NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. First Law of Thermodynamics, First Law of Thermodynamics, PPT Slides. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various Introduction; Areas of Application of Thermodynamics; Different Approaches in the. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. Thermodynamics (Video). Modules / Lectures. Basic Thermodynamics .
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NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. Module - 1: Preliminaries and the Zeroth-Law of Thermodynamics. Lecture 1 Module - 2: First-Law of Thermodynamics and Analysis of Closed Systems. These are lecture notes for AME , Thermodynamics, a sophomore-level undergraduate course taught in the Department of Aerospace.
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But how do you conceive a reversible heat transfer? Same thing can be done if I consider it this way, that if I consider number of reservoirs. One reservoir is Instead of placing it directly to a reservoir of degree Celsius, I do like that These are Then will place this, where we heat this from Again, we keep it here. These are extremely slow process until its temperature This way, if we keep this we will see, that means here Here also So that, this way if we think of an infinite number of reservoirs with small temperature differences and we always keep the system with all reservoirs for an infinite small amount of temperature rise, then we can conceive of a heat transfer process which 19 is infinitely slow, but with an infinite small temperature gradient.
So, that is in the limit a reversible heat transfer which is very important afterwards in the analysis of cycle it will come. How we can conceive a reversible heat transfer when the temperature of the system varying? So, with this, I can conclude this understanding of reversible process.
What are the causes of irreversibilities? And under what condition a reversible process can be conceived? Actually, that condition leads us that there should not be any process, but in the limit we can have a reversible process when the equilibrium is very small. That means a very infinite small departure from the equilibrium - thermodynamic equilibrium - and at the same time dissipative effects are small.
After this, I will come to a very important statement of Carnots. Before that, I will tell what is a reversible heat engine, which is very important. Refer Slide Time: A reversible heat engine and reversible cycle, obviously, by common sense, one can define reversible cycle. Cycle means series of processes so that initial state and final states are same. A reversible cycle is a cycle, where all the processes are reversible. That means if any one of the processes becomes irreversible, the cycle is irreversible.
A heat engine or a heat pump both operating on a reversible cycle are called reversible heat engine or reversible heat pump. So simple. With this in mind, we will go to a very important theorem or corollary of the second law. This is probably the most important corollary of the second law.
He is the man who is the inventor of the second law. Carnots theorem: No heat engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits. It may appear very simple, common sense, but it is not, so it has to be proved logically.
He was the first man who proved it logically. Between the same temperature limits, what do you mean by temperature limits? That is temperature of heat addition and temperature of heat rejection. That means, if you make the temperature of heat addition and temperature of heat rejection same, then if you operate a reversible engine and irreversible engine, the reversible engine will always be having the higher efficiency than an irreversible or a natural engine.
All natural engines are irreversible engines because all natural processes are irreversible processes. At the same time, the second part of it and all reversible heat engines operating between the same temperature limits have the same efficiency. What does it mean? That means if the two temperatures are fixed and we operate different engines, but all reversible, their design is different, their fluid is different, the system is different, working fluid or working system, but all are reversible heat engine.
Then they yield a unique efficiency when the two temperature labels are fixed. All reversible heat engines yield a unique efficiency, but on the other hand, if you fix these same two temperatures limits and operate number of irreversible or natural heat engines they will yield different efficiencies. That is the beauty. They will not yield same efficiency, but 21 even the maximum of these efficiencies is lower than the efficiency given by all reversible heat engines.
Do you understand? That means efficiency of all reversible heat engines will be the same and that will impose a maximum value on the efficiency of all the irreversible engines.
That, all irreversible engines can never attain these values. Their values will be different, but their maximum also will not be equal to the efficiency of a reversible engine. This is the basic understanding of this Carnots theorem.
Let us prove this Carnots theorem. Refer Slide Time: Let us consider a source t 1 , source you know thermal reservoir at high temperature which is fixed if you take heat of infinite capacity. Afterwards, for our convenience, we take a constant temperature source. Afterwards we will think that even if this temperature may vary that means, heat engine may interact with the bodies of finite capacities.