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UK, the UKs new central government site, dont always take you to a specific page. This is because this new kind of site constantly adapts to what people really search for and so such static links would quickly go out of date.
Try it out. Simply search what you need from your preferred search site or from www. You can give feedback to the Government Digital Service from the website. As with getting to grips with any new skill, you may be nervous and it may be challenging at first.
But before long, youll be ready to take the step towards getting your full licence and enjoying the freedom that comes with it. A sound understanding of driving theory will help you reach that stage and to carry on improving right through your driving life.
Understanding and practice come together in a safe and responsible driver, so my advice is to get at least some practical lessons with a qualified instructor under your belt while youre studying for your theory test.
It helps to make the theory meaningful, and that helps it to stick. And youll be glad of that on the day of your theory test! I wish you safe driving for life. Contents Message from Lesley Young, the Chief Driving Examiner Introduction About the theory test How to use this book Getting started The theory test After the theory test Pass Plus Using the questions and answers sections Using this book to learn and revise Section one Alertness Section two Attitude Section three Safety and your vehicle Section four Safety margins Section five Hazard awareness Section six Vulnerable road users Section seven Other types of vehicle Section eight Road conditions and vehicle handling Section nine Motorway driving Section ten Rules of the road Section eleven Road and traffic signs Section twelve Essential documents Section thirteen Incidents, accidents and emergencies Section fourteen Vehicle loading Section fifteen Case study practice Section sixteen Answers 4 7 8 13 22 23 24 In this section, youll learn about how to use this book getting started the theory test after the theory test Pass Plus using the questions and answers sections using this book to learn and revise.
How to use this book To prove that you have the right knowledge, understanding and attitude to be a safe and responsible driver, youll need to pass the theory test. It includes a multiple choice test, to assess your knowledge of driving theory a hazard perception test, to assess your hazard recognition skills. This book contains hundreds of questions, which are very similar to the questions youll be asked in the test and cover the same topics.
Its easy to read, and explains why the answers are correct. References to the source material also appear with each question. Everyone learns in different ways, so this book has features to help you understand driving theory whatever kind of learner you are, including bite-size chunks of information, which are easier to understand at your own pace lots of photographs and images to illustrate what youre learning fourteen topic-specific case studies and six mixed-topic ones, just like those youll get in the test things to discuss and practise with your instructor, to put your learning about each topic into practice meeting the standards, to help you understand how each topic relates to the National Driving Standard.
This book is designed to help you learn about the theory of driving and to practise for the test. To prepare thoroughly, you should also study the source materials that the questions are taken from, which are The Official Highway Code Know Your Traffic Signs The Official DSA Guide to Driving the essential skills Theres always more you can learn, so keep your knowledge up to date throughout your driving career. Getting started Applying for your licence You must be at least 17 years old to drive a car.
As an exception, if you receive Disability Living Allowance at the higher rate, youre allowed to start driving at You must have a valid provisional driving licence before you can drive on the road.
Youll need to fill in application form D1, which you can request from www. For more information, see nidirect. You must enclose the required passport-type photographs, as all provisional licences are now photocard licences. When you receive your provisional licence, check that all details are correct before you drive on the road.
Youll need to show both the photocard and the paper counterpart of your provisional licence when you take your theory test. Residency requirements You cant take a test or get a full licence unless youre normally resident in the United Kingdom.
Normal residence means the place where you live because of personal or occupational work ties. These instructors have their standards checked regularly.
These professional driving instructors will give you guidance on your practical skills how to study and practise when youre ready for your tests further training after your practical test under the Pass Plus scheme not applicable in Northern Ireland. A code of practice not applicable in Northern Ireland has been created, within which all instructors should operate. To find your nearest fully qualified ADI, please visit www. About the theory test Youll take the theory test on-screen in two parts.
Its designed to test your knowledge of driving theory in particular, the rules of the road and best driving practice. The first part is a series of multiple choice questions. Some multiple choice questions will be presented as a case study. More information about this part of the test is given on pages The revision questions are given in the main part of the book, beginning on page The second part of the theory test is the hazard perception part. More information about this is given on pages Can I take the practical test first?
You must pass your theory test before you can book a practical test. Does everyone have to take the theory test? Most people in the UK who are learning to drive will have to take the theory test. Tel or email customercare pearson. Tel Foreign licence holders: If you cant, youll need to apply for a provisional licence and take a theory and a practical driving test.
Preparing for your theory test Although you must pass your theory test before you can take your practical test, its best to start studying for your theory test as soon as possible but dont actually take it until you have some practical experience of driving. To prepare for the multiple choice part of the theory test, DSA strongly recommends that you study the books from which the theory test questions are taken, as well as the questions youll find in this book.
The Official Highway Code This is essential reading for all road users. It contains the very latest rules of the road, up-to-date legislation and provides advice on road safety and best practice. Know Your Traffic Signs This contains most of the signs and road markings that youre likely to see. Its important that you study, not just to pass the test but to become a safer driver.
The Official DSA Guide to Driving the essential skills This is the official reference book, giving practical advice and best driving practice for all drivers. These books will help you to answer the questions correctly and will also help you when studying for your practical test.
The information in them will be relevant throughout your driving life, so make sure you always have an up-to-date copy. It contains all the revision questions and answers, and also allows you to take mock tests. The DVD is packed with useful tips, quizzes and expert advice. It also includes interactive hazard perception clips, which you can use to test yourself and see if youre ready to take the real test.
Choose either the Theory Test app, which covers the multiple choice part of the test, or the Theory Test Kit, which covers both the multiple choice and hazard perception parts of the test. Theres also a free version to try before you download. All the official training materials listed are available online at tsoshop. Theyre also available from bookshops and selected computer software retailers. Apps are available from the Apple app store. Why do the questions in the theory test keep changing?
To make sure that all candidates are being tested fairly, questions and video clips are under continuous review. Some questions may be changed as a result of customer feedback. They may also be altered because of changes to legislation, and DSA publications are updated so that the revision questions reflect these changes. Can I take a mock test? You can take a mock test for the multiple choice part of the theory test online at safedrivingforlife. The theory test Booking your theory test Its easiest to book online or by phone.
You can also book by post. Booking online or by telephone By using these methods youll be given the date and time of your test immediately. Book online at www. To book by telephone, call for Northern Ireland. If you have hearing or speech difficulties and use a minicom machine, call If youre a Welsh speaker, call Youll be given a booking number and you should receive an appointment letter within 10 days.
Where can I take the test? There are over theory test centres throughout England, Scotland and Wales, and six in Northern Ireland. Most people have a test centre within 20 miles of their home, but this will depend on the density of population in your area. To find your nearest test centre, please visit www. What should I do if I dont receive an acknowledgement?
If you dont receive an acknowledgement within the time specified, please visit www. We cant take responsibility for postal delays. If you miss your test appointment, youll lose your fee. When are test centres open? Test centres are usually open on weekdays, some evenings and some Saturdays. How do I cancel or postpone my test? You can cancel or postpone your test online by visiting www.
You should contact the booking office at least three clear working days before your test date, otherwise youll lose your fee. Booking by post If you prefer to book by post, youll need to fill in an application form. These are available from driving test centres, or your instructor may have one. You should receive an appointment letter within 10 days of posting your application form.
If you need the theory test in a language other than English or if you need support for special needs, please turn to page Taking your theory test Arriving at the test centre You must make sure that when you arrive at the test centre you have all the relevant documents with you.
If you dont have them, you wont be able to take your test and youll lose your fee. Youll need your signed photocard licence and paper counterpart, or your signed old-style paper driving licence and valid passport your passport doesnt have to be British.
No other form of identification is acceptable in England, Wales or Scotland. Other forms of identification may be acceptable in Northern Ireland; please check dvani. All documents must be original. We cant accept photocopies. The test centre staff will check your documents and make sure that you take the right category of test.
Remember, if you dont bring your documents your test will be cancelled and youll lose your fee. Make sure you arrive in plenty of time so that you arent rushed. If you arrive after the session has started, you may not be allowed to take the test. Its an on-screen test and is made up of a multiple choice part and a hazard perception part. Watch the How to pass the theory test video on DSAs YouTube channel, which explains how to prepare for the theory test, what to expect on the day and what you need to do to pass.
Languages other than English In Wales, and at theory test centres on the Welsh borders, you can take your theory test with Welsh text on-screen. A voiceover can also be provided in Welsh. You can listen through a headset to the test being read out in one of 20 other languages as well as English.
At some theory test centres you may bring a translator with you so that you can take your test in any other language. You have to arrange and pay for the services of the translator yourself.
Tests with translators can be taken at the following test centres: Provision for special needs Every effort is made to ensure that the theory test can be taken by all candidates. Its important that you state your needs when you book your test so that the necessary arrangements can be made. Reading difficulties Theres an English-language voiceover on a headset to help you if you have reading difficulties or dyslexia.
You can ask for up to twice the normal time to take the multiple choice part of the test. Youll be asked to provide a letter from a suitable independent person who knows about your reading ability, such as a teacher or employer. Please check with the Special Needs section call on the normal booking number; see page 13 if youre unsure who to ask.
We cant guarantee to return any original documents, so please send copies only. Hearing difficulties If youre deaf or have other hearing difficulties, the multiple choice part and the introduction to the hazard perception part of the test can be delivered in British Sign Language BSL by an on-screen signer.
A BSL interpreter, signer or lip speaker can be provided if requested at the time of booking. If you have any other requirements, please call the Special Needs section on the normal booking number see page Physical disabilities If you have a physical disability that would make it difficult for you to use a touch screen system or a mouse button in the theory test, we may be able to make special arrangements for you to use a different method if you let us know when you book your test.
Multiple choice questions The first part of the theory test consists of 50 multiple choice questions. Some of these will be in the form of a case study. You select your answers for this part of the test by touching the screen or using a mouse. Before you start, youll be given the chance to work through a practice session for up to 15 minutes to get used to the system.
Staff at the test centre will be available to help you if you have any difficulties. The questions will cover a variety of topics relating to road safety, the environment and documents. Only one question will appear on the screen at a time. Most questions will ask you to mark one correct answer from four possible answers. Some questions may ask for two or more correct answers from a selection, but this will be shown clearly on the screen. If you try to move on without marking the correct number of answers, youll be reminded that more answers are needed.
To answer, you need to touch or click the box beside the answer or answers you think are correct. If you change your mind and dont want that answer to be selected, touch or click it again. You can then choose another answer. Take your time and read the questions carefully. Youre given 57 minutes for this part of the test, so relax and dont rush.
Some questions will take longer to answer than others, but there are no trick questions. The time remaining is displayed on the screen. You may be allowed extra time to complete the test if you have special needs and you let us know when you book your test. Youll be able to move backwards and forwards through the questions and you can also flag questions youd like to look at again.
Its easy to change your answer if you want to. During the actual test this button will end the test session. You can then work through all the flagged questions.
Try to answer all the questions. If youre well prepared, you shouldnt find them difficult. Before you finish this part of the test, if you have time, you can use the review feature to check your answers.
If you want to finish your test before the full time, touch or click the review button and then the end button on the review screen. When you touch or click the review button, youll see the screen on the previous page. Case studies Some of the multiple choice questions will be presented as part of a case study. Case studies are designed to test knowledge basic recall of facts comprehension basic understanding application practical use of knowledge and understanding. This is done by creating a set of circumstances that you may encounter in a real-life situation.
Youll then be asked some questions relating to the scenario, and youll have to decide how you would react or behave in each case. For an example of a case study, see page The case studies at the end of each section in this book set out scenarios and then ask you relevant questions. This is to help you test your knowledge in a format similar to the case studies in the theory test.
However, the layout isnt the same as the theory test screens. Hazard perception After youve finished the multiple choice part, theres a break of up to three minutes before you start the hazard perception part of the test. You cant leave your seat during this break.
This part of the test is a series of film clips, shown from a drivers point of view. Youll be using a mouse for this part of the theory test. Before you start this part of the test, youll be shown a short video that explains how the test works and gives you a chance to see a sample film clip. This will help you to understand what you need to do.
You can play this video again if you wish. During the hazard perception part of the test, youll be shown 14 film clips. Each clip contains one or more developing hazards. You should press the mouse button as soon as you see a hazard developing that may need you, the driver, to take some action, such as changing speed or direction.
The earlier you notice a developing hazard and make a response, the higher your score. There are 15 hazards for which you can score points. Your response wont change what happens in the scene in any way.
However, a red flag will appear on the bottom of the screen to show that your response has been noted. Before each clip starts, therell be a second pause to allow you to see the new road situation. The hazard perception part of the test lasts about 20 minutes. For this part of the test no extra time is available, and you cant repeat any of the clips you dont get a second chance to see a hazard when youre driving on the road.
Trial questions Were constantly checking the questions and clips to help us decide whether to use them in future tests. After the hazard perception part of the test, you may be asked to try a few trial questions and clips. You dont have to do these if you dont want to, and if you answer them they wont count towards your final score.
Customer satisfaction survey We want to make sure our customers are completely satisfied with the service they receive. At the end of your test youll be shown some questions designed to give us information about you and how happy you are with the service you received from us. Your answers will be treated in the strictest confidence. They arent part of the test and they wont affect your final score or be used for marketing purposes.
Youll be asked if you want to complete the survey, but you dont have to. The result You should receive your result at the test centre within 10 minutes of completing the test. Youll be given a score for each part of the test the multiple choice part and the hazard perception part.
Youll need to pass both parts to pass the theory test. If you fail one of the parts, youll have to take the whole test again. Why do I have to retake both parts of the test if I only fail one? Its really only one test. The theory test has always included questions relating to hazard awareness the second part simply tests the same skills in a more effective way. The two parts are only presented separately in the theory test because different scoring methods are used.
Whats the pass mark? To pass the multiple choice part of the theory test, you must answer at least 43 out of 50 questions correctly. For learner car drivers and motorcyclists, the pass mark for the hazard perception part is 44 out of If I dont pass, when can I take the test again?
If you fail your test, youve shown that youre not fully prepared. Youll have to wait at least three clear working days before you can take the theory test again.
Good preparation will save you both time and money. After the theory test When you pass your theory test, youll be given a certificate.
Keep this safe as youll need it when you go for your practical test. This certificate is valid for two years from the date of your test. This means that you have to take and pass the practical test within this two-year period. If you dont, youll have to take and pass the theory test again before you can book your practical test. Your practical driving test Your next step is to prepare for and take your practical driving test. Both products explain the standards required to pass the practical driving test.
They include information about each of the 24 key skills examined within the test, with tips from the experts, and they explain what the examiner is looking for during the test. The DVD also shows a test in action so that you can see what happens. Pass Plus not applicable in Northern Ireland After passing the practical driving test, youre at greater risk of being involved in a road traffic incident than older, more experienced drivers.
That risk is reflected in car insurance premiums. There are likely to be many driving situations that you havent experienced during your lessons. The Pass Plus scheme can help by showing you how to deal with these situations so that you can drive with confidence. Pass Plus is aimed at improving your driving skills and making you a safer driver. It can also lead to insurance discounts. Pass Plus will take you through driving in town on rural roads in all weathers on dual carriageways and motorways in the dark.
The structured syllabus gives you the extra experience you need at a time when youre most likely to be involved in a collision. It builds on your existing skills and theres no test to take at the end. The amount of money you save on insurance could cover the cost of the course.
Many car insurers recognise the benefits of the scheme and will give you substantial discounts when you insure your car. To find out more about the Pass Plus scheme, insurance discounts and Pass Plus instructors in your area, ask your driving instructor visit www.
You can take the Pass Plus course at any time in your driving career, but its mainly aimed at new drivers in the first year after passing their test. Using the questions and answers sections Sections 1 to 14 contain all the revision questions for the multiple choice part of the theory test. These are very similar to the questions youll be asked in the test and cover the same topics.
The questions are in the left-hand column with a choice of answers below. For easy reference, the questions are divided into topics. Although this isnt how youll find them in your test, its helpful if you want to look at particular subjects.
At the start of each topic, before the questions, there are a few pages of useful information to help you learn more about each topic. On the right-hand side of the page theres a brief explanation to help you understand the question.
Therell also be some advice on correct driving procedures and some short references to the relevant source materials. These refer to the books listed on page Dont just learn the answers; its important that you know why theyre correct. To help you do this, theres a short scenario at the end of each question section with five questions to answer. This will give you an idea of how the case study part of the theory test will assess your understanding of the subject covered.
This knowledge will help you with your practical skills and prepare you to become a safe and confident driver. Taking exams or tests is rarely a pleasant experience, but you can make your test less stressful by being confident that you have the knowledge to answer the questions correctly.
Make studying more enjoyable by involving friends and relations. Take part in a question-and-answer game. Test those experienced drivers whove had their licence a while: Some of the questions in this book wont be relevant to Northern Ireland theory tests. These questions are marked as follows: Once youre on the road, remember what youve learnt and be prepared to keep learning.
Using this book to learn and revise Were all different. We like different foods, listen to different music and learn in different ways. This book is designed to help you learn the important information that youll need for the theory test in a variety of different formats, so you can nd a way of learning that works best for you.
Features A summary, at the start of each section, of what youll learn. All the key information presented in bitesize chunks with clear headings. Links and QR codes to online videos and interactive activities, to further increase your knowledge and skills. Scan the QR code on your smart phone youll need a QR code reader app to access the online content. A summary, at the end of each section, of what youll need to know and be able to do to meet the National Driving Standard.
The theory test is just one part of the process of learning to drive. You need to learn the facts, but its important to understand how they relate to real driving.
The combination of knowing driver theory and having good practical driving skills wont only help you pass your test; it will also make you a safer driver for life. What kind of learner are YOU?
Ask yourself these questions Why are you doing this? Whats motivating you? When have you learned best in the past? What helped you to remember what you needed to know? What are your strengths and weaknesses as a learner? Think about the way that you learn best. You could try any combination of the following ideas. I remember best when I physically do something Short study sessions Do things create models or diagrams; make lists Use props Try the interactive activities Watch and copy what your driving instructor does Mime or act out different driving moves.
Create flashcards with important facts or statistics Make diagrams and charts Use mind maps Use colour coding Watch the DSA short films Make your own notes Cross-reference information using a variety of books, eg The Official Highway Code Draw your own diagrams to show key information. Repeat rules out loud Use a voice recorder to make recordings of key information Work with others and discuss things Watch and listen to the DSA video content. Top tips Remember your motivation Think about the reason youre learning to drive.
Is it for independence? For work? To drive a dream car? Remind yourself, from time to time, of your motivation for learning. Dont give up! Relate to your personal experience Information is more memorable when its linked to what you already know. Try to picture yourself in the position of the driver. The case studies throughout the book can help you think about how the ideas would work in real life.
Use mnemonics Mnemonics are little sayings, stories or techniques that help you remember something. A classic example is Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain, which you can use to remember the colours of the rainbow red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. You can use similar techniques to memorise statistics, facts or information for your driving career.
Question format However you choose to learn the content, make certain youre familiar with the format of the test and how the questions will be presented. Go through the selfassessment questions in each chapter and see if you can answer them. Mark any you struggle with and try them again at a later date. Plan your study Set yourself timelines and targets. Try to set aside dedicated time for study, when youre feeling awake and are unlikely to be interrupted.
The environment in which you study is important try to find an area where you can concentrate. Getting help Think about the people you can speak with to ask questions, get advice or share experiences about driving such as your driving instructor, parents, friends or colleagues at work. Taking your test Dont rush into the theory test before youre ready. You need to be confident with the information, and have enough practical experience to give you a deep understanding of the information too.
In this section, youll learn about observing whats going on around you being seen by other road users being aware of other road users anticipating what other road users are going to do keeping your concentration on the road avoiding distractions. Alertness Being alert to whats going on around you is vital to driving safely and will help you to avoid dangerous situations. Observation and awareness Its important to be aware of whats happening around you while youre driving, including other road users pedestrians signs and road markings weather conditions the area youre driving through.
Before you move off, you should use your mirrors to check how your actions will affect traffic behind you. Getting a clear view If you cant see behind you when reversing, ask someone to guide you to make sure that you reverse safely.
If your view is blocked by parked cars when youre coming out of a junction, move forward slowly and carefully until you have a clear view.
Overtaking Observation is particularly important when youre overtaking another vehicle. Make sure you can see the road ahead clearly, looking out for vehicles coming towards you whether youre near a junction vehicles could come out of the junction while youre overtaking whether the road gets narrower there may not be enough space for you to overtake bends or dips in the road, which will make it difficult for you to see traffic coming towards you road signs that mean you MUST NOT overtake.
Before you overtake, check that its safe, legal and necessary you have enough time to complete the overtaking manoeuvre. Being seen by others Its important for other road users to know youre there. Switch on your lights when it starts to get dark, even if the street lights arent on. Where you cant be seen, such as at a hump bridge, you may need to use your horn. HC r If youre following a large vehicle, stay well back. This will help the driver to see you in their mirrors.
Staying back will also help you see the road ahead much more clearly. This is especially important if youre planning to overtake the vehicle. Anticipation Anticipation can help you to avoid problems and incidents so that you can drive more safely. For example, a give way sign warns you that a junction is ahead, so you can slow down in good time.
Look at the road signs and markings: You should follow their advice slow down if necessary. When turning right onto a dual carriageway, check that the central reservation is wide enough for your vehicle to stop in, especially if youre towing a trailer.
Do this in case you have to wait before joining the traffic. If theres not enough space for your vehicle, only emerge when its clear both to the right and left.
Road conditions will affect how easy it is to anticipate what might happen. Its more difficult when the weather is very wet or windy the light is poor the traffic volume is heavy the route youre driving is new to you.
In these conditions, you need to be particularly aware of whats happening around you. DES s7.
Anticipating what other road users might do Watch other road users. Try to anticipate their actions so that youre ready if you need to slow down or change direction. Be aware of more vulnerable road users. Watch out for pedestrians approaching a crossing, especially young, older or disabled people who may need more time to cross the road.
Always be ready to stop However well prepared you are, you may still have to stop quickly in an emergency. Keep both hands on the wheel as you brake to help you to keep control of your vehicle. DES s5, Staying focused Driving safely takes a lot of concentration as well as controlling the car, you need to be aware of whats happening on the road and what could happen next.
Stay focused on driving and try not to get distracted. Always plan your journey so that you know which route you need to take have regular rest stops. Avoiding tiredness You wont be able to concentrate properly if youre tired.
Its particularly easy to feel sleepy when driving on a motorway, especially at night, so dont drive continuously for more than two hours keep fresh air circulating in the car if you start to feel drowsy, leave at the next exit.
Find a safe and legal place to stop and take a break. Stop in a safe place and have a cup of coffee or another caffeinated drink. HC p The legal minimum depth of tread for car Tyres must have sufficient depth tyres over three quarters of the breadth is of tread to give them a good grip on the road surface. HC p It is illegal to drive with tyres that When checking your tyres for cuts and bulges in the side walls.
Who is reduce the risk of injury. If responsible for seeing that the children you are carrying passengers wear seat belts? HC r You are carrying two year-old children Seat belts save lives and and their parents in your car.
Driving at 70 mph uses more fuel than Your vehicle will use less fuel if driving at 50 mph by up to you avoid heavy acceleration. Your vehicle pulls to one side when braking. The brakes on your vehicle You should must be effective and properly adjusted.
You have to leave valuables in your car. If you have to leave valuables in It would be safer to your car, always lock them out of sight. Which of the following may help to deter a Having your car registration thief from stealing your car? When leaving your vehicle parked and An unlocked car is an open unattended you should invitation to thieves.
Which TWO of the following will improve Harsh braking, constant gear fuel consumption? You service your own vehicle. How should It is illegal to pour engine oil down you get rid of the old engine oil? Oil is a pollutant and harmful to wildlife. To help protect the environment against If your vehicle is not serviced pollution regularly, it may fail the annual MOT test.
To reduce the damage your vehicle causes By looking well ahead and to the environment you should recognising hazards early you can avoid last-minute harsh braking. You enter a road where there are road The humps are there for a reason humps. Harsh braking and accelerating uses more fuel. When should you especially check the During long journeys an engine engine oil level? If not, you should refer to the vehicle handbook. Also make checks on. You space in a busy town. You can see there will be causing an obstruction is space on the zigzag lines of a zebra by obscuring the view of both crossing.
Can you park there? When leaving your vehicle where should Whenever possible leave your car you park if possible? This will help stop thieves. Think other road users? The most important reason for having a The restraint should be adjusted properly adjusted head restraint is to so that it gives maximum protection to the head and neck. As a driver you can cause more damage to For short journeys it may be the environment by quicker to walk, or cycle, which is far better for your health.
How can you reduce the chances of your When leaving your car take all car being broken into when leaving it valuables with you if you can, unattended? How can you help to prevent your car radio A security-coded radio can deter being stolen? Section three Questions How can you lessen the risk of your vehicle Having your vehicle broken into being broken into at night? To help keep your car secure you The vehicle watch scheme helps could join a reduce the risk of having your car stolen.
On a vehicle, where would you find a Although carbon dioxide is still catalytic converter? How can driving in an ecosafe manner help Ecosafe driving is all about protect the environment?
What does ecosafe driving achieve? The emphasis is on hazard awareness and planning ahead. You are checking your trailer tyres. What Trailers and caravans may be left is the legal minimum tread depth over the in storage over the winter months central three quarters of its breadth? Section three Questions Fuel consumption is at its highest when Always try to use the accelerator you are smoothly. You are driving the children of a friend Passengers should always be home from school. They are both under secured and safe.
Children should 14 years old. Who is responsible for making be encouraged to fasten their sure they wear a seat belt or approved child seat belts or approved restraints restraint where required? You have too much oil in your engine. What Too much oil in the engine will could this cause? They are under MUST be used. If your vehicle is stationary and is You will be waiting for some time for a likely to remain so for some time. They are under to ensure that children are secure 1. You and safe in your vehicle.
HC r99 You are carrying an year-old child in It is your responsibility as a driver the back seat of your car. HC r You are parked at the side of the road. A correct child exceptional cases if one is not restraint is NOT available. HC r99 You are carrying a five-year-old child in Usually a correct child restraint the back seat of your car.
In a few 1. Make MUST make sure that sure you are familiar with the rules. HC r Section three Questions You are using a rear-facing baby seat. It is MUST you do before setting off? What or even death to the child. You If the airbag activates near a baby want to put it on the front passenger seat seat. When may you leave the parked on a road. HC r You are leaving your vehicle parked on a When you leave your vehicle road unattended.
Jeff reaches a major junction. In the city. Jeff has to park on the roadside. He leaves his camera on the back seat. At work. When parking. He picks up his laptop to take to work and locks the car.
Case study practice — 3 Safety and your vehicle Jeff drives through the city centre. Section four Safety margins In this section. Excessive braking on hills can cause your brakes to overheat and become less effective.
Keep control of your car by using the correct procedures. HC r Stopping distance Leave enough room between your vehicle and the one in front so that you can pull up safely if it slows down or stops suddenly.
Never take risks. Your overall stopping distance is the distance your car travels from the moment that you realise you must brake to the moment your car stops.
HC r DES s5. Use a fixed point. Typical stopping distances Look at the typical stopping. In other conditions. Keeping a safe distance from the vehicle in front will help to lower your risk of having a collision. If someone overtakes you and pulls into the gap in front. Section four Safety margins 2 secs In good. Never underestimate the dangers. Other drivers might not be able to see your indicators flashing.
You may need to dry them out by pressing lightly on the brake pedal as you drive. If this happens. HC r— Find more information about winter driving at this website.
This is where the tyres lift off the road surface and skate on a film of water. The road surface can become soft and may begin to melt.
The steering becomes light. Weather conditions Weather conditions have a major effect on your safety margins. This could affect your braking and steering. Give an arm signal if you think it will be helpful.
Bright sunlight can dazzle. If visibility falls below metres feet. Take care and allow extra room if you pass these road users. Weather Actions to take Section four Safety margins Freezing Freezing conditions can make roads very slippery. DES 7 When driving. You MUST switch them off when the fog lifts.
HC r— Foggy Fog reduces your visibility. Check your left side as you pass them. Before starting a journey. Skidding Skidding is when the tyres lose grip on the road. If you brake too hard and start to skid. Road surface and tyre conditions can increase the risk of skidding. Wheel speed sensors anticipate when a wheel is about to lock. ABS will help prevent skidding caused by braking too hard for the conditions.
To reduce the risk of skidding. Section four Safety margins scan the road ahead for clues such as road signs and markings. Contraflow systems contraflow system where one or more lanes have a direction of traffic against that of the rest of the carriageway When you enter a contraflow system.
What actions can you take to reduce risk? How can you reduce the risk of skidding and what should you do if you start to skid? Section four Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor.
Read more about safety margins to come up with your own ideas. It also reduces the risk of collision with an oncoming vehicle that may have drifted over the centre line while taking the bend.
HC r When approaching a right-hand bend you Doing this will give you an earlier should keep well to the left. HC r Braking distances on ice can be In icy and snowy weather. HC r— In windy conditions you need to take extra You should always give cyclists care when plenty of room when overtaking. HC r Freezing conditions will affect the distance Your tyre grip is greatly reduced it takes you to come to a stop. You should on icy roads and you need to expect stopping distances to increase by allow up to ten times the normal up to stopping distance.
HC r Where are you most likely to be affected by In windy conditions.
This will be most affected? On a busy stretch of road motorcyclists. Try pacing out 73 metres and then look back. It will take at least this distance to think. HC r Section four Questions In very hot weather the road surface can Only a small part of your tyres become soft. Which TWO of the following is in contact with the road. Your speed have left. This should allow you to pull up safely if you have to.
Your Stopping distances are affected brakes and tyres are good. HC r You are following a vehicle at a safe Wet weather will affect the time distance on a wet road. What is your typical overall stopping usually take you further than distance? What is the by a number of variable factors. Another driver it takes for you to stop and can overtakes you and pulls into the gap you affect your control. HC r What should you do when overtaking a In strong winds riders of two- motorcyclist in strong winds?
These include the type. This will give you more space in front if you have to brake. You are on distance. The distance could be greater than this depending on your attention and response to any hazards.
This will help you see you do to reduce the chances of being in and be seen by other road users. How can you travel at high speeds despite lower the risk of a collision?
HC r In heavy motorway traffic the vehicle behind On busy roads traffic may still you is following too closely. These figures are a general guide. What else can headlights. You need to add a good. HC r You are following other vehicles in fog. HC r You are driving on an icy road. HC r You are driving in freezing conditions.
HC r To avoid a collision when entering a In a contraflow system you will contraflow system.
HC r Skidding is mainly caused by You should always consider the conditions and drive accordingly. What Harsh use of the accelerator. If you attempt to move off in a low You should use gear. HC r When driving in falling snow you should Braking on snow can be extremely dangerous.
Steer into the skid but be careful The back of your vehicle slides to the right. HC r You are trying to move off on snow. HC r Section four Questions You are turning left on a slippery road. When going down a steep hill To control the speed of your vehicle you your vehicle will speed up.
HC r You are about to go down a steep hill. This should will make it more difficult for you to stop. Which Turning the wheels towards TWO of the following should you do? You should to slow down traffic. HC r Anti-lock brakes reduce the chances of a The anti-lock braking system will skid occurring particularly when operate when the brakes have been applied harshly. Be aware of pedestrians in these areas.
Slow down when driving over them. HC r Anti-lock brakes are of most use when Anti-lock brakes will not be you are required when braking normally. If you go too fast they may affect your steering and suspension.
HC r Section four Questions You are driving in a built-up area. You Many towns have speed humps approach a speed hump. HC r Driving a vehicle fitted with anti-lock brakes When stopping in an emergency allows you to anti-lock brakes will help you continue to steer when braking.
Look well ahead down the road lock brakes. This is build up between the tyre and most likely to happen when driving the road surface. You need to stop in an as you drive and give yourself emergency. HC r You are driving a vehicle fitted with anti. You should apply the footbrake time and space to react safely to any hazards. Look in your vehicle handbook for the correct method when stopping in an emergency.
Before you do this. HC r You are driving along a wet road. HC r How can you tell if you are driving on ice? Drive extremely carefully when the roads are icy.
HC r Section four Questions You are driving along a country road. You Deep water can affect your see this sign. AFTER dealing safely with the brakes. For safety. HC r Anti-lock brakes are most effective Releasing the brake before you when you have slowed right down will disable the system. HC r Your overall stopping distance will be much Extra care should be taken in longer when driving wet weather as. HC r You are on a fast. To check for a two-second time gap.
HC r Travelling for long distances in neutral Coasting is the term used when known as coasting the clutch is held down. When you coast. HC r You are on a wet motorway with surface When surface spray reduces spray.
You should use visibility switch on your dipped headlights. Coasting also removes the assistance of engine braking that helps to slow the car.
Case study practice — 4 Safety margins You have a short but essential journey to make. On turning left. Your tyres are making almost no sound. Section five Hazard awareness In this section. A hazard is a situation that may require you.
As your skills improve. Hazard awareness Section five Hazard awareness When you start learning to drive. Hazards can be … moving. Watch out for signs and markings so that you can slow down in good time and are prepared for any action you may need to take.
At level crossings with traffic light signals. Could I do it safely? HC r Road signs Road signs and markings are there to give you clues about possible hazards. You can find them in The Official Highway Code book. Static hazards There are many types of static hazard. HC r— DES s7. Parked vehicles Section five Hazard awareness In busy areas. Where lanes are closed. Would you be able to stop.
Be careful not to block a junction: HC r DES s8. Take extra care and pull forward slowly until you can see down the road. You may also be able to see reflections of traffic in the windows of buildings. Breakdowns If your vehicle breaks down and is causing an obstruction. HC r Slow-moving or stationary vehicles with a large arrow displayed on the back show where you need to change lanes when approaching roadworks. There may be police officers controlling traffic in these circumstances — make sure that you know and understand their signals.
They may wobble or swerve to avoid drains or potholes. They may be walking towards you on your side of the road. When travelling in slow traffic. Reduce your speed and give them plenty of room when overtaking. Moving hazards Section five Hazard awareness Moving hazards tend to be hazards caused by other types of road user. At junctions or traffic lights. Road user What to do Pedestrians If you see pedestrians in the road.
On country roads there may be no pavement. At some bridges. Road user What to do Drivers of large vehicles If you see a bus at a bus stop. When turning right. Learn what loads the signs mean. If you need to. HC p Drivers overtaking you Watch out for vehicles. HC p Drivers of vehicles Some vehicles have information signs on the back. HC r DES s10 Large goods vehicles over 13 metres long have red and yellow markings at the back of the vehicle.
Road user What to do Section five Hazard awareness Disabled people using Reduce your speed and be careful. Older drivers Older drivers may not react very quickly. Change the way you drive to suit the weather conditions. HC r91 DES s1.
These may be convex curved outwards slightly to give a wider field of vision. Bright sunlight Be aware that sunlight can dazzle you or other drivers. You need to be alert and concentrate on your driving at all times. Plan your journey so that you have enough rest and refreshment breaks. Ice Increase your distance from the vehicle in front to 20 seconds. If you feel tired.
In these conditions … remember to do this Rain Double your distance from the vehicle in front to four seconds. Fog Slow down and use dipped headlights.
Try to stop at least once every two hours.
Open a window so you have plenty of fresh air. Did you know? DES s1 See the Think! Never take them before driving. Some medicines can make you sleepy: Driving while under the influence of drink or drugs may even invalidate your insurance. See the Think! You must know and understand methods that you can use to scan around your vehicle. Tinted glasses can restrict your vision. You MUST tell the licensing authority if you suffer from any medical condition that may affect your driving.
Have you experienced any? How did it affect you? Section five Notes Things to discuss and practise with your instructor These are just a few examples of what you could discuss and practise with your instructor. Read more about hazard awareness to come up with your own ideas.
The cyclist in this picture appears to be trying to cross the road. HC r— What is the main hazard shown in this Look at the picture carefully and picture? Look well ahead to give yourself time to deal with any hazards. They are reflective to make them easier to see in the dark.
HC r Which road user has caused a hazard? The car arrowed A is parked within the area marked by zigzag lines at the pedestrian crossing. You must be able to deal with the unexpected.
Parking here is illegal. Section five Questions What should the driver of the car Look well ahead to see if any approaching the crossing do? This will give you more time to deal with them in the correct way.
The man in the picture is clearly intending to cross the road. You should be travelling at a speed that allows you to check your mirror, slow down and stop in good time. Always be on the lookout for hazards that may develop suddenly and need you to take avoiding action.
You see this sign ahead. You should expect Adjust your speed in good time the road to and select the correct gear for your speed. Going too fast into the bend could cause you to lose control. You are approaching this cyclist. You should Keep well back and allow the cyclist room to take up the correct position for the turn. Why must you take extra care when turning You may have to pull forward right at this junction? When approaching this bridge you should A double-deck bus or high- give way to sided lorry will have to take up a position in the centre of the road so that it can clear the bridge.
There is normally a sign to indicate this. Section five Questions What type of vehicle could you expect to The highest point of the bridge meet in the middle of the road?
You must stop because it will not be possible to assess the situation on the move, however slowly you are travelling. A driver pulls out of a side road in front of Where there are a number of side you.
You have to brake hard. You should roads, be alert. You have just passed these warning lights. These lights warn that children What hazard would you expect to see next? You are planning a long journey. Do you Try to plan your journey so that need to plan rest stops?
Section five Questions The red lights are flashing. What should you At level crossings the red lights do when approaching this level crossing? At most crossings an amber light will precede the red lights. You must stop behind the white line unless you have already crossed it when the amber light comes on. NEVER zigzag around half-barriers. You are approaching crossroads. The traffic When approaching a junction lights have failed. What should the driver of the red car Some people might take longer to arrowed do?
They may be older or have a disability. They might have poor eyesight or not be able to hear traffic approaching. You are following a slower-moving vehicle You should never overtake as you on a narrow country road. There is a approach a junction. If a vehicle junction just ahead on the right. What emerged from the junction while should you do? What should you do as you approach this Oncoming large vehicles may overhead bridge? There will not be enough room for you to continue and you should be ready to stop and wait.
Why are mirrors often slightly curved Although a convex mirror gives a convex? Section five Questions You see this sign on the rear of a slow- This sign is found on slow-moving moving lorry that you want to pass. It is or stationary works vehicles. If travelling in the middle lane of a three-lane you wish to overtake, do so on motorway. You should the left, as indicated. Be aware that there might be workmen in the area. You think the driver of the vehicle in front The driver may be unsure of the has forgotten to cancel their right indicator.
What is the main hazard the driver of the If you can do so safely give way red car arrowed should be aware of? Try to anticipate the actions of other road users around you. The driver of the red car should be prepared for the bus pulling out. As you approach a bus stop look to see how many passengers are waiting to board.
This yellow sign on a vehicle indicates Buses which carry children to and this is from school may stop at places other than scheduled bus stops. Be aware that they might pull over at any time to allow children to get on or off. This will normally be when traffic is heavy during rush hour. Section five Questions What TWO main hazards should you be On roads where there are many aware of when going along this street?
You might not be able to see children between parked cars and they may run out into the road without looking. People may open car doors without realising the hazard this can create. What is the main hazard you should be When following a cyclist be aware of when following this cyclist? They may wobble or swerve to avoid a pothole in the road or see a potential hazard and change direction suddenly. It may Tiredness may make you help if you more irritable than you would be normally.
If you feel yourself becoming tense, take a break. When approaching this hazard why should There are two hazards clearly you slow down? You should be preparing for the bend by slowing down and selecting the correct gear. You might also have to stop at the level crossing, so be alert and be prepared to stop if necessary.