing employment opportunities.

Neglect of cottage industries: For landless people in rural areas of India, one of the major means of livelihood is the cottage industries like fabric and handicrafts. But these small-scale industries are adversely affected by larger more mechanized industries which out-competes them in productivity. As a consequence, it is becoming more and more difficult to sustain the cottage industries inciting loss of employment for many.


Lack of Investment: Inadequacy of capital investment persists heavily in India and that has been a key contributor in not generating enough industry that in turn provides employment to the labour force. Immobility of Labour: One more factor that leads to unemployment is people not being interested to move for jobs.

Responsibility and attachment to family, language barrier, religion and lack of transport are key contributing factors in this regard.


Collective efforts directed by the Government as well as citizens towards the following points might help alleviate the problem of unemployment in the country. Increased Industrialization: One of the most sure-shot remedies of the unemployment situation in India is rapid industrialization.

Increased number of industries translates effectively into increased number of employment opportunities. This includes students who graduate from high school, college or any higher degree program. They look for a job that fits their new skills and qualifications. That is a primary cause of youth unemployment.

The fourth cause is when job seekers re-enter the workforce. They could have stopped working to raise children, get married or care for elderly relatives. Two Causes of Structural Unemployment Structural unemployment is neither voluntary nor short-term.

These next two causes usually lead to long-term unemployment. The fifth cause is advances in technology. Most of these workers need more training before they can find a new job in their field. What Causes Cyclical Unemployment The seventh cause of unemployment is when there are fewer jobs than applicants.

The technical term is demand-deficient unemployment.

Companies lose too much profit when demand falls. If they don't expect sales to pick up anytime soon, they must lay off workers.