SANGAM LITERATLRE. Introducti on. Sangam literature is the earli~st extant literature of the Tamil people. According to tradition it consists of the compositions . Brahmi inscriptions dated to 3rd century BCE. ▻Possess the oldest literature among the Dravidian languages known as. 'Sangam' literature dated between 3rd. Sangam Literature – சாᵹேறா ெசᵼᶩᶀ பᵷᶞᵺபாᵵᶚ உைர. Books on Sangam Literature ெகாᵿலிᵺபாைவ. Sangam Poets and Poems.
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Script. South India during the Age of the Sangam Literature: Political, Socio- Economic and Cultural Profile. The earliest literature of South India is represented by. Sangam Literature as a source of evidence on India's trade with the Western World economy is the corpus of Tamil literature known as the "Sangam" literature. The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
My earnest endea- vour is to narrate a brief account of the greatness of siddha medicine, from the ancient Tamil Literature. We the inhabitants of Tamilnadu should be very grateful to these tamil scholers, Tamil poets and Tamil propagandists who strained hard to up keep this genuine system. It is with great reverence we have to pay our humble homage to those who have enlightened this generation. Hence, I feel proud of sub- mitting this article to the seminar of the heritage of Tamils siddha medicine, conducted by the International Institute of Tamil Studies-Madras, so that this kind of wealthy knowledge will be propageted not only to our people, but also abroad.
We are really bewildered at" tBSr" efficiency in deciding useful factors to edit worthy literatures, Thesf outstanding works are Agathiyam, A. These encouraging episodes would even invigorate the timid cowards. Even the younger generation would be stirred at the renovated Tamil medical science, being a treasure of know, ledge.
The Tamil academic literatures are believed to be edited during B. Brave fearless attitude. Tamil linguistic affinity, art and culture were sponsored by the Tamil Association Sangam. Mere object of producing this article is just to emphasize the greatness of the academic Tamils who were brave, vigorous, patriotic having linguistic affinity and firm affection towards art and culture.
The following subjective literature should be learnt first, before learning to study siddha medicine. The great siddha medicine. Having fulifilled their livelihood of pleasure and strugglethose lives attain the highest conscious stability at the end, which is expressed here. It is the the supreme being God who has rendered food and life. The body Is nou- rished by the food. The food and water are' both earthly crop product.
BareStuiriaibA suffGoi a. One sensed life existence- stone, sand, tree, plants, creepers, grass etc. From the sources it is very evident that the prosperity of the king very much depended on the prosperity of the land.
Industry The Sangam age also witnessed the industrial activities on a large scale. The poems refer to various kinds of craftsmen including the goldsmith, the blacksmith, the coppersmith, the potter, the sculptor, the painter and the weaver.
The occupation or profession was generally hereditary or handed down from father to the son. This led to progress in various trades and industries and also resulted in making these men skilled in their art. The art of building reached a high level during this period. In this context the works of carpenters are noteworthy.
Moreover, the thriving trading activities with the Mediterranean world and other distant lands could have been facilitated only with well-built and highly seaworthy ships.
Other building activities included the construction of moats, bridges, drainage, lighthouse, etc. The walls of houses, roofs, dress, bed-spreads, curtains and many other articles of day-to-day use were painted and were in great demand. The art of weaving, however, commanded popularity not only among the Tamils but also among the foreigners. Garments with woven floral designs are frequently mentioned in Sangam literature.
The Indian silk, for its fineness, was in great demand by the Roman merchants. However, the weaving industry was a domestic industry in which all the members of the family, especially women, took part. The leather-workers, potters and other craftsmen also contributed to the industrial development. But one of the most noteworthy fact in this regard is the introduction of Greek sculpture and other foreign workmanship into South India during this period.
The Graeco-Roman influence in the contemporary period can also be seen in the sculptures of Amaravati Andhra Pradesh and Ceylon. This period marked the height of the Indo-Roman trade. The archaeological excavations and explorations at various sites have also yielded the artefacts confirming to the trading relations between the Tamil regions and other countries.
The discovery of coin hoards at many places also attest this fact.
The Sangam texts mention prominently only the ports of Musiri, Puhar Kaveripattinam and Korkai, the three great ports of the three great rulers of the times. These included small coasting vessels, large coasting vessels and ocean-going ships. The commodities exported to Rome fetched high returns.
Living animals like tiger, leopard, monkeys and peacocks were exported to Rome.
The chief animal products of export included ivory and pearl. Plant products like aromatics and spices pepper, ginger, cardamom, cloves, nutmegs, etc. Mineral products like diamonds, beryl, steel, semiprecious stones, etc.
The main articles of import from Rome consisted of the coins, coral, wine, lead, tin and jewellery. The beads manufactured at many sites in South India in the contemporary period have been found at several sites of Southeast Asia.
This suggests the maritime contacts between the two regions. There were settlements of the foreign traders in many towns. However, it was not only the external trade, which added to the prosperity of the Tamils. Internal trade also flourished in the region with local networks of trade connecting different urban centres. Besides the coastal ports or towns, the Tamil region also witnessed the growth of urban centres in the inland regions.
While Korkai on the East Coast was famous for pearl fishing, Kodumanal in the interior part was known for its beryl. However, the trade was not confined to cities alone. The remotest villages were also linked with the trading network. The carts were the important mode of transport for inland trade. These were in use for either carrying goods or people including the traders. The trade was mostly conducted through barter. However, the use of coins for trading purpose can not be ruled out even in the context of internal trade.
Trade was a very important source of the royal revenue.
Transit duties were collected from merchants who moved from one place to another. Spoils of war further added to the royal income. But the income from agriculture provided the real foundation of war and political set-up. However, the share of agricultural produce claimed and collected by the king is not specified. Different kinds of people inhabited these various classified lands and developed certain fixed customs and ways of life as a result of their interaction with respective environment.
The ecological variations also determined their occupations such as hunting, cultivation, pastoralism, plunder, fishing, diving, sailing, etc. Social Composition Anthropological studies have shown that the earliest social element consisted of Negroid and Australoid groups with mixture of another racial stock which migrated from the earliest Mediterranean region. In its early phase these societies had small population and social classes were unknown.
As a result there existed great unity among the people of each region, who moved freely among themselves and their ruler. The existence of numerous tribes and chieftains was seen in the later half of the Sangam age. The prisoners of war were reduced to slavery. There existed slave markets.
However, the status of women was one of subordination to men, which was an aspect of the general philosophy of the contemporary period. In other words, it was not possible for a wife to estimate her husband. Though there are references to women being educated and some of them becoming poetesses, this can not be applied to the general mass.
They had no property rights but were treated with considerations. Marriage was a sacrament and not a contract. However, there are references to wooing or even elopements, which were followed by conventional marriage. Prostitution was a recognised institution.
However, the prostitutes were taken to be the intruders in peaceful family life. But they figure so prominently in the poems and enjoy such a social standing that there could be no doubt that the harlots of the Sangam age were not the degraded prostitutes of the modern times.
Dress, Ornaments and Fashion The upper strata of society used dress of fine muslin and silk. Except for nobles and kings, men were satisfied with just two pieces of cloth — one below the waist and another adorning the head like a turban.
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