Applied thermodynamics by muralidhar pdf


 

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Applied Thermodynamics By Muralidhar Pdf

Applied Thermodynamics - II. Classification of Thermodynamic Cycles. Application of Thermodynamics. Important areas are Power generation and Refrigeration. eBook free PDF download on Basics and Applied Thermodynamics by P.K Nag. Book download link provided by Engineering Study Material. Application Areas of Thermodynamics. Importance of.. It is our hope that this book, through Cengel and Bole A Guide to Physics Problems. Part 2.

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Thermodynamics and Heat Power, 7th edition, By: Irving Granet, Understand and use the fundamentals of thermodynamics.

Srinivasa Rao Kiran Kumar 63 50 40 Topics include the basic concepts and laws of thermodynamics,. Applied Fluid Mechanics and ME C Rogers and Y. Muralidhar Kulkarni Objective Seeking intellectually stimulating and challenging research and teaching career in the field of Electronics and Communication MSE G: Kinetics of Phase Transformations.

Sears, G. Bucknall Ben deGlee. Fall Semester, To examine the principles of thermodynamics as applied to equilibria associated for Marine Engineers. Applied Thermodynamics Module Delivered in Applied Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics, Volume 1. Van Ness, H. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Sixth Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Conkey, Applied Thermodynamics by Longman. Subject Code: Khurmi, J.

Gupta - A textbook of thermal Engineering- S. T-ds relation. Kumar — S. Basic thermodynamics applied to liquidification and refrigeration process, Van Fall College of Engineering and Applied Science Principles of classical thermodynamics, Elements and chemical compounds are pure substances. The best choice is an extensive property and an intensive property.

Air is treated as a pure substance though it is a mixture of gases. If any one property is specified it is sufficient. The triple point is uniquely defined. It has peculiar properties compared to other liquids. Properties of Liquids The most common liquid is water. It is the mass fraction of vapour in the mixture.

It is equal to hg-hf. Tc pc-p 5. T hfg 4. It is the highest temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases can coexist. Characteristics of the critical point 1. At the critical point hfg. Specific heat at constant pressure is infinite. Liquid vapour meniscus will disappear. Unlike pressure. You can assign any number you like instead of 0.

Note that there is a discontinuity at the phase boundaries points a. International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam IAPWS has provided two formulations to calculate the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance. The cycle comprises of a set of processes during which one of the properties is kept constant V.

T etc. Q2-Q4-Q6 -. Consider a Carnot cycle. We reconfirm that I law works!! This engine has a single heat source at T1 and a single sink at T2. It will turn out that Carnot efficiency of T1.

Perpetual motion machine of the second kind is not possible. Is it possible to construct a heat engine with only one -ve heat interaction? Is the following engine possible?

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Heat source The answer is yes. It is impossible to construct a device which operating in a cycle will produce no effect other than raising of a weight and exchange of heat with a single reservoir.

Note the two underlined words. We already know that during an isothermal process the system can exchange heat with a single reservoir and yet deliver work!! II Law applies only for a cycle. But to make the same process go in the opposite direction one needs to spend energy. We have to appreciate some ground realities!!! Common sense tells us that 1. Heat flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature Possible.

A hot cup of coffee left in a room becomes cold. To get it back to the tank you have to to a lower one use a pump i.

Fluid flows from a point of Water from a tank can flow down higher pressure or potential. You can mix two gases or liquids. But to separate them you have to spend a lot of energy.

You mix whisky and soda without difficulty. Is it worthwhile? To get out of it one has to spend a lot of money 6. Current flows from a point of Battery can discharge through higher potential to lower one a resistance.

All processes such as occur unaided in one direction but to get them go in the other direction there is an expenditure.

Some reversible processes: Some Irreversible Process spontaneous motion with friction chemical reaction. Flow of current through a resistance - when a battery discharges through a resistance heat is dissipated.

Even one of the processes is irreversible, the cycle ceases to be reversible. Otto, Carnot and Brayton cycles are all reversible. A reversible cycle with clockwise processes produces work with a given heat input. The same while operating with counter clockwise processes will reject the same heat with the same work as input.

Clausius Statement of II Law of Thermodynamics It is impossible to construct a device which operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cooler body to a hotter body. It is not obligatory to expend work.

Just as efficiency was defined for a heat engine. A refrigerator is a special case of heat pump. The entity of interest is how much heat could be realised. Work is only a penalty. The heat rejected at the sink is of interest in a heat pump. Heat from the ambient is taken out on a cold day and put into the room. In a refrigerator the entity of interest id Q2. Reverse cycle air conditioners used for winter heating do the above.

If 10 kw of heat is to be removed from a cold store at - 20oCand rejected to ambient at 30oC. We want a comfortable 20oC inside the room. Let us say that the outside temperature on a hot summer day is 40oC. If we were to put a 2 Ton R air conditioner. How much work should we put in? How much work ca you extract per kW of heat? We have heat sources available at temperatures greater than this say Suppose the ambient is at K. That is why all temperature scales are at best empirical.

Violation of all 3 laws: The two statements look distinct. We shall prove that violation of one makes the other statement violation too. Let us suspect the Clausius statement-it may be possible to transfer heat from a body at colder to a body at hotter temperature without supply of work. Q1-Q2 is converted to W with no net heat rejection. This is violation of Kelvin-Planck statement. The reservoir at T2 has not undergone any change Q2 was taken out and by pseudo-Clausius device and put back by the engine.

Combine the two. We got work output of W. Reservoir 1 has given out a net Q1-Q2. To do this an amount of Q1 needs to be drawn from the reservoir at T1. Let this heat engine reject exactly the same Q2 as the pseudo- Clausius device to the reservoir at T2. Let us have a heat engine operating between T1 as source and T2 as a sink. May be possible? The net effect is this extra DQ has been transferred from T2 to T1 with no external work expenditure. Q2 is -ve heat interaction.

Ideal engine The same for 3. The same for 4. Equality holds when the cycle is reversible. V relation on the right hand side p and V are properties. Does that something remain invariant during an adiabatic process? So it is a state function or a property. It can be simply written as S2-S1. The value depends only on the end states and not on the path followed. Similar to energy where we converted it into specific property. T will be the ordinate and S will be the abscissa. So Carnot cycle will be just a rectangle.

All work producing cycles will have a clockwise direction even on the T-s plane. Moral 2: References and resources: Useful web sites http: How much mass is there if the gas is a Air b Neon. Problems with solutions: A cylinder has a thick piston initially held by a pin as shown in fig below. Is the piston against the stops? The pin is now removed.

The cylinder contains carbon dioxide at Kpa and ambient temperature of k. Pressure is grater than this value. Therefore the piston is resting against the stops. To what pressure should it be charged if there should be 1. A cylindrical gas tank 1 m long. What is the mass of air in the tank before and after the process? The tank is eventually cools to room temperature. A 1-m3 rigid tank with air 1 Mpa. A hollow metal sphere of mm inside diameter is weighed on a precision beam balance when evacuated and again after being filled to Kpa with an unknown gas.

The difference in mass is 0.

What is the gas. Find the specific volume. Tank A is at Kpa. The valve is now opened and the two come to a uniform state. Two tanks are connected as shown in fig. A and B. The valve is now opened and saturated vapor flows from A to B until the pressure in B Consider two tanks. How much has the quality changed in tank A during the process? B l Solution: Find the required force and work input. A linear spring. If it is a constant pressure process. That is the specific work done by the air during the process?

Initially contains air at kpa. Is the piston resting on the stops in the final state? What is the final pressure in the cylinder? The lower piston. A cylinder. Find the initial temperature and the pressure that will lift the upper piston. Find the final T. The water. The spring force fore is zero when the lower piston stands at the bottom. Find the best estimate for the heat transfer.

Two kilograms of water at kPa. Nitrogen gas flows into a convergent nozzle at kPa. If the nozzle is insulated. It flows out of the nozzle at kPa. Another line with Ra as saturated liquid. Find the flow rate for the second line. Assuming the velocities to be low and the process to be adiabatic. The inlet state is kPa. A small.

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At the compressor discharge. Determine the mass flow rate of air through the unit. The power input to the compressor is kW. The compressor of a large gas turbine receives air from the ambient at 95 kPa.

Find the plant thermal efficiency. Assuming the same pump work and heat transfer to the boiler is given. A car engine burns 5 kg fuel at K and rejects energy into the radiator and exhaust at an average temperature of K. At certain locations geothermal energy in underground water is available and used as the energy source for a power plant.

Clearly state all the assumptions made. Estimate the amount of power needed to operate the air conditioner. We propose to heat a house in the winter with a heat pump. The house is to be maintained at 20 0C at all times.

What is the minimum electrical power required to drive the heat pump? When the ambient temperature outside drops at —10 0C that rate at which heat is lost from the house is estimated to be 25 KW. What is the theoretically smallest power motor required to operating this freezer? It is proposed to construct a cyclic heat engine that will operate near Hawaii. Differences in surface water and deep-water temperature can be utilized for power genetration. What is the possible thermal efficiency of such a heat engine?

We wish to produce refrigeration at —C. Determine the ratio of heat transferred from 0C reservoir to the heat transferred from the — C reservoir. A reservoir. This work is used to drive the refrigerator. Why is the process irreversible? Find the final pressure and temperature and the entropy generation this process causes. The valve is opened and nitrogen fills both the tanks.

Nitrogen at kPa. Calculate the heat transfer during the process and the change of entropy of the air. A mass of a kg of air contained in a cylinder at 1. A rigid tank contains 2 kg of air at kPa and ambient temperature. Therefore not possible because some could have been lost through the wall as they are not insulted.

An electric current now passes through a resistor inside the tank. After a total of kJ of electrical work has crossed the boundary.

The air is compressed in reversible polytrophic process to a final state of kPa. Find the work done by the air. There is no insulation on the end containing water.

Heat is slowly transferred to the water. Calculate the amount of heat transferred. Each volume is initially L. A closed. Basic Thermodynamics Uploaded by ikneo. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. An Engineering Approach, 6th Edition.

Basic thermodynamics by mk muralidhara pdf download - medical-site.info

Jump to Page. Search inside document. Entropy 5 Clasius inequality; statement, proof, application to a reversible cycle. Evaluation of properties of perfect and ideal gases K. Second law efficiency K. Learning Objectives of the Course 1. Module 2 Work and Heat.

Module 3 First law of thermodynamics. First Law Contd… Which can be written as. This is because what goes in must come out. Adiabatic mixture contd…. Module 4 Pure substances and Steam tables and ideal and real gases. Pressure-volume-temperature surface for a substance that contracts on freezing.

Module 5 Basics of energy conversation cycles. Heat Engines Contd…. Chapter 6. Other reversible cycles: Diesel cycle Ericsson cycle Stirling cycle. Let us assume that Clausius statement is true and suspect Kelvin- Planck statement. Module 7 Entropy.

P line. Comparison Between P-v and T-s Planes. Comparison Between P-v and T-s Planes contd…. Documents Similar To Basic Thermodynamics. Nick Decillo. Anushee Avasthi. Vinay Korekar. Amit Mittal. Malith Madushan. Priyansh Mishra. Sandip Kumar. Anonymous nXG9nYO. Naser Fernandez.

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