Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology □ MARINE ORGANISMS: . Introduction and Definitions Marine Viruses CHAPTER 3 Ecological and Evolutionary Principles of Marine Biology MARINE ORGANISMS: Introduction and Definitions Marine Viruses l4l. Marine. 1. Introduction to Marine Biology. Faculty. Manuel E. dos Santos (Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA, Portugal). Carlos A. Assis (Marine and.
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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The 5th Edition of Marine Biology: Function, Biodiversity, Ecology was published in July “Levinton does an excellent job of introducing. For students of science, these are exciting times. Every day, new dis- coveries are being made in marine biology and oceanography. You know about the. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, , 55, . and spread of introduced species in the marine environment, post-arrival (Figure 1).
Ancient Atoll in the Federated Pacific Islanders had detailed knowledge of marine like this one. They were consummate mariners, using clues such as wind, wave, and current patterns to navigate over vast distances. The Phoenicians were the first accomplished Western navigators. By B. The ancient Greeks had considerable knowledge of nearshore organisms in the Mediterranean region Fig. The Greek philosopher Aristotle, who lived in the fourth century B.
He described many forms of marine life and recognized, among other things, that gills are the breathing apparatus of fish. During the centuries known as the Dark Ages, scientific inquiry, including the study of marine life, came to a grinding halt in most of Europe.
Much of the knowledge of the ancient Greeks was lost or distorted. Not all exploration of the ocean stopped, however. During the ninth and tenth centuries the Vikings continued to explore the northern Atlantic.
The fish at the right is an electric ray Torpedo , which the ancient Greeks used to deliver the first electrical stimulation therapy. Arab traders were also active during the Middle Ages, voyaging to eastern Africa, southeast Asia, and India. In the Far East and the Pacific, people also continued to explore and learn about the sea.
During the Renaissance, spurred in part by the rediscovery of ancient knowledge preserved by the Arabs, Europeans again began to investigate the world around them, and several undertook voyages of exploration.
In Ferdinand Magellan embarked on the first expedition to sail around the globe. Many other epic voyages contributed to our knowledge of the oceans. Fairly accurate maps, especially of places outside Europe, began to appear for the first time.
Before long, explorers became curious about the ocean they sailed and the things that lived in it. An English sea captain, James Cook, was one of the first to make scientific observations along the way and to include a full-time naturalist among his crew. In a series of three great voyages, beginning in , he explored all the oceans. Cook was the first to use a chronometer, an accurate timepiece that enabled him to accurately determine his longitude and therefore prepare reliable charts.
From the Arctic to the Antarctic, from Alaska to Australia, Cook extended and reshaped the European conception of the world.
He brought back specimens of plants and animals and tales of strange new lands. By the nineteenth century, it had become common for vessels to take a naturalist along to study the organisms encountered.
Perhaps the most famous of these shipboard naturalists was Charles Darwin, another Englishman. Beginning in , Darwin sailed around the world on HMS Beagle for five years, horribly seasick most of the time.
Though best known for the theory of evolution, Darwin made many other 3 contributions to marine biology. He used nets to capture the tiny, drifting organisms known as plankton, which marine biologists continue to do today Fig.
Specialists still refer to his treatise on them. Charles Wilkes of the U. Wilkes was by all accounts a vain and cruel man who promoted himself to Captain as soon as he left port, and upon his return was court-martialed for flogging his crew to excess.
The expedition charted 2, km 1, mi of the coast of Antarctica, confirming it as a continent, as well as the coast of the Pacific Northwest of North America. It explored some islands in the South Pacific, collecting information about peoples and cultures as well as flora and fauna.
The 10, biological specimens included some 2, previously unknown species Fig.
The expedition, the first international survey sponsored by the United States government, also laid a foundation for government funding of scientific research. The Challenger Expedition By the middle of the nineteenth century a few lucky scientists were able to undertake voyages specifically to study the oceans, instead of having to tag along on ships doing other jobs. One was Edward Forbes, who in the s and s carried out extensive dredging of the sea floor, mostly around his native Britain but also in the Aegean Sea and other places.
Forbes died prematurely in , at the age of 39, but was the most influential marine biologist of his day. Perhaps his most important contribution, however, was to inspire new interest in the life of the sea floor. Their ships were poorly equipped and the voyages short, but their studies produced many interesting results. They were so successful, in fact, that British scientists managed to convince their government to fund the first major oceanographic expedition, under the scientific leadership of FIGURE 1.
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The sheer volume of the data was enormous. After the Challenger expedition returned to port, it took 19 years to publish the results, which fill 50 thick volumes. Challenger brought back more information about the ocean than had been recorded in all previous human history. It was not just the duration of the voyage or the amount of information collected that set the Challenger expedition apart from earlier efforts.
The expedition set new standards for studying the ocean. Measurements were made systematically and carefully, and meticulous records were kept.
The crew worked with great efficiency and dedication to the task. They also learned more about the enormous variety of marine life, for first described it, is one of 2, marine and terrestrial species discovered by the expedition.
Challenger brought back thousands of previously unknown species. Thus, the Challenger expedition laid the foundations of modern marine science. Charles Wyville Thompson. The British navy supplied a light Other expeditions soon continued the work begun by warship to be fitted out for the purpose.
The ship was named Challenger, and major oceanographic cruises continue to this day. HMS Challenger. In many ways, though, the voyage of the Challenger remains one Challenger underwent extensive renovations in preparation of the most important in the history of oceanography.
Laboratories and quarters for the scientific crew were added, and gear for dredging and taking water samples in deep water was installed. Bookmark it to easily review again before an exam. The best part? As a Chegg Study subscriber, you can view available interactive solutions manuals for each of your classes for one low monthly price. Why download extra books when you can get all the homework help you need in one place? Can I get help with questions outside of textbook solution manuals?
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