Near Field Communication: From Theory to Practice standards of Near Field Communication (NFC)by NFC Lab – Istanbul research centre. This book provides the technical essentials, state-of-the-art knowledge, business ecosystem and standards of Near Field Communication (NFC)by NFC Lab. Read PDF Near Field Communication (NFC): From Theory to Practice Online. Book Download, PDF Download, Read PDF, Download PDF, Kindle Download.
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Download Near Field Communication (NFC): From Theory to Practice by Vedat Coskun,Kerem Ok,Busra Ozdenizci PDF. By Vedat Coskun,Kerem Ok,Busra. Fill Near Field Communication Nfc From Theory To Practice Pdf, download blank or editable online. Sign, fax and printable from PC, iPad, tablet or mobile with. two case studies involving NFC applications: those of Payter and at how technological and organizational convergence has occurred in practice; we . This research on Near Field Communication (NFC) forms part of the.
Abstract Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations.
In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication NFC -based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study.
Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability.
Introduction Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of an item from an origin to a destination along a path. If any diversion to outside of the route occurs, reorientation or correction to the destination is required [ 1 ].
Knowledge of position, called as positioning, is a must for accurate navigation, since it may be reached by extensive effort after repetitive useless corrective travels or else missing the target as the worst case.
Human knowledge, or intuitive, might be helpful in navigation efforts; but technical contribution is obviously very much helpful. Navigation systems are mostly based on Global Positioning System GPS , which provides reliable location information on the Earth in almost all weather conditions and at all times with the help of multiple satellites [ 2 , 3 ].
GPS satellites are dedicated to positioning, and they orbit around the world solely for this purpose. Making use of GPS satellites for positioning has some requirements though. The foremost condition is that the navigating device has to receive signals from a specific number of satellites—four of them for the best result—to get the position with high accuracy.
The signal level between the device and the satellite is normally not hindered by bad weather conditions, but line of sight between the device and the satellite is still a must. This implicitly puts forward the requirement for the device to be outdoors, i.
Hence, use of the GPS system is called outdoor navigation. Lastly, we compare these modes and provide with an overview. In chapter 3, we discuss the security aspects of NFC and its framework. In chapter 4, we take a look at the applications of the previous mentioned modes of operation. We provide a mild analysis of these and then give examples of the currently available NFC applications in market.
Subsequently, we take a quick look at the future scope of NFC, and then we conclude this report. In this chapter we discuss the classification of devices used in NFC.
Building upon the basics learned in chapter 1, we move towards the study of various operating modes of NFC devices and discuss their usage models.
The NFC technology interaction technique is touch based. Fig 2. We can classify the NFC devices in the communication based on two parameters. The first parameter is the energy supply which results in active and passive devices. The second one is initiating the communication and leads to initiator and target devices.
On the other hand, a passive device is one that does not have any integrated power source. In NFC, the energy to the passive device is supplied by the active device. To summarize, an active device powers the passive device by creating the electromagnetic field. The initiator is the one that initiates the communication; the target responds to the request that is made by the initiator.
An initiator always needs to be an active device, because it requires a power source to initiate the communication. The target, on the other hand, may be either an active or a passive device. If the target is an active device, then it uses its own power source to respond; if it is a passive device, it uses the energy created by the electromagnetic field which is generated by the initiator that is an active device.
Table 2. The peer-to-peer mode enables two NFC enabled mobile devices to exchange data with each other. In the card emulation mode, the user interacts with an NFC reader in order to use her mobile phone as a smart card such as a credit card. Each operating mode has different use case scenarios and each provides various underlying benefits to users.
This enables the mobile user to retrieve the data stored in the tag and take appropriate actions afterwards. This is shown in Fig. NFC Forum has standardized tag types, operation of tag types and data exchange format between components.
The process consists of only reading data stored inside the passive tag and writing data to the passive tag. Tags are read and re-write capable; users can configure the tag to become read-only. Memory availability is 96 bytes and expandable to 2 KB. Memory availability is 48 bytes and expandable to 2 KB. Tags are pre-configured at manufacture to be either read and re-writable, or read-only. Memory availability is variable, theoretical memory limit is 1MB per service.
The memory availability is variable, up to 32 KB per service; the communication interface is either Type A or Type B compliant. A record is the unit for carrying a payload within an NDEF message. Each record consists of a payload up to octets in size. Records can be chained together to support larger payloads as well. NDEF records are variable length records with a common format. U10EC, Odd Semester, 14 2. They can exchange virtual business cards, digital photos, and any other kind of data.
Due to the low transfer speed of NFC if large amounts of data need to be sent, peer to peer mode can be used to create a secondary high speed connection handover like Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. NFCIP-1 takes advantage of the initiator-target paradigm in which the initiator and the target devices are defined prior to starting the communication.
However, the devices are identical in LLCP communication. After the initial handshake, the decision is made by the application that is running in the application layer. On account of the embedded power to mobile phones, both devices are in active mode during the communication in peer-to-peer mode. Data are sent over a bi-directional half duplex channel. Meaning that when one device is transmitting, the other one has to listen and should start to transmit data after the first one finishes.
The maximum possible data rate in this mode is kbps . It is also possible to run other protocols over the data link layer provided by LLCP.
Example applications are printing from a camera, business card exchange, and so on .
It provides a link layer which is reliable and error-free . LLCP provides five important services: connectionless transport; connection oriented transport; link activation, supervision and deactivation; asynchronous balanced communication; and protocol multiplexing.
In this mode normally no service provider is used in the process, meaning that users do not communicate with it. If users intend to use any services on the Internet, a service provider may be included in the process as well. The communication architecture of this mode is illustrated in Fig. In this mode, the NFC device appears to an external reader much the same as a traditional contactless smart card. This enables contactless payments and ticketing by NFC devices without changing the existing infrastructure .
Mobile devices can even store multiple contactless smart card applications in the smart card. Examples of emulated contactless smart cards are credit card, debit card, and loyalty card. NFC devices that are operating in this mode use similar digital protocol and analog techniques as smart cards and they are completely compatible with the smart card standards.
Card emulation mode includes proprietary contactless card applications such as payment, ticketing and access control. The NFC reader is owned by a service provider which is possibly connected to the Internet as well. In this operating mode, the user connects to a service provider through an NFC reader possibly without notifying the service provider .
NFC Ticketing usage model using card emulation operating mode is depicted in Fig. Furthermore, an important point to be compared in operating modes is access to the service provider. Communication with the service provider is performed in different ways in each mode which is shown in Table 2. Increases 1. Easy data 1. Physical object mobility exchange elimination 2. Decreases 2. Device pairing 2. Access control physical effort 3. Ability to be adapted in many scenarios 4.
Easy to implement Table 2. Commercially available applications payment, electronic key, ticketing, etc. So far we have discussed the working of NFC. This chapter gives analysis of security with respect to NFC. It lists the threats, which are applicable to NFC, and describes solutions to protect against these threats.
Threats may be either intentional or unintentional . The threats involved are eavesdropping, data corruption, data modification, data insertion, man-in-the-middle attack etc. It is important to note that data transmitted in passive mode is significantly harder to be eavesdropped on.
NFC devices can counter data corruption because they can check the RF field, while they are transmitting data.
If an NFC device does this, it will be able to detect the attack. The power which is needed to corrupt the data is significantly bigger, than the power which can be detected by the NFC device. Thus, every such attack should be detectable .
Protection against data modification can be achieved in various ways. By using k Baud in active mode it gets impossible for an attacker to modify all the data transmitted via the RF link. This means that for both directions active mode would be needed to protect against data modification. But this has the major drawback, that this mode is most vulnerable to eavesdropping.
Also, the protection against modification is not perfect, as even at k Baud some bits can be modified. NFC devices can check the RF field while sending. This means the sending device could continuously check for such an attack and could stop the data transmission when an attack is detected . Data insertion attack can be avoided by the answering device by answering without delay.
U10EC, Odd Semester, 21 3. These security protocols are used in peer- to-peer operating mode. This can be done very easily, because the NFC link is not susceptible to the Man-in-the-Middle attack.
This resistance against Man-in-the-Middle attacks makes NFC an ideal method for secure pairing of devices. There are various NFC development platforms and languages. NFC is used for a wide range of applications which can be divided into three categories as shown in Fig. In this use case we have implemented an online shopping scenario in order to show NFC in action. When the user runs the application, the application waits for an NFC interaction to start.
When the desired tag is discovered within the proximity, data in the tag are transferred to the mobile phone and product information is displayed to the user, and then the desired quantity is requested.
When the user confirms adding product to the basket, the product is inserted to the basket and a confirmation message is displayed to the user.
These steps are repeated until the user decides to order the basket . Push registry entry: This is used to run the mobile application automatically when a user touches a tag. Product identification: This is the primary key for each product. The data will be sent to the backend information server after ordering the basket together with the desired quantities. The information system will be able to identify the desired products using the data.
Note that the user will input the desired quantity of a product. Product information: This is used to display a short description of the product to the user. Product price: This is used to display the price of the product to the user. Usage Model Fig. The steps for the same are as follows: 1. Data transfer: Push registry, product identification, product information, and product price are transferred to the mobile phone.
Processing by the mobile device: The application is started with push registry data if not started already.