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Genome-wide association studies The software package GCTA [ 29 ] was also used to estimate SNP effects via linear mixed models with a random polygenic effect. In addition to the Bonferroni correction, a less conservative adjusted p value, based on false discovery rate FDR , was calculated for each SNP [ 32 ].
The threshold for FDR significance was 0. Since the length of bovine chromosomes is not constant, many SNPs on the large chromosomes are excluded. A value above 1.
Gene annotation The database version UMD3. Originally, 24, gene ID entries were available in the database. However, only the 17, genes on BTA1 to 29 with valid evidences for gene ontology [ 37 , 38 ] were considered in subsequent analyses. This test followed a Chi square distribution [ 39 ].
Also, the p-value for each of the 17, genes was calculated, and further adjusted according to the FDR [ 32 ]. Then, functional classification analyses were conducted for the significant candidate genes, based on information from the PANTHER database [ 40 ]. Results and discussion Genetic parameters Direct pedigree-based heritabilities i.
Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 s F60 of an isometric handgrip test IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 h and 1 week of injury. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48 h and 1week; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery stiffness, which may be a compensatory adaptation to a paradoxical decline of stroke volume during the transition from rest to a state of increased metabolic demand within 48 h of concussion.
The concussive injury is caused by impacts to the body including head with their impulsive forces being transmitted to the head resulting in short-lived, and in some cases persistent symptoms emanating from a functional disturbance of cortical function resulting in psychological, vestibular, and somatic symptoms 2.
The most recent guidelines for the safe return to play RTP from concussion provided by the National Athletic Trainers Association 3 suggest that physical activity be reintroduced in a systematic manner such that the intensity and complexity of exertion be progressively increased toward expected levels of the respective sport performed. The limiting feature to progression toward RTP is the re-emergence of concussive symptoms, or evidence of reduced performance from a prior assessment.
In other words, if a post-concussion athlete is intolerant to exercise i. Exercise intolerance following concussion has been investigated as both a consequence of injury and a marker for RTP; in addition to symptoms, intolerance is often demonstrated by the presence of abnormal heart rates HRs or blood pressures relative to appropriately matched control subjects for a given workload, and may include reduced HR variability and complexity 4 — 6.
Although these studies demonstrate anomalous or inconsistent performance with physical exertion following concussion, there is no evidence as to what physiological mechanism s may be contributing to this transient state of intolerance among individuals who were recently engaging in high levels of physical performance.
From a mechanistic perspective, the role of the autonomic nervous system ANS and, in particular, its modulation of central or peripheral vascular tone is a logical starting point. The empirical evidence demonstrates the presence of a transient autonomic dysfunction from digital recordings of the electrocardiogram ECG 4 , 5 , 8 — Permutations of the ECG and HR signal provide indirect measurements of variability to sinoatrial pacing 14 and myocardial repolarization lability 15 that are accepted to represent the predominance of parasympathetic modulation at rest, and, less reliably i.
An alternative indirect approach to evaluate sympathetic nervous system SNS control is through arterial stiffness and characterizing the contours of the arterial pulse wave APW The normal APW has two characteristic peaks: that of systole early , and a reflected wave from the periphery, which occurs variably during the descent to diastole Increasing degrees of arterial stiffness from augmentation of peripheral SNS vasomotor tone via acute changes to psychophysiological state or chronic adaptation to morbidity , which serves to decrease lumen diameter and increase peripheral vascular resistance above basal tone, alters the magnitude and latency of the reflected wave It remains unclear how concussion injuries influence SNS control of the cardiovascular system, let alone characteristics of the APW.
The present study investigated whether a concussive head injury adversely affected the contours of the peripheral APW compared to controls at rest and during an isometric handgrip test IHGT within 48 h of concussive injury, and again, 1 week later. An exploratory analysis sought to explore how the duration of time until RTP following concussion influenced the peripheral arterial pulse contour in concussed athletes.
Materials and Methods Subjects Ten intercollegiate athletes with a sports-related concussion and seven demographically matched i. A player suspected of sustaining a head injury was identified by the sports medicine staff i.
Clinical decision making on RTP of concussed athletes was made by a certified athletic trainer and team physician, independent of any input from the research evaluation. All participants provided written informed consent and the study procedures were approved by the university institutional review board.
To be considered eligible for the study, the concussed athlete must: have sustained a concussion, or the presentation of initial symptoms occurred within the previous 48 h; be able to demonstrate capacity to provide written informed consent; not be taking medications with direct or indirect actions on the cardiovascular i.
Control subjects were recruited and enrolled based on meeting the previously outlined guidelines, excepting for the presence of concussion. Data Collection and Signal Processing The initial study observation was completed 48 h after the concussion, or the clinical presentation of concussive symptoms occurred.