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My name is Lemuel Gulliver. I was born in England. In 16, when I was a young man I studied to be a doctor. I worked in London at first, but it was not easy to. Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as medical-site.info: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to. PDF version of Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. Apple During his travels, an Englishman encounters tiny people, giants, sorcerers, and horses who control .
Essays on Travel Writing, ed. Philip Dodd London: Frank Cass, Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, vol. Included in several collections of essays on Swift: Rawson, Claude, God, Gulliver and Genocide: Barbarism and the European Imagination, — see Biography and Criticism.
Rielly, Edward J. Modern Language Association of America, Smith, Frederik N. University of Delaware Press; London: Includes essays by Paul K. Alkon, Louise K. Barnett, J. Paul Hunter, Maximillian E. Novak, William Bowman Piper, and others. Welcher, Jeanne K.
Delmar, NY: Contains various contextual materials, sequels, imitations, and other associated works. Gulliveriana VII is a valuable study by Welcher of visual illustrations, — Swift Swift goes to England with Lord Berkeley; publishes Contests lvi —9 —9 —14 Chronology and Dissensions in Athens and Rome; Temple, Miscellanea, iii, ed.
For, the same Gentleman did us the Favour to let us transcribe his Corrections. But I do not remember I gave you Power to consent, that any thing should be omitted, and much less that any thing should be inserted: And, indeed, to avoid so monstrous and 8 A Letter from Capt.
Pray bring to your Mind how often I desired you to consider, when you insisted on the Motive of publick Good; that the Yahoos were a Species of Animals utterly incapable of Amendment by Precepts or Examples: And so it hath proved; for instead of seeing a full Stop put to all Abuses and Corruptions, at least in this little Island, as I had Reason to expect: A Letter from Capt. Neither have I any Copy left; however, I have sent you some Corrections, which you may insert, if ever there should be a second Edition: But I have since found that the Sea-Yahoos are apt, like the Land ones, to become new fangled in their Words; which the latter change every Year; insomuch, as I remember upon each Return to mine own Country, their old Dialect was so altered, that I could hardly understand the new.
I wrote for their Amendment, and not their Approbation. The united Praise of the whole Race would be of less Consequence to me, than the neighing of those two degenerate Houyhnhnms I keep in my Stable; because, from these, 10 A Letter from Capt. I have other Complaints to make upon this vexatious Occasion; but I forbear troubling myself or you any further.
I must freely confess, that since my last Return, some Corruptions of my Yahoo Nature have revived in me by conversing with a few of your Species, and particularly those of mine own Family, by an unavoidable Necessity; else I should never have attempted so absurd a Project as that of reforming the Yahoo Race in this Kingdom; but I have now done with all such visionary Schemes for ever.
I have carefully perused them three Times: And if any Traveller hath a Curiosity to see the whole Work at large, as it came from the Hand of the Author, I will be ready to gratify him. He is shipwrecked, and swims for his Life; gets safe on shoar in the Country of Lilliput; is made a Prisoner, and carried up the Country.
The last of these Voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary of the Sea, and intended to stay at home with my Wife and Family. Twelve of our Crew were dead by immoderate Labour, and ill Food; the rest were in a very weak Condition. We rowed by my Computation, about three Leagues, till we were able to work no longer, being already spent with Labour while we were in the Ship. We therefore trusted ourselves to the Mercy of the Waves; and in about half an Hour the Boat was overset by a sudden Flurry from the North.
What became of my Companions in the Boat, as well as of those who escaped on the Rock, or were left in the Vessel, I cannot tell; but conclude they were all lost. I often let my Legs drop, and could feel no Bottom: But when I was A Voyage to Lilliput 17 almost gone, and able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my Depth; and by this Time the Storm was much abated.
I then advanced forward near half a Mile, but could not discover any Sign of Houses or Inhabitants; at least I was in so weak a Condition, that I did not observe them. I was extremely tired, and with that, and the Heat of the Weather, and about half a Pint of Brandy that I drank as I left the Ship, I found my self much inclined to sleep. I attempted to rise, but was not able to stir: For as I happened to lie on my Back, I found my Arms and Legs were strongly fastened on each Side to the Ground; and my Hair, which was long and thick, tied down in the same Manner.
I likewise felt several slender Ligatures across my Body, from my Armpits to my Thighs. I heard a confused Noise about me, but in the Posture I lay, could see nothing except the Sky. I was in the utmost Astonishment, and roared so loud, that they all ran back in a Fright; and some of them, as I was afterwards told, were hurt with the Falls they got by leaping from my Sides upon the Ground. The others repeated the same Words several times, but I then knew not what they meant.
I lay all this while, as the Reader may believe, in great Uneasiness: I thought it the most prudent Method to lie still; and my Design was to continue so till Night, when my left Hand being already loose, I could easily free myself: And as for the Inhabitants, I had Reason to believe I might be a Match for the greatest Armies they could bring against me, if they were all of the same Size with him that I saw. But Fortune disposed otherwise of me.
When the People observed I was quiet, they discharged no more Arrows: But by the Noise increasing, I knew their Numbers were greater; and about four Yards from me, over-against my right Ear, I heard a Knocking for above an Hour, like People at work; when turning my Head that Way, as well as the Pegs and Strings would permit me, I saw a Stage erected about a Foot and a half from the Ground, capable of holding four of the Inhabitants, with two or three Ladders to mount it: From whence one of them, who seemed to be a Person of Quality, made me a long Speech, whereof I understood not one Syllable.
But I should have mentioned, that before the principal Person began his Oration, he cryed out three times Langro Dehul san: He appeared to be of a middle Age, and taller than any of the other three who attended him; whereof one was a Page, who held up his Train, and seemed to be somewhat longer than my middle Finger; the other A Voyage to Lilliput 19 two stood one on each side to support him.
I answered in a few Words, but in the most submissive Manner, lifting up my left Hand and both mine Eyes to the Sun, as calling him for a Witness; and being almost famished with Hunger, having not eaten a Morsel for some Hours before I left the Ship. I found the Demands of Nature so strong upon me, that I could not forbear shewing my Impatience perhaps against the strict Rules of Decency by putting my Finger frequently on my Mouth, to signify that I wanted Food.
The Hurgo for so they call a great Lord, as I afterwards learnt understood me very well: I observed there was the Flesh of several Animals, but could not distinguish them by the Taste. There were Shoulders, Legs, and Loins shaped like those of Mutton, and very well dressed, but smaller than the Wings of a Lark.
I eat them by two or three at a Mouthful; and took three Loaves at a time, about the bigness of Musket Bullets. They supplyed me as fast as they could, shewing a thousand Marks of Wonder and Astonishment at my Bulk and Appetite. I then made another Sign that I wanted Drink. They brought me a second Hogshead, which I drank in the same Manner, and made Signs for more, but they had none to give me.
But the Remembrance of what I had felt, which probably might not be the worst they could do; and the Promise of Honour I made them, for so I interpreted my submissive Behaviour, soon drove out those Imaginations. After some time, when they observed that I made no more Demands for Meat, there appeared before me a Person of high Rank from his Imperial Majesty.
It appeared that he understood me well enough; for he shook his Head by way of Disapprobation, and held his Hand in a Posture to shew that I must be carried as a Prisoner. However, he made other Signs to let me understand that I should have Meat and Drink enough, and very good Treatment.
Whereupon I once more thought of attempting to break my Bonds; but again, when I felt the Smart of their Arrows upon my Face and Hands, which were all in Blisters, and many of the Darts still sticking in them; and observing likewise that the Number of my Enemies encreased; I gave Tokens to let them know that they might do with me what they pleased.
Upon this, the Hurgo and his Train withdrew, with much Civility and chearful Countenances. Soon after I heard a general Shout, with frequent Repetitions of the Words, Peplom Selan, and I felt great Numbers of the People on my Left Side relaxing the Cords to such a Degree, that I was able to turn upon my Right, and to ease my self with making Water; which I very plentifully A Voyage to Lilliput 21 did, to the great Astonishment of the People, who conjecturing by my Motions what I was going to do, immediately opened to the right and left on that Side, to avoid the Torrent which fell with such Noise and Violence from me.
But before this, they had dawbed my Face and both my Hands with a sort of Ointment very pleasant to the Smell, which in a few Minutes removed all the Smart of their Arrows. These Circumstances, added to the Refreshment I had received by their Victuals and Drink, which were very nourishing, disposed me to sleep.
These People are most excellent Mathematicians, and arrived to a great Perfection in Mechanicks by the Countenance and Encouragement of the Emperor, who is a renowned Patron of Learning. Five Hundred Carpenters and Engineers were immediately set at work to prepare the greatest Engine they had. It was a Frame of Wood raised three Inches from the Ground, about seven Foot long and four wide, moving upon twenty-two Wheels. Eighty Poles, each of one Foot high, were erected for this Purpose, and very strong Cords of the bigness of Packthread were fastened by Hooks to many Bandages, which the Workmen had girt round my Neck, my Hands, my Body, and my Legs.
Nine Hundred of the strongest Men were employed to draw up these Cords by many Pullies fastned on the Poles; and thus in less than three Hours, I was raised and slung into the Engine, and there tyed fast.
All this I was told; for while the whole Operation was performing, I lay in a profound Sleep, by the Force of that soporiferous Medicine infused into my Liquor. Here the Emperor ascended with many principal Lords of his Court, to have an Opportunity of viewing me, as I was told, for I could not see them.
It was reckoned that above an hundred thousand Inhabitants came out of the Town upon the same Errand; and in spight of my Guards, I believe there could not be fewer than ten thousand, at several Times, who mounted upon my Body by the Help of Ladders. But a Proclamation was soon issued to forbid it, upon Pain of Death. When the Workmen found it was impossible for me to break loose, they cut all the Strings that bound me; whereupon I rose up with as melancholly a Disposition as ever I had in my Life.
But the Noise and Astonishment of the People at seeing me rise and walk, are not to be expressed. Learned Men appointed to teach the Author their Language. He gains Favour by his mild Disposition. His Pockets are searched, and his Sword and Pistols taken from him. When I found myself on my Feet, I looked about me, and must confess I never beheld a more entertaining Prospect. The Country round appeared like a continued Garden; and the inclosed Fields, which were generally Forty Foot square, resembled so many Beds of Flowers.
I had been for some Hours extremely pressed by the Necessities of Nature; which was no Wonder, it being almost two Days since I had last disburthened myself.
But this was the only Time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an Action; for which I cannot but hope the candid Reader will give some Allowance, after he hath maturely and impartially considered my Case, and the Distress I was in. But that Prince, who is an excellent Horseman, kept his Seat, until his Attendants ran in, and held the Bridle, while his Majesty had Time to dismount. When he alighted, he surveyed me round with great Admiration, but kept beyond the Length of my Chains.
He ordered his Cooks and Butlers, who were already prepared, to give me Victuals and Drink, which they pushed forward in a sort of Vehicles upon Wheels until I could reach them. However, I have had him since many Times in my Hand, and therefore cannot be deceived in the Description. He held his Sword drawn in his Hand, to defend himself, if I should happen to break loose; it was almost three Inches long, the Hilt and Scabbard were Gold enriched with Diamonds.
His Voice was shrill, but very clear and articulate, and I could distinctly hear it when I stood up. His Imperial Majesty spoke often to me, and I returned Answers, but neither of us could understand a Syllable. After about two Hours the Court retired, and I was left with a strong Guard, to prevent the Impertinence, and probably the Malice of the Rabble, who were very impatient to croud about me as near as they durst; and some of them had the Impudence to shoot their Arrows at me as I sate on the Ground by the Door of my House; whereof one very narrowly missed my left Eye.
But the Colonel ordered six of the Ring-leaders to be seized, and thought no Punishment so proper as to deliver them bound into my Hands, which some of his Soldiers accordingly did, pushing them forwards with the But-ends of their Pikes into my Reach: But I soon put them out of Fear; for, looking mildly, and immediately cutting the Strings he was bound with, I set him gently on the Ground, and away he ran.
I treated the rest in the same Manner, taking them one by one out of my Pocket; and I observed, both the Soldiers and People were highly obliged at this Mark of my Clemency, which was represented very much to my Advantage at Court. By the same Computation they provided me with Sheets, Blankets, and A Voyage to Lilliput 27 Coverlets, tolerable enough for one who had been so long enured to Hardships as I. They apprehended my breaking loose; that my Diet would he very expensive, and might cause a Famine.
Sometimes they determined to starve me, or at least to shoot me in the Face and Hands with poisoned Arrows, which would soon dispatch me: But again they considered, that the Stench of so large a Carcase might produce a Plague in the Metropolis, and probably spread through the whole Kingdom.
For the due Payment of which his Majesty gave Assignments upon his Treasury. An Establishment was also made of Six Hundred Persons to be my Domesticks, who had Board-Wages allowed for their Maintenance, and Tents built for them very conveniently on each side of my Door. All these Orders were duly put in Execution; and in about three Weeks I made a great Progress in Learning their Language; during which Time, the Emperor frequently honoured me with his Visits, and was pleased to assist my Masters in teaching me.
However, that I should be used with all Kindness; and he advised me to acquire by my Patience and discreet Behaviour, the Good opinion of himself and his Subjects. This I delivered, part in Words and part in Signs. That he knew this could not be done without my Consent and Assistance; that he had so good an Opinion of my Generosity and Justice, as to trust their Persons in my Hands: That whatever they took from me should be returned when I left the Country, or paid for at the Rate which I would set upon them.
These Gentlemen, having Pen, Ink, and Paper about them, made an exact Inventory of every thing they saw, and when they had done, desired I would set them down, that they might deliver it to the Emperor.
In the left Pocket, we saw a huge Silver Chest, with a Cover of the same Metal, which we, the Searchers, were not able to lift. In his right Waistcoat-Pocket, we found a prodigious Bundle of thin white Substances, folded one above another, about the Bigness of three Men, tied with a strong Cable, and marked with Black Figures; which we humbly conceive to be Writings, every Letter almost half as large as the Palm of our Hands.
In the large Pocket on the right Side of his middle Cover, so I translate the word Ranfu-Lo, by which they meant my Breeches we saw a hollow Pillar of Iron, about the Length of a Man, fastened to a strong Piece of Timber, larger than the Pillar; and upon one side of the Pillar were huge Pieces of Iron sticking out, cut into strange Figures; which we know not what to make of.
In the left Pocket, another Engine of the same kind. Some of the white, which seemed to be Silver, were so large and heavy, that my Comrade and I could hardly lift them. In the left Pocket were two black Pillars irregularly shaped: One of them was covered, and seemed all of a Piece; but at the upper End of the other, there appeared a white round Substance, about twice the bigness of our Heads.
Within each of these was inclosed a prodigious Plate of Steel; which, by our Orders, we obliged him to shew us, because we apprehended they might be dangerous Engines.
He took them out of their Cases, and told us, that in his own Country his Practice was to shave his Beard with one of these, and to cut his Meat with the other.
There were two Pockets which we could not enter: We directed him to draw out whatever was at the End of that Chain; which appeared to be a Globe, half Silver, and half of some transparent Metal: And we conjecture it is either some unknown Animal, or the God that he worships: But we are more inclined to the latter Opinion, because he assured us if we understood him right, for he expressed himself very imperfectly that he seldom did any Thing without consulting it.
He called it his Oracle, and said it pointed out the Time for every Action of his Life.
From the left Fob he took out a Net almost large enough for a Fisherman, but contrived to open and shut like a Purse, and served him for the same Use: We found therein several massy Pieces of yellow Metal, which if they be real Gold, must be of immense Value. In one of these Cells were several Globes or Balls of a most ponderous Metal, about the Bigness of our Heads, and required a strong Hand to lift them: Clefren Frelok, Marsi Frelock.
When this Inventory was read over to the Emperor, he directed me to deliver up the several Particulars. In the mean time he ordered three thousand of his choicest Troops, who then attended A Voyage to Lilliput 31 him, to surround me at a Distance, with their Bows and Arrows just ready to discharge: He then desired me to draw my Scymiter, which, although it had got some Rust by the Sea-Water, was in most Parts exceeding bright.
His Majesty, who is a most magnanimous Prince, was less daunted than I could expect; he ordered me to return it into the Scabbard, and cast it on the Ground as gently as I could, about six Foot from the End of my Chain. The Astonishment here was much greater than at the Sight of my Scymiter. Hundreds fell down as if they had been struck dead; and even the Emperor, although he stood his Ground, could not recover himself in some time. I delivered up both my Pistols in the same Manner as I had done my Scymiter, and then my Pouch of Powder and Bullets; begging him that the former might be kept from Fire; for it would kindle with the smallest Spark, and blow up his Imperial Palace into the Air.
I likewise delivered up my Watch, which the Emperor was very curious to see; and commanded two of his tallest Yeomen of the Guards to bear it on a Pole upon their Shoulders, as Dray-men in England do a Barrel of Ale. He was amazed at the continual Noise it made, and the Motion of the Minute-hand, which he could easily discern; for their Sight is much more acute than ours: He asked the Opinions of his learned Men about him, which were various and remote, as the Reader may well imagine without my repeating; although indeed I could not very perfectly understand them.
The Diversions of the Court of Lilliput described. The Author hath his Liberty granted him upon certain Conditions. My gentleness and good Behaviour had gained so far on the Emperor and his Court, and indeed upon the Army and People in general, that I began to conceive Hopes of getting my Liberty in a short Time. I took all possible Methods to cultivate this favourable Disposition. The Natives came by Degrees to be less apprehensive of any Danger from me. I had now made a good Progress in understanding and speaking their Language.
This Diversion is only practised by those Persons, who are Candidates for great Employments, and high Favour, at Court. They are trained in this Art from their Youth, and are not always of noble Birth, or liberal Education. Very often the chief Ministers themselves are commanded to shew their Skill, and to convince the Emperor that they have not lost their Faculty. These Diversions are often attended with fatal Accidents, whereof great Numbers are on Record.
I my self have seen two or three Candidates break a Limb. But the Danger is much greater, when the Ministers themselves are commanded to shew their Dexterity: For, by contending to excel themselves and their Fellows, they strain so far, that there is hardly one of them who hath not received a Fall; and some of them two or three. One is Blue, the other Red, and the third Green.
These Threads are proposed as Prizes, for those Persons whom the Emperor hath a mind to distinguish by a peculiar Mark of his Favour. The Emperor holds a Stick in his Hands, both ends parallel to the Horizon, while the Candidates advancing one by one, sometimes leap over the Stick, sometimes creep under it backwards and forwards several times, according as the Stick is advanced or depressed.
Whoever performs his Part with most Agility, and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping, is rewarded with the Blue-coloured Silk; the Red is given to the next, and the Green to the third, which they all wear girt round about the Middle; and you see few great Persons about this Court, who are not adorned with one of these Girdles.
The Horses of the Army, and those of the Royal Stables, having been daily led before me, were no longer shy, but would come up to my very Feet, without starting. I had the good Fortune to divert the Emperor one Day, after a very extraordinary Manner.
I desired he would order several Sticks of two Foot high, and the Thickness of an ordinary Cane, to be brought me; whereupon his Majesty commanded the Master of his Woods to give Directions accordingly; and the next Morning six Wood-men arrived with as many Carriages, drawn by eight Horses to each. However, I would not trust to the Strength of it any more in such dangerous Enterprizes.
I presently knew what they meant; and was glad at Heart to receive this Intelligence. I intreated his Imperial Majesty to give Orders it might be brought to me as soon as possible, describing to him the Use and the Nature of it: And the next Day the Waggoners arrived with it, but not in a very good Condition; they had bored two Holes in the Brim, within an Inch and a half of the Edge, and fastened two Hooks in the Holes; these Hooks were tied by a long Cord to the Harness, and thus my Hat was dragged along for above half an English Mile: But the Ground in that Country being extremely smooth and level, it received less Damage than I expected.
However, he was at length persuaded to comply; but prevailed that the Articles and Conditions upon which I should be set free, and to which I must swear, should be drawn up by himself. These Articles were brought to me by Skyresh Bolgolam in Person, attended by two under Secretaries, and several Persons of Distinction.
Monarch of all Monarchs: His most sublime Majesty proposeth to the Man-Mountain, lately arrived at our Celestial Dominions, the following Articles, which by a solemn Oath he shall be obliged to perform. I swore and subscribed to these Articles with great Chearfulness and Content, although some of them were not so honourable as I could have wished; which proceeded wholly from the Malice of A Voyage to Lilliput 39 Skyresh Bolgolam the High Admiral: Whereupon my Chains were immediately unlocked, and I was at full Liberty: The Emperor himself, in Person, did me the Honour to be by at the whole Ceremony.
But he commanded me to rise; and after many gracious Expressions, which, to avoid the Censure of Vanity, I shall not repeat; he added, that he hoped I should prove a useful Servant, and well deserve all the Favours he had already conferred upon me, or might do for the future. I stept over the great Western Gate, and passed very gently, and sideling through the two principal Streets, only in my short Waistcoat, for fear of damaging the Roofs and Eves of the Houses with the Skirts of my Coat.
I walked with the utmost Circumspection, to avoid treading on any Stragglers, who might remain in the Streets, although the Orders were very strict, that all People should keep in their Houses, at their own Peril. The Shops and Markets well provided. But this I was not able to do till three Days after, which I spent in cutting down with my Knife some of the largest Trees in the Royal Park, about an Hundred Yards distant from the City.
By this Contrivance I got into the inmost Court; and lying down upon my Side, I applied my Face to the Windows of the middle Stories, which were left open on Purpose, and discovered the most splendid Apartments that can be imagined.
There I saw the Empress, and the young Princes in their several Lodgings, with their chief Attendants about them. Her Imperial Majesty was pleased to smile very graciously upon me, and gave me out of the Window her Hand to kiss.
It is alledged indeed, that the high Heels are most agreeable to our ancient Constitution: Now, in the midst of these intestine Disquiets, we are threatened with an Invasion from the Island of Blefuscu, which is the other great Empire of the Universe, almost as large and powerful as this of his Majesty.
It began upon the following Occasion. It is allowed on all Hands, that the primitive Way of breaking Eggs before we eat them, was upon the larger End: Whereupon the Emperor, his Father, published an Edict, commanding all his Subjects, upon great Penalties, to break the smaller End of their Eggs. The People so highly resented this Law, that our Histories tell us, there have been six Rebellions raised on that Account; wherein one Emperor lost his Life, and another his Crown.
Many hundred large Volumes have been published upon this Controversy: This, however, is thought to be a meer Strain upon the Text: However, they have now equipped a numerous Fleet, and are just preparing to make a Descent upon us: I desired the Secretary to present my humble Duty to the Emperor, and to let him know, that I thought it would not become me, who was a Foreigner, to interfere with Parties; but I was ready, with the Hazard of my Life, to defend his Person and State against all Invaders.
A high Title of Honour is conferred upon him. Ambassadors arrive from the Emperor of Blefuscu and sue for Peace. I had not yet seen it, and upon this Notice of an intended Invasion, I avoided appearing on that Side of the Coast, for fear of being discovered by some of the Enemies Ships, who had received no Intelligence of me; all intercourse between the two Empires having been strictly forbidden during the War, upon Pain of Death; and an Embargo laid by our Emperor upon all Vessels whatsoever.
I trebled the Cable to make it stronger; and for the same Reason I twisted three of the Iron Bars together, bending the Extremities into a Hook.
The Enemy was so frighted when they saw me, that they leaped out of their Ships, and swam to Shore; where there could not be fewer than thirty thousand Souls. While I was thus employed, the Enemy discharged several Thousand Arrows, many of which stuck in my Hands and Face; and besides the excessive Smart, gave me much Disturbance in my Work.
My greatest Apprehension was for mine Eyes, which I should have infallibly lost, if I had not suddenly thought of an Expedient. I had now fastened all the Hooks, and taking the Knot in my Hand, began to pull; but not a Ship would stir, for they were all too fast held by their Anchors; so that the boldest Part of my Enterprize remained. They had seen me cut the Cables, and thought my Design was only to let the Ships run a-drift, or fall foul on each other: But when they perceived the whole Fleet moving in Order, and saw me pulling at the End, they set up such a Scream of Grief and Dispair, that it is almost impossible to describe or conceive.
They saw the Ships move forward in a large Half-Moon, but could not discern me, who was up to my Breast in Water. But he was soon eased of his Fears; for the Channel growing shallower every Step I made, I came in a short Time within Hearing; and holding up the End of the Cable by which the Fleet was fastened, I cryed in a loud Voice, Long live the most puissant Emperor of Lilliput! This great Prince received me at my Landing with all possible Encomiums, and created me a Nardac upon the Spot, which is the highest Title of Honour among them.
And I plainly protested, that I would never be an Instrument of bringing a free and brave People into Slavery: This open bold Declaration of mine was so opposite to the Schemes and Politicks of his Imperial Majesty, that he could never forgive me: Of so little Weight are the greatest Services to Princes, when put into the Balance with a Refusal to gratify their Passions.
Yet our Emperor standing upon the Advantage he had got by the Seizure of their Fleet, obliged them to deliver their Credentials, and make their Speech in the Lilliputian Tongue.
And it must be confessed, that from the great Intercourse of Trade and Commerce between both A Voyage to Lilliput 49 Realms; from the continual Reception of Exiles, which is mutual among them; and from the Custom in each Empire to send their young Nobility and richer Gentry to the other, in order to polish themselves, by seeing the World, and understanding Men and Manners; there are few Persons of Distinction, or Merchants, or Seamen, who dwell in the Maritime Parts, but what can hold Conversation in both Tongues; as I found some Weeks after, when I went to pay my Respects to the Emperor of Blefuscu, which in the Midst of great Misfortunes, through the Malice of my Enemies, proved a very happy Adventure to me, as I shall relate in its proper Place.
The Reader may remember, that when I signed those Articles upon which I recovered my Liberty, there were some which I disliked upon Account of their being too servile, neither could any thing but an extreme Necessity have forced me to submit. However, it was not long before I had an Opportunity of doing his Majesty, at least, as I then thought, a most signal Service.
I found they had already applied Ladders to the Walls of the Apartment, and were well provided with Buckets, but the Water was at some Distance. These Buckets were about the Size of a large Thimble, and the poor People supplied me with them as fast as they could; but the Flame was so violent, that they did little Good. By the luckiest Chance in the World, I had not discharged myself of any Part of it. It was now Day-light, and I returned to my House, without waiting to congratulate with the Emperor; because, although I had done a very eminent Piece of Service, yet I could not tell how his Majesty might resent the Manner by which I had performed it: But I was a little comforted by a Message from his Majesty, that he would give Orders to the Grand Justiciary for passing my Pardon in Form; which, however, I could not obtain.
The Manner of Educating their Children. His Vindication of a great Lady. Although I intend to leave the Description of this Empire to a particular Treatise, yet in the mean time I am content to gratify the curious Reader with some general Ideas. They see with great Exactness, but at no great Distance.
Their tallest Trees are about seven Foot high; I mean some of those in the great Royal Park, the Tops whereof I could but just reach with my Fist clinched. The Learned among them confess the Absurdity of this Doctrine; but the Practice still continues, in Compliance to the Vulgar.
It is only to be wished, that they were as well executed. The Emperor doth also confer on him some publick Mark of his Favour; and Proclamation is made of his Innocence through the whole City. They look upon Fraud as a greater Crime than Theft, and therefore seldom fail to punish it with Death: And since it is necessary that there should be a perpetual Intercourse of downloading and selling, and dealing upon Credit; where Fraud is permitted or connived at, or hath no Law to punish it, the honest Dealer is always undone, and the Knave gets the Advantage.
He likewise acquires the Title of Snilpall, or Legal, which is added to his Name, but doth not descend to his Posterity. And these People thought it a prodigious Defect of Policy among us, when I told them that our Laws were enforced only by Penalties, without any Mention of Reward. It is upon this account that the Image of Justice, in their Courts of Judicature, is formed with six Eyes, two before, as many behind, and on each Side one, to signify Circumspection; with a Bag of Gold open in her right Hand, and a Sword sheathed in her left, to shew she is more disposed to reward than to punish.
Upon these, and the like Reasonings, their Opinion is, that Parents are the last of all others to be trusted with the Education of their own Children: The Clothes and Food of the Children are plain and simple. The Nurseries for Children of ordinary Gentlemen, Merchants, Traders, and Handicrafts, are managed proportionably after the same Manner; only those designed for Trades, are put out Apprentices at seven Years old; whereas those of Persons of Quality continue in their Exercises until Fifteen, which answers to One and Twenty with us: For, their Maxim is, that among People of Quality, a Wife should be always a reasonable and agreeable Companion, because she cannot always be young.
Those intended for Apprentices are dismissed at seven Years old, the rest are kept to eleven. The meaner Families who have Children at these Nurseries, are obliged, besides their annual Pension, which is as low as possible, to return to the Steward of the Nursery a small Monthly Share of their Gettings, to be a Portion for the Child; and therefore all Parents are limited in their Expences by the Law. For the Lilliputians think nothing can be more unjust, than that People, in Subservience to their own Appetites, should bring Children into the World, and leave the Burthen of supporting them on the Publick.
As to Persons of Quality, they give Security to appropriate a certain Sum for each Child, suitable to their Condition; and these Funds are always managed with good Husbandry, and the most exact Justice.
The Cottagers and Labourers keep their Children at home, their Business being only to till and cultivate the Earth; and therefore their Education is of little Consequence to the Publick; but the Old and Diseased among them are supported by Hospitals: For begging is a Trade unknown in this Empire.
Their Linnen is usually three Inches wide, and three Foot make a Piece. The Sempstresses took my Measure as I lay on the Ground, one standing at my Neck, and another at my Mid-Leg, with a strong Cord extended, that each held by the End, while the third measured the Length of the Cord with a Rule of an Inch long.
Three hundred Taylors were employed in the same Manner to make me Clothes; but they had another Contrivance for taking my Measure. I kneeled down, and they raised a Ladder from the Ground to my Neck; upon this Ladder one of them mounted, and let fall a PlumLine from my Collar to the Floor, which just answered the Length of my Coat; but my Waist and Arms I measured myself.
I had three hundred Cooks to dress my Victuals, in little convenient Huts built about my House, where they and their Families lived, and prepared me two Dishes a-piece. I took up twenty Waiters in my Hand, and placed them on the Table; an hundred more attended below on the Ground, some with Dishes of Meat, and some with Barrels of Wine, and other Liquors, slung on their Shoulders; all which the Waiters above drew up as I wanted, in a very ingenious Manner, by certain Cords, as we draw the Bucket up a Well in Europe.
My Servants were astonished to see me eat it Bones and all, as in our Country we do the Leg of a Lark. Of their smaller Fowl I could take up twenty or thirty at the End of my Knife. They came accordingly, and I placed them upon Chairs of State on my Table, just over against me, with their Guards about them. This I solemnly declare to be a most infamous Falshood, without any Grounds, farther than that her Grace was pleased to treat me with all innocent Marks of Freedom and Friendship.
I own she came often to my House, but always publickly, nor ever without three more in the Coach, who were usually her Sister, and young Daughter, and some particular Acquaintance; but this was common to many other Ladies of the Court. And I still appeal to my Servants round, whether they at any Time saw a Coach at my Door without knowing what Persons were in it. I have passed many an Afternoon very agreeably in these Conversations: But I defy the Treasurer, or his two Informers.
I should not have dwelt so long upon this Particular, if it had not been a Point wherein the Reputation of a great Lady is so nearly concerned; to say nothing of my own; although I had the Honour to be a Nardac, which the Treasurer himself is not; for all the World knows he is only a Clumglum, a Title inferior by one Degree, as that of a Marquess is to a Duke in England; yet I allow he preceded me in right of his Post.
These false Informations, which I afterwards came to the Knowledge of, by an Accident not proper to mention, made the Treasurer shew his Lady for some Time an ill Countenance, and me a worse: For although he were at last undeceived and reconciled to her, yet I lost all Credit with him; and found my Interest decline very fast with the Emperor himself, who was indeed too much governed by that Favourite.
His Reception there. Before I proceed to give an Account of my leaving this Kingdom, it may be proper to inform the Reader of a private Intrigue which had been for two Months forming against me. When I was just preparing to pay my Attendance on the Emperor of Blefuscu; a considerable Person at Court to whom I had been very serviceable at a time when he lay under the highest Displeasure of his Imperial Majesty came to my House very privately at Night in a close Chair, and without sending his Name, desired Admittance: The Chair-men were dismissed; I put the Chair, with his Lordship in it, into my Coat-Pocket; and giving Orders to a trusty Servant to say I was indisposed and gone to sleep, I fastened the Door of my House, placed the Chair on the Table, according to my usual Custom, and sat down by it.
You are to know, said he, that several Committees of Council have been lately called in the most private Manner on your Account: And it is but two Days since his Majesty came to a full Resolution. This Preface made me so impatient, being conscious of my own Merits and Innocence, that I was going to interrupt; when he intreated me to be silent; and thus proceeded.
That the said Quinbus Flestrin having brought the Imperial Fleet of Blefuscu into the Royal Port, and being afterwards commanded by his Imperial Majesty to seize all the other Ships of the said Empire of Blefuscu, and reduce that Empire to a Province, to be governed by a Vice-Roy from hence; and to destroy and put to death not only all the Big-Endian Exiles, but likewise all the People of that Empire, who would not immediately forsake the Big-Endian Heresy: He the said Flestrin did, like a false Traitor, aid, abet, comfort, and divert the said Embassadors; although he knew them to be Servants to a Prince who was lately an open Enemy to his Imperial Majesty, and in open War against his said Majesty.
That the said Quinbus Flestrin, contrary to the Duty of a faithful Subject, is now preparing to make a Voyage to the Court and Empire of Blefuscu, for which he hath received only verbal Licence from his Imperial Majesty; and under Colour of the said Licence, doth falsely and traitorously intend to take the said Voyage, and thereby to aid, comfort, and abet the Emperor of Blefuscu, so late an Enemy, and in open War with his Imperial Majesty aforesaid.
There are some other Articles, but these are the most important, of which I have read you an Abstract. In the several Debates upon this Impeachment, it must be confessed that his Majesty gave many Marks of his great Lenity; often urging the Services you had done him, and endeavouring to extenuate your Crimes. The Treasurer and Admiral insisted that you should be put to the most painful and ignominious Death, by setting Fire on your House at Night; and the General was to attend with Twenty Thousand Men armed with poisoned Arrows, to shoot you on the Face and Hands.
The General came into the same Opinion; so that for a long time there was a Majority against you. He allowed your Crimes to be great; but that still there was room for Mercy, the most commendable Virtue in a Prince, and for which his Majesty was so justly celebrated.
He said, the Friendship between you and him was so well known to the World, that perhaps the most honourable Board might think him partial: Bolgolam, the Admiral, could not preserve his Temper; but rising up in Fury, said, he wondered how the Secretary durst presume to give his Opinion for preserving the Life of a Traytor: That he had good Reasons to think you were a Big-Endian in your Heart; and as Treason begins in the Heart before it appears in Overt-Acts; so he accused you as a Traytor on that Account, and therefore insisted you should be put to death.
It was strictly enjoined, that the Project of starving you by Degrees should be kept a Secret; but the Sentence of putting out your Eyes was entered on the Books; none dissenting except Bolgolam the Admiral, who being a Creature of the Empress, was perpetually instigated by her Majesty to insist upon your Death; she having born perpetual Malice against you, on Account of that infamous and illegal Method you took to extinguish the Fire in her Apartment.
I leave to your Prudence what Measures you will take; and to avoid Suspicion, I must immediately return in as private a Manner as I came. Yet, as to myself, I must confess, having never been designed for a Courtier, either by my Birth or Education, I was so ill a Judge of Things, that I could not discover the Lenity and Favour of this Sentence; but conceived it perhaps erroneously rather to be rigorous than gentle. I sometimes thought of standing my Tryal; for although I could not deny the Facts alledged in the several Articles, yet I hoped they would admit of some Extenuations.
Because if I had then known the Nature of Princes and Ministers, which I have since observed in many other Courts, and their Methods of treating Criminals less obnoxious than myself; I should with great Alacrity and Readiness have submitted to so easy a Punishment. I seized a large Man of War, tied a Cable to the Prow, and lifting up the Anchors, I stript myself, put my Cloaths together with my Coverlet, which I carryed under my Arm into the Vessel; and drawing it after me, between wading and swimming, arrived at the Royal Port of Blefuscu, where the People had long expected me: Wherein, however, it soon appeared I was deceived.
When the Ships came up, I stript myself, and waded till I came within an Hundred Yards of the Boat; after which I was forced to swim till I got up to it.
In this Necessity, I was forced to swim behind, and push the Boat forwards as often as I could, with one of my Hands; and the Tide favouring me, I advanced so far, that I could just hold up my Chin and feel the Ground. I rested two or three Minutes, and then gave the Boat another Shove, and so on till the Sea was no higher than my Arm-pits.
I did very much wonder, in all this Time, not to have heard of any Express relating to me from our Emperor to the Court of Blefuscu.
But I was afterwards given privately to understand, that his Imperial Majesty, never imagining I had the least Notice of his Designs, believed I was only gone to Blefuscu in Performance of my Promise, according to the Licence he had given me, which was well known at our Court; and would return in a few Days when that Ceremony was ended.
This Envoy had Instructions to represent to the Monarch of Blefuscu, the great Lenity of his Master, who was content to punish me no further than with the Loss of mine Eyes: The Envoy further added; that in order to maintain the Peace and Amity between both Empires, his Master expected, that his Brother of Blefuscu would give Orders to have me sent back to Lilliput, bound Hand and Foot, to be punished as a Traitor.
The Emperor of Blefuscu having taken three Days to consult, returned an Answer consisting of many Civilities and Excuses. These Considerations moved me to hasten my Departure somewhat sooner than I intended; to which the Court, impatient to have me gone, very readily contributed. Five hundred Workmen were employed to make two Sails to my Boat, according to my Directions, by quilting thirteen fold of their strongest Linnen together.
I was at the Pains of making Ropes and Cables, by twisting ten, twenty or thirty of the thickest and strongest of theirs. I had the Tallow of three hundred Cows for greasing my Boat, and other Uses. In about a Month, when all was prepared. The Emperor and Royal Family came out of the Palace: I lay down on my Face to kiss his Hand, which he very graciously gave me; so did the Empress, and young Princes of the Blood.
The Ceremonies at my Departure were too many to trouble the Reader with at this time. I took with me six Cows and two Bulls alive, with as many Yews and Rams, intending to carry them into my own Country, and propagate the Breed. I would gladly have taken a Dozen of the Natives; but this was a thing the Emperor would by no Means permit; and besides a diligent Search into my Pockets, his Majesty engaged my Honour not to carry away any of his Subjects, although with their own Consent and Desire.
I advanced forward, and cast Anchor on the Lee-side of the Island, which seemed to be uninhabited. I then took some Refreshment, and went to my Rest. I hailed her, but could get no Answer; yet I found I gained upon her, for the Wind slackened.
It is not easy to express the joy I was in upon the unexpected Hope of once more seeing my beloved Country, and the dear Pledges I had left in it. This Gentleman treated me with Kindness, and desired I would let him know what Place I came from last, and whither I was bound; which I did in few Words; but he thought I was raving, and that the Dangers I underwent had disturbed my Head; whereupon I took my black Cattle and Sheep out of my Pocket, which, after great Astonishment, clearly convinced him of my Veracity.
I shall not trouble the Reader with a particular Account of this Voyage, which was very prosperous for the most Part. I had only one Misfortune, that the Rats on board carried away one of my Sheep; I found her Bones in a Hole, picked clean from the Flesh. The rest of my Cattle I got safe on Shore, and set them a grazing in a Bowling-Green at Greenwich, where the Fineness of the Grass made them feed very heartily, although I had always feared the contrary: Neither could I possibly have preserved them in so long a Voyage, if the Captain had not allowed me some of his best Bisket, which rubbed to Powder, and mingled with Water, was their constant Food.
So that I was not in any Danger of leaving my Family upon the Parish. But my Account of this Voyage must be referred to the second part of my Travels. The End of the First Part. His Reception there, with several Accidents that happened there. A Description of the Inhabitants. But he being a Man well experienced in the Navigation of those Seas, bid us all prepare against a Storm, which accordingly happened the Day following: When the Storm was over, we set Fore-sail and Main-sail, and brought the Ship to.
Our Provisions held out well, our Ship was staunch, and our Crew all in good Health; but we lay in the utmost Distress for Water. We thought it best to hold on the same Course rather than turn more Northerly, which might have brought us to the North-west Parts of the great Tartary, and into the frozen Sea.
I desired his leave to go with them, that I might see the Country, and make what Discoveries I could. I now began to be weary, and seeing nothing to entertain my Curiosity, I returned A Voyage to Brobdingnag 77 gently down towards the Creek; and the Sea being full in my View, I saw our Men already got into the Boat, and rowing for Life to the Ship. He waded not much deeper than his Knees, and took prodigious strides: But our Men had the start of him half a League, and the Sea thereabouts being full of sharp pointed Rocks, the Monster was not able to overtake the Boat.
I fell into a high Road, for so I took it to be, although it served to the Inhabitants only as a foot Path through a Field of Barley. Here I walked on for sometime, but could see little on either Side, it being now near Harvest, and the Corn rising at least forty Foot. I was an Hour walking to the end of this Field, which was fenced in with a Hedge of at least one hundred and twenty Foot high, and the Trees so lofty that I could make no Computation of their Altitude.
There was a Stile to pass from this Field into the next: It had four Steps, and a Stone to cross over when you came to the uppermost. It was impossible for me to climb this Stile, because every Step was six Foot high, and the upper Stone above twenty. Whereupon seven Monsters like himself came towards him with Reaping-Hooks in their Hands, each Hook about the largeness of six Scythes. However, I made a shift to go forward till I came to a part of the Field where the Corn had been laid by the Rain and Wind: Here it was impossible for me to advance a step; for the Stalks were so interwoven that I could not creep through, and the Beards of the fallen Ears so strong and pointed, that they pierced through my Cloaths into my Flesh.
At the same time I heard the Reapers not above an hundred Yards behind me. Being quite dispirited with Toil, and wholly overcome by Grief and Despair, I lay down between two Ridges, and heartily wished I might there end my Days.
I bemoaned my desolate Widow, and Fatherless Children: I lamented my own Folly and Wilfulness in attempting a second Voyage against the Advice of all my Friends and Relations. In this terrible Agitation of Mind I could not forbear thinking of Lilliput, whose Inhabitants looked upon me as the greatest Prodigy that ever appeared in the World; where I was able to draw an Imperial Fleet in my Hand, and perform those other Actions which will be recorded for ever in the Chronicles of that Empire, while Posterity shall hardly believe them, although attested by Millions.
But, this I conceived was to be the least of my Misfortunes: And who knows but that even this prodigious Race of Mortals might be equally overmatched in some distant Part of the World, whereof we have yet no Discovery? And therefore when he was again about to move, I screamed as loud as Fear could make me.
Whereupon the huge Creature trod short, and looking round about under him for some time, at last espied me as I lay on the Ground. He considered a while with the Caution of one who endeavours to lay hold on a small dangerous Animal in such a Manner that it shall not be able either to scratch or to bite him; as I my self have sometimes done with a Weasel in England.
I guessed his Meaning; and my good Fortune gave me so much Presence of Mind, that I resolved not to struggle in the least as he held me in the Air about sixty Foot from the Ground; although he grievously pinched my Sides, for fear I should slip through his Fingers.
All I ventured was to raise my Eyes towards the Sun, and place my Hands together in a supplicating Posture, and to speak some Words in a humble melancholy Tone, suitable to the Condition I then was in.
For, I apprehended every Moment that he would dash me against the Ground, as we usually do any little hateful Animal which we have a Mind to Destroy. But my good Star would have it, that he appeared pleased with my Voice and Gestures, and began to look upon me as a Curiosity; much wondering to hear me pronounce articulate Words, although he could not understand them. In the mean time I was not able to forbear Groaning and shedding Tears, and turning my Head towards my Sides; letting him know, as well as I could, how cruelly I was hurt by the Pressure of his Thumb and Finger.
He blew my Hairs aside to take a better View of my Face. They all sate down in a Circle about me, the better to observe my Motions. I took a Purse of Gold out of my Pocket, and humbly presented it to him.
He received it on the Palm of his Hand, then applied it close to his Eye, to see what it was, and afterwards turned it several times with the Point of a Pin which he took out of his Sleeve, but could make nothing of it.
Whereupon I made a Sign that he should place his Hand on the Ground: I then took the Purse, and opening it, poured all the Gold into his Palm. I saw him wet the Tip of his little Finger upon his Tongue, and take up one of my largest Pieces, and then another; but he seemed to be wholly ignorant what they were. The Farmer by this time was convinced I must be a rational Creature. I answered as loud as I could in several Languages; and he often laid his Ear within two Yards of me, but all in vain, for we were wholly unintelligible to each other.
I thought it my part to obey; and for fear of falling, laid myself at full Length upon the Handkerchief, with the Remainder of which he lapped me up to the Head for further Security; and in this Manner carried me home to his House.
There he called his Wife, and shewed me to her; but she screamed and ran back as Women in England do at the Sight of a Toad or a Spider. However, when she had a while seen my Behaviour, and how well I observed the Signs her Husband made, she was soon reconciled, and by Degrees grew extremely tender of me. It was about twelve at Noon, and a Servant brought in Dinner. When they were sat down, the Farmer placed me at some Distance from him on the Table, which was thirty Foot high from the Floor.
I was in a terrible Fright, and kept as far as I could from the Edge, for fear of falling. The Wife minced a bit of Meat, then crumbled some Bread on a Trencher, and placed it before me. I made her a low Bow, took out my Knife and Fork, and fell to eat; which gave them exceeding Delight.
This Liquor tasted like a small Cyder, and was not unpleasant. But, being afraid the Boy might owe me a Spight; and well remembering how mischievous all Children among us naturally are to Sparrows, Rabbits, young Kittens, and Puppy-Dogs; I fell on my Knees, and pointing to the Boy, made my Master to understand, as well as I could, that I desired his Son might be pardoned. The Father complied, and the Lad took his seat again; whereupon I went to him and kissed his Hand, which my Master took, and made him stroak me gently with it.
But it happened there was no Danger; for the Cat took not the least Notice of me when my Master placed me within three Yards of her. When Dinner was almost done, the Nurse came in with a Child of a Year old in her Arms; who immediately spied me, and began a Squall that you might have heard from London-Bridge to Chelsea; after the usual Oratory of Infants, to get me for a Play-thing.
The Mother out of pure Indulgence took me up, and put me towards the Child, who presently seized me by the Middle, and got my Head in his Mouth, where I roared so loud that the Urchin was frighted, and let me drop; and I should infallibly have broken my Neck, if the Mother had not held her Apron under me. But all in vain, so that she was forced to apply the last Remedy by giving it suck.
I must confess no Object ever disgusted me so much as the Sight of her monstrous Breast, which I cannot tell what to compare with, so as to give the curious Reader an Idea of its Bulk, Shape and Colour. It stood prominent six Foot, and could not be less than sixteen in Circumference. For I had a near Sight of her, she sitting down the more conveniently to give Suck, and I standing on the Table.
I remember when I was at Lilliput, the Complexions of those diminutive People appeared to me the fairest in the World: He said, he could discover great Holes in my Skin; that the Stumps of my Beard were ten Times stronger than the Bristles of a Boar; and my Complexion made up of several Colours altogether disagreeable: Although I must beg Leave to say for my self, that I am as fair as most of my Sex and Country, and very little Sunburnt by all my Travels.
I was very much tired and disposed to sleep, which my Mistress perceiving, she put me on her own Bed, and covered me with a clean white Handkerchief, but larger and coarser than the Main Sail of a Man of War.
The Bed was eight Yards from the Floor. Some natural Necessities required me to get down: I durst not presume to call, and if I had, it would have been in vain with such a Voice as mine at so great a Distance from the Room where I lay, to the Kitchen where the Family kept. These horrible Animals had the Boldness to attack me on both Sides, and one of them held his Fore-feet at my Collar; but I had the good fortune to rip up his Belly before he could do me any Mischief.
Soon after, my Mistress came into the Room, who seeing me all bloody, ran and took me up in her Hand. I pointed to the dead Rat, smiling and making other Signs to shew I was not hurt; whereat she was extremely rejoyced, calling the Maid to take up the dead Rat with a Pair of Tongs, and throw it out of the Window.
Then she set me on a Table, where I shewed her my Hanger all bloody, and wiping it on the Lappet of my Coat, returned it to the Scabbard. I went on one Side about two Hundred Yards; and beckoning A Voyage to Brobdingnag 85 to her not to look or to follow me, I hid myself between two Leaves of Sorrel, and there discharged the Necessities of Nature. The Author carried to a Market-Town, and then to the Metropolis. The Particulars of his Journey. This was my Bed all the Time I stayed with those People, although made more convenient by Degrees, as I began to learn their Language, and make my Wants known.
She was likewise my School-Mistress to teach me the Language: When I pointed to any thing, she told me the Name of it in her own Tongue, so that in a few Days I was able to call for whatever I had a mind to. She was very good natured, and not above forty Foot high, being little for her Age. She gave me the Name of Grildrig, which the Family took up, and afterwards the whole Kingdom.
Another Farmer who lived hard by, and was a particular Friend of my Master, came on a Visit on Purpose to enquire into the Truth of this Story. This Man, who was old and dim-sighted, put on his Spectacles to behold me better, at which I could not forbear laughing very heartily; for his Eyes appeared like the Full-Moon shining into a Chamber at two Windows. Our People, who discovered the Cause of my Mirth, bore me Company in Laughing; at which the old Fellow was Fool enough to be angry and out of Countenance.
I guessed there was some Mischief contriving, when I observed my Master and his Friend whispering long together, sometimes pointing at me; and my Fears made me Fancy that I overheard and understood some of their Words.
But, the next Morning Glumdalclitch my little Nurse told me the whole Matter, which she had cunningly picked out from her Mother. The poor Girl laid me on her Bosom, and fell a weeping with Shame and Grief.
She apprehended some Mischief would happen to me from rude vulgar Folks, who might Squeeze me to Death, or break one of my Limbs by taking me in their Hands. She had also observed how modest I was in my Nature, how nicely I regarded my Honour; and what an Indignity I should conceive it to be exposed for Money as a publick Spectacle to the meanest of the People.
She said, her Papa and Mamma had promised that Grildrig should be hers; but now she found they meant to serve her as they did last Year, when they pretended to give her a Lamb; and yet, as soon as it was fat, sold it to a Butcher.
However, I was terribly shaken and discomposed in this Journey, although it were but of half an Hour. For the Horse went about forty Foot at every Step; and trotted so high, that the Agitation was equal to the rising and falling of a Ship in a great Storm, but much more frequent: Our Journey was somewhat further than from London to St Albans. I was placed upon a Table in the largest Room of the Inn, which might be near three Hundred Foot square.
My little Nurse stood on a low Stool close to the Table, to take care of me, and direct what I should do. I walked about on the Table as the Girl commanded; she asked me Questions as far as she knew my Understanding of the Language reached, and I answered them as loud as I could. I turned about several Times to the Company, paid my humble Respects, said they were welcome; and used some other Speeches I had been taught. For, those who had seen me, made such wonderful Reports, that the People were ready to break down the Doors to come in.
My Master gave publick Notice, that he would shew me again the next Market-Day: There could not be fewer than thirty Persons with their Wives and Children; for the Country is very populous; and my Master demanded the Rate of a full Room whenever he shewed me at Home, although it were only to a single Family.
My Master made his Daughter Glumdalclitch ride behind him. She carried me on her Lap in a Box tied about her Waist. We had no other Company but a Boy of the House, who rode after us with the Luggage. We made easy Journies of not above seven or eight Score Miles a Day: For Glumdalclitch, on Purpose to spare me, complained she was tired with the trotting of the Horse. She often took me out of my Box at my own Desire, to give me Air and shew me the Country; but always held me fast by Leading-strings.
He hired a large Room between three and four Hundred Foot wide. Oxford: Clarendon Press, —5 , iv. Introduction xvii which may be apt to the game of identities between narrator and author. Of the two versions of the Faulkner edition, the octavo especially bears a striking likeness to the portrait of Swift himself which serves as frontispiece to volume i of the same Faulkner edition, and which is an engraving based on a portrait by the Irish painter Charles Jervas, who painted Swift in , and —17 or , and supervised engravings, and was also a friend and portraitist of Pope.
An observant reader would be exercised by the resemblance between the portraits in volumes i and iii, and, to the extent that he or she remembers it, would be actively unsettled by the uncertainties of focus and wavelength which it contributes to a text already heavily impregnated with elusively aggressive obliquities.
In addition, in both versions of the Gulliver frontispiece a small new time bomb has been lobbed at the reader. Lemuel Gulliver Splendide Mendax. Portraits by Jervas are reproduced in Corr. Such a book could not be written about Swift. Williams, iv. Temple Scott London: G. Bell, — , xii. Attached prominently to the frontispiece portrait of the narrator, it implies both unreliability and some sort of nobility of purpose. Letters are signed, by Swift and his friends, with Gulliverian names.
There is a long history of complaints by Swift Corr. The disjunction between ideal and realistic expectation is a staple of satire.
In practice it suggests that the speaker is understood by both author and reader to be antisocial or even neurotic, but that he is right by a higher standard, and would not have become unhinged if the world had been a decent place.
How much, and what, to discount is what remains uncertain, a tease which undermines readerly comfort, and enables the satirist to make his point without being dismissed as excessive or insane, like his speaker. It is the language of the later disenchanted Gulliver of Book IV, not that of the innocuously bland narrator whom we are about to meet in the opening chapter of Book I.
Swift, as I have suggested, would not have been a willing practitioner of the realism or narrative immediacy of Defoe or Richardson. The lifelike unfolding of a personal story is not his purpose. Albert J. Rivero New York, , — Introduction xxiii human personality.
Although he is never the equivalent of Swift, he is always the instrument of what Swift shows or says through him. It is usually more natural in the reading, and certainly more productive, to attend to a Swiftian agenda than to any sort of expression of Gulliverian personality in anything Gulliver says.
For Instance, A Crew of Pyrates are driven by a Storm they know not whither; at length a Boy discovers Land from the Top-mast; they go on Shore to rob and plunder; they see an harmless People, are entertained with Kindness, they give the Country a new Name, they take formal Possession of it for the King, they set up a rotten Plank or a Stone for a Memorial, they murder two or three Dozen of the Natives, bring away a Couple more by Force for a Sample, return home, and get their Pardon.
Here commences a new Dominion acquired with a Title by Divine Right. This cannot be the same Gulliver, unless he is being stingingly ironic. That option contains its own readerly discomforts. Donald M. Frame ; Stanford, Calif. Introduction xxv expressed by travel writers and imperial adventurers before and since. In an equal and opposite way the account of the oppression of harmless natives is not what it seems. But he meant it in a way that is coloured by an opposite and competing perception, which the volume has been sustaining forcefully throughout.
All the active verbs belong to the invading evil-doers. Swift detested oppressors. They were an extreme example of a 33 For some examples, see Rawson, God, Gulliver, and Genocide, 23, —13 n.
Swift was conscious of being open to charges of misanthropy and misogyny. Again, this is not to deny aggressive sentiments, and the counter-examples may have a defensive or compensatory element. A Modest Proposal is an ironic variation on the old idea that the native Irish were cannibals. But the cannibal slur often directed at the natives is redirected at, or at least extended to, the Anglo-Irish ruling group to which Swift belonged, and also to the ogre nation England, willing to devour Ireland without salt.
The language of racial insult is used to attack the species as a whole, much as Augustan satirists used lordly language to attack malefactors, including lords, as low. I could perhaps like others have astonished thee with strange improbable Tales; but I rather chose to relate plain Matter of Fact in the simplest Manner and Style; because my principal Design was to inform, and not to amuse thee.
The puniness of the Lilliputians as they re-enact the doings of European societies is a comment on the latter which becomes increasingly stinging as Gulliver realizes that Europeans appear to the Brobdingnagians exactly as Lilliputians appear to him. The schematism is arithmetically very exact, as to the physical proportions between Lilliputians, humans, and Brobdingnagians, but some of its ostensible signals are subjected to disturbance or surprise.
The Lilliputians are portrayed almost throughout as unedifyingly similar to corrupt Europeans, but in chapter vi they are suddenly described without warning as a Utopian commonwealth, not in every way appealing to a modern xxviii Introduction sensibility, but nevertheless recognizably modelled on the ideal commonwealths of Plato and Thomas More, and foreshadowing the ideally ordered Houyhnhnm society of Book IV.
Just as the Lilliputians are revealed to have had a constitution of great value before descending to their present state, so the Brobdingnagians, in reverse sequence, were once no better than other nations: For, in the Course of many Ages they have been troubled with the same Disease, to which the whole Race of Mankind is Subject; the Nobility often contending for Power, the People for Liberty, and the King for absolute Dominion.
Introduction xxix The passage refers to a technical concern over the propriety of standing armies, but transcends this issue into a wider consideration of processes of political change. Together with the passage from i. The same generational span is suggested in Book III, when Gulliver, in Glubbdubdrib, is disappointed with his summoning of the famous dead from the past, and desires instead to see the humbler exemplars of defunct English decencies: I descended so low as to desire that some English Yeomen of the old Stamp, might be summoned to appear; once so famous for the Simplicity of their Manners, Dyet and Dress; for Justice in their Dealings; for their true Spirit of Liberty; for their Valour and Love of their Country.
Neither could I be wholly unmoved after comparing the Living with the Dead, when I considered how all these pure native Virtues were prostituted for a Piece of Money by their Grand-children; who in selling their Votes, and managing at Elections have acquired every Vice and Corruption that can possibly be learned in a Court.
Present-day England is directly parallel to the societies described in Books I and III, to its discredit; it is inversely parallel to the society of Book II, also to its discredit.
Historical cycles are often pessimistic concepts. In theory, good and bad succeed one another, but as Plato implies, it is the downward cycles that tend to prevail.
The story Swift tells about England, and other human societies, is that they are usually deteriorating. The ill-governed and disagreeable Lilliputians are incrementally contemptible because of their tiny size, while the Brobdingnagians tower above humans in dignity and virtue, their physical height coinciding with their possession of the moral high ground. Characteristically, we are shown Brobdingnagians who do not live up to their best standards, and who are, for example, mercenary or cruel.
The sores and cancers on the breasts of Brobdingnagian women, or the wen on the neck of their male counter-example ii. They show that Swift was not above respecting, and making creative satirical use of, what he recognized as good science, in spite of his well-known contempt for Royal Society experimentation, whose truth and utility seemed opaque to him, and which he attacked in the Academy of Lagado in Book III.
All humans have it, and there is no way of escaping or eradicating it. If the logic of this implication contains 35 PW i. The case of the Brobdingnagian breasts, monstrous and horrifying, is not self-evidently culpable, however. The example implicates all of us, because it is strongly emphasized that we are all included in the phenomenon, since this is how we appear to Lilliputians.
In all three humanity is portrayed in acts of moral turpitude, political misgovernment, colonial subjugation, legal malpractice, and intellectual folly. It is the last of the exotic groups Gulliver meets before Book IV, and marks a decisive turning point in the work as a whole.
Envy and impotent Desires, are their prevailing Passions. At Ninety they lose their Teeth and Hair; they have at that Age no Distinction of Taste, but eat and drink whatever they can get, without Relish or Appetite. The Diseases they were subject to, still continue without encreasing or diminishing.
In talking, they forget the common Appellation of Things, and the Names of Persons, even of those who are their nearest Friends and Relations. They were the most mortifying Sight I ever beheld; and the Women more horrible than the Men.