Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology In Memory of Elizabeth Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Fifth edition John Bird, BSc (Hons), CEng, CSci. Electrical circuit theory and technology / John Bird. — 5th edition. pages cm. Includes index. 1. Electric circuits. 2. Electrical engineering. I. Title. TKB48 "Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology 5th Edition By John Bird book" is available in PDF Formate. Learn from this free book and enhance your skills.
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Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology. Revised second edition. John Bird, BSc (Hons), CEng, MIEE, FIEIE, CMath,. FIMA, FCollP. Newnes. OXFORD. This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master . Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology Revised second edition John Bird, BSc( Hons), CEng,. Fundamentals of Electric Circuits (5th ed).
This cycle is also found in certain behaviour. For example, "shame loops" occur in people who blush easily. When they realize that they are blushing, they become even more embarrassed, which leads to further blushing, and so on.
A simple example is the ice-albedo positive feedback loop whereby melting snow exposes more dark ground of lower albedo , which in turn absorbs heat and causes more snow to melt.
Main article: Control theory Feedback is extensively used in control theory, using a variety of methods including state space controls , full state feedback , and so forth.
Note that in the context of control theory, "feedback" is traditionally assumed to specify "negative feedback". Heuristically, the terms of a PID controller can be interpreted as corresponding to time: the proportional term depends on the present error, the integral term on the accumulation of past errors, and the derivative term is a prediction of future error, based on current rate of change.
The Dutch inventor Cornelius Drebbel built thermostats c to control the temperature of chicken incubators and chemical furnaces. In , the windmill was improved by blacksmith Edmund Lee, who added a fantail to keep the face of the windmill pointing into the wind. In , Tom Mead regulated the rotation speed of a windmill by using a centrifugal pendulum to adjust the distance between the bedstone and the runner stone i.
The use of the centrifugal governor by James Watt in to regulate the speed of his steam engine was one factor leading to the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines also use float valves and pressure release valves as mechanical regulation devices.
A mathematical analysis of Watt's governor was done by James Clerk Maxwell in Joseph Farcot coined the word servo in to describe steam-powered steering systems. Hydraulic servos were later used to position guns.
Elmer Ambrose Sperry of the Sperry Corporation designed the first autopilot in Nicolas Minorsky published a theoretical analysis of automatic ship steering in and described the PID controller.
Electronic engineering[ edit ] The simplest form of a feedback amplifier can be represented by the ideal block diagram made up of unilateral elements. Electronic feedback systems are also very commonly used to control mechanical, thermal and other physical processes. If the signal is inverted on its way round the control loop, the system is said to have negative feedback ;  otherwise, the feedback is said to be positive.
Negative feedback is often deliberately introduced to increase the stability and accuracy of a system by correcting or reducing the influence of unwanted changes. This scheme can fail if the input changes faster than the system can respond to it. When this happens, the lag in arrival of the correcting signal can result in over-correction, causing the output to oscillate or "hunt".
Harry Nyquist at Bell Labs derived the Nyquist stability criterion for determining the stability of feedback systems. An easier method, but less general, is to use Bode plots developed by Hendrik Bode to determine the gain margin and phase margin. Design to ensure stability often involves frequency compensation to control the location of the poles of the amplifier. Electronic feedback loops are used to control the output of electronic devices, such as amplifiers.
A feedback loop is created when all or some portion of the output is fed back to the input. A device is said to be operating open loop if no output feedback is being employed and closed loop if feedback is being used. Negative feedback can be used to correct output errors or to desensitize a system to unwanted fluctuations.
A general expression for the gain of a negative feedback amplifier is the asymptotic gain model. Positive feedback[ edit ] Positive feedback occurs when the fed-back signal is in phase with the input signal. Under certain gain conditions, positive feedback reinforces the input signal to the point where the output of the device oscillates between its maximum and minimum possible states. Positive feedback may also introduce hysteresis into a circuit. This can cause the circuit to ignore small signals and respond only to large ones.
It is sometimes used to eliminate noise from a digital signal. Under some circumstances, positive feedback may cause a device to latch, i. This fact is very widely used in digital electronics to make bistable circuits for volatile storage of information. The loud squeals that sometimes occurs in audio systems , PA systems , and rock music are known as audio feedback. If a microphone is in front of a loudspeaker that it is connected to, sound that the microphone picks up comes out of the speaker, and is picked up by the microphone and re-amplified.
If the loop gain is sufficient, howling or squealing at the maximum power of the amplifier is possible. A popular op-amp relaxation oscillator. An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.
They are widely used in many electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitters , clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clocks , and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games.
This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers , to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator. There are two main types of electronic oscillator: the linear or harmonic oscillator and the nonlinear or relaxation oscillator.
They typically constructed using feedback that crosses over between two arms of the circuit, to provide the circuit with a state. The circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs.
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