EDWARD T. WHITE SITE DIAGRAMMING INFORMATION FOR ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ANALYSIS EDWARD T. WHITE PROFESSOR OF ARCHITECTURE. Site Analysis: Diagramming lnformation for Architectural Design CopyrightQ by Edward T. White All rights reserved Printed in the United. Site Analysis Edward t White - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. [Architecture eBook] Working Drawings Handbook. Uploaded by.

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You should be aware of the following before making your download: Some technical skills are required to load this eBook onto your device You will need to download the eBook to a computer before transferring it to your device You will need to connect your device to your computer to transfer the eBook to your device See the eBook support document for detailed instructions If you would prefer to download this eBook through other services that will automatically transfer the file to your device, please visit Adventist-eBooks. The author brings an end-time urgency to the way we handle money. He says it's time to abandon worldly attitudes toward borrowing, planning for retirement, investing, and estate planning. With 1, references to money and possessions, the Bible shows us a better way. Many well-meaning Adventist Christians find themselves getting involved in the same financial practices as their non-Christian peers—credit card debt, money-hoarding habits, over-indulgence, and wrong concepts about investments, insurance, estate planning, and retirement. What is a Christian to do?

The context includes all the con- ditions, situations, forces and pressuresthat constituted the existing site prior to the f i construction of the building. If we set these three protagonists at the corners of a triangle and draw lines repre- senting impactsfrom each of themtoall the others and from each of them to them- selves, we have diagrammed the essential messages of the consequencetriangle.

The elements of the building affect not only each other but also elements in the context and users. In terms of building impact on itself, the air conditioning system causes changes in material and furniture because of temperature and humidity differential.

Fenestration causes changes in material, lightingandfurniture becauseof the admit- A tance of sunlight. Furniture location causes changes in the flooring material due to placement in the space. The consequences caused by the building on the users may involve environmental effects on attitude, productivity, efficiency, sense of worth and well-being, staff turnover, level of learning, sales volume and other aspects of human behavior.

Site Analysis: Diagramming Information for Architectural Design

The building also creates conse- quences within the context. These may include alteration of wind patterns, con- tours and drainage patterns, surface ab- sorption of rainfall, existing foliage, shadow patterns, sunlight reflection off windowsand sound reflectionsoff building surfaces.

All oi the efiects or conseqLence issues mentloneo nere on! TO complete the mocel we must perform the same operation for users and context. We can see then. Each of the three causes changes in the other two and is changed by the other two. The network is in constant motion for the life of the buildine. It behoovesus to not only know some- thing about the compositional charac- ters of buildings, people and contexts but also about how they affect them- selves and each other. Every building project involves some de- gree of remodeling because of the inevita- ble modification of the context at and around our building.

It is impossible to place our building on its site without changing the existing conditions. We must determine what to retain, reinforce, accent, reduce, modify or eliminate. The implanting of our building on the site will always result in a re- modeling of the site.

Our goal should "'"'ZL always be to leave our site better than we found it. We cannot respond to site conditions that we are not aware of and we must not allow the relationships between our build- ing and its context to be accidental due to inadequate or faulty information. A half done contextual analysis is probably more dangerous than not doing one at all.

It is easy to convince ourselvesthat we analysisthere is always the naggingfeeling have done our job in researching the that there are some importantdesign impli- contextifwehavesomedata however cations that lie one more step beyond incomplete about the site.

We pro- where we have ended our study. We can never know too much about our site. Time teed with design thinking that if we and budget restrictions eventually force us deal with what we know about thesite, to callthe study ,rcomplete,,, It is important even though it is an pic- to develop the ability to do our analyses turet we will have met Our efficiently so that we can do as thorough a sibilities as designers.

In contextual issue of thoroughly addressingall site con- We can be many "data triggers" as possible. We more efficient as designers if we can avoid all carry a vocabulary of site response interrupting conceptualization with re- concepts, a set of ways for handling search. It is betterto get it all the first time to different site conditions and require- avoid having to continually go back to ments, individual site characteristicsrepeatour efforts in site research.

By having all the data at one time we can see the trigger certain conceptual sets from interrelationshipsofthe data and usethis as our vocabulary of possible responses. If data is missingfrom the site analysis, certain site design concepts may not be Data synthesis, comparison and ma- evoked.

The risk accidental and inappropriate re- view predesign researchas a trigger- sponses to particularsite conditions out of ingdevice to evoke appropriate formal negligence, vocabularies for responding to the There are also legal implications related to the thoroughness of contextual analysis and site design. We must be especially careful to attend to the impacts of our site concepts on adjacent and surrounding property, Inadvertent design decisions basedon incomplete site data may result in negativeconsequencesforthe neighborsof our project both during construction and after our project is complete and in use.

Blockage of neighborhood water drainage patterns as they enter our site may cause flooding. Rerouting drainage patterns so that water leaves our site in a different place may result in water damage. Our building placement may block views from adjacent structures. The vehicular traffic generated by our facility may increase the congestion and noise level in the neigh- borhood. Excavation of our site could cause footing damage to nearby buildings.

Sun reflection offour buildingmay result in increased cooling loads in neighboring buildings or create traffic hazards for driv- ers near our site due to glare. Shadows cast byour structurecould damage landscaping of neighborsor deny them accessto thesun for solar collectors. All these situations and othersare potential negativeconsequences of our designs on adjacent property that have legal implications for both our clients and ourselves. Thorough site analysis and attention to detail during site use concep- tualization are vital if we are to avoid the negative situations and achieve the posi- tive ones.

If we hope to do a thorough contextual analysis, there are several things we should remember about the data we are collecting. Q- It is important not to do the analysis "at long range" but to actually go to the site and feel it.

See the views, listen to the sounds, look at the activity. Walk or drive the site to get a sense of the time-distance factor between boundaries and to feel how the contours change. It is important to judge first hand the value of on site amenitiessuch as trees. The issueof time must beapplied to all our site information. We must havesome idea about how long a e n event or pressure ass, when it peaks, when it starts and ends, how it.

For each fact we collect we should ask ourselves about the future with respectto that particularcategory. Our building will occupy the site for a long time. We want it to effectively respond to all surrounding conditions over its life span. It is desirable to look at the next con- textual layer of issues beyondthe ones we are addressing.

Edward T. White

Contextual analyses are theoretically open ended in that there are no inherent logical stopping points. We could continue to On the other hand there is sometimes a temptation to arbitrarily terminate our analysis before we should. The important point here is to think about the appropriate extension of the analysis for each piece of information.

How far do we go with our data collection for each information type? Examples include deciding how many blocks beyond our site to incorporate inthe analysis, whether to analyze what created existing traffic patterns, whether to infer certain things about the neighborhood by what we seeand whether to conduct house to house interviews.

These judgments all involve decisions on our part about the importance and relevancy of the informa- tion to either the verification of data or to design. In contextual analysis we are con- stantly making judgments about how deeply or accurately we must research a particular site topic. This issue is being raisednot to providean excusefor asloppy job but to recognize that the "absolutely complete" contextual analysis does not exist andthat under the pressureof time we mustbesomewhatselectiveaboutwhat we address in our site study.

The goal is a contextual analysis researched through all its contexts of contexts. The reality is al- ways something short of that. Our contextual analysis should record what information is "hard" non- negotiable and what is "soft.

Hard data involves things like site boundary, legal description, site area and utility locations. Some thin. It is helpful to classify the information according to "firmness" because it provides a sense of the required sequence of attention to data when we begin design, We generally must couewith the hard datafirst inourearlv site decisions There should be a sense of priority This is normally a result of the intensity of about the information we collect and the site conditions and whether they are record.

It is useful when we begin design to have a sense of whether something is of great value and should be saved, enhanced and reinforced or whether something is very negative and should beeliminated, avoided orscreened. A systematic approach more easily permits us to cope with information overload in complex situations. A fine-grained approach to analysis fosters a fine-grained approach to de- sign synthesis where contextual oppor- tunities and problems have less of a chance tor1slipthrough the cracks" and thus be left behind during design synthesis.

The more individual contextual factors we uncover and document in analysis of the site, the more cues we provide for ourselves in triggering site response concepts. We are not concerned with design responsesto the site at this stage but ratherwith finding out all we can about the site. We are interested in facts. The facts about our site will always include both hard and soft data.

The hard data usually relate to physical site factors and involve no judgments about their existence or na- ture. Typical hard data would be site loca- tion, dimensions, contours, on site features and climate.

Soft data may involve some value judgments on our part in conducting the contextual analysis. These deal prima- rily with the sensory and human aspects of the site that are not quantitative and which require an opinion about the existenceand positive or negative characteristics of cer- tain sitequalities. Typical examplesinclude good and bad views from the site, best approach directions to th.

This "soft data", although it initially involves judgments, tends to become "hard data" once it is documented in the contextual analysis. It is import We ways open to interpretation in design and should never expect the amount and are usually the most negotiable when de- importance of site data to be equal signing for the site in schematics.

Eachsite In attempting to organize the types of is different and the imbalance in how information that we collect about a the information is distributed among site, there are several headings that the headingsand the different Patterns of emphasis given to the information communicate a great deal to us when we begin to respond to the contextual analysis in design. The data outline presented next has no particular meaning behind its sequence other than the fact that it separatessite data from climate data and proceeds from gen- eral overview issuesto more detailed ones.

City map may also show distances and travel times to related functions in other parts of the city. This may be extended further to include an important factor or because of the scale of the project. Map may show existing and projected uses, buildings, zoning and any other conditions that may have an impact on our project. SIZE AND ZONING Documents all the dimensional aspects of the site includ- ing boundaries, location and dimension of easements and present zoning classifica- tion with all its dimensional implications setbacks, height restrictions, parking for- mulas, allowed uses, etc.

Analysis should also document the present and projected zoning trends, plans by the city transportation department to widen roads change rights of way and any othertrend that mightaffectour project in the future. LEGAL This category presents the legal description of the property, covenants and restrictions, present ownership, present governmental jurisdiction city or county and any future projections that may influ- ence the project such as the fact that the site is in afuture city urban renewal area or within the boundaries of eventual univer- sity expansion.

Off site features may include characteristics of surrounding de- velopment such as scale, roof forms, fenestration patterns, setbacks, materials, colors, open spaces, visual axes, paving patterns, landscaping materials and pat- terns, porosity and assertiveness of wall forms and accessories and details.

Dataincludes duration and peak loads for surrounding vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement, bus stops, site access edges, traffic generators, service truck access and intermittent traffic parades, fire truck routes, concerts at nearby auditorium.

Traffic analysis should include future projections insofar as they Y can be made. Typical utility types include electricity, gas, sewer, water and telephone. Where utilities are some distance from the site, those dimen- sions should be given. It is useful to docu- ment the depths of utilities when they are underground as well as the pipe material and diameter.

It is of behavioral and sociological aspects. This value to record the type, duration, intensity category is different from "Neighborhood and quality positive or negative of the Context" listed earlier in that the latter ad- sensory issues. As discussed earlier, this dresses the physical while this category often involves making some judgments deals with the activities, human relation- about the relative desirability of the differ- ships and patterns of human characteris- ent sensory conditions on and around the tics.

Issues here might involve population site. Also of importance are any scheduled or informal activities in the neighborhood Vandalism and crime patterns, although not pleasant, are of value to designers when conceptualizing site zoning and building design.

CLIMATE Presents all the pertinent cli- mate conditions such as rainfall, snowfall, humidity and temperature variations over the months of the year.

Also included are prevailing wind directions, sun-path and vertical sun angles as they changeover the year and potential natural catastrophes such as tornados, hurricanes and earth- quakes.

It is helpful to know not only how climate conditions vary over a typical year but also what the critical conditions might be maximum daily rainfall, peak wind velocity. It involves know- ingwhat we haveto work with interms of site before we begin to work with it in site zoning. Like function, image or building envelope, it is another way of entering the problem, of making our first conceptual decisions which form the designer-made context for sub- sequent decisions.

Althoughthe facts we collect about our site may be influenced by the building images that inevitably come to mind as we do the contextual analysis, we should attempt to keep conceptualization separate from the contextual analysis. The contextual analysis should be an inventory of existing and projected conditions assumingno new building on the site so that when we begin to design for the site we do not confuse what is actually there now with what we wish was there or hope to put there.

It is useful in discussing the influence of contextual analysis on design to dif- ferentiate between function and con- text as forces which locate building spaces and activities on the site. Func- tion tends to locate building spaces in an introverted way in that they are primarily looking inward to each other for the rationale behindtheir positions in the scheme.

Context, on the other hand, wants the spaces to migrate to different positions on the site in re- sponse to conditions outsidethe build- ing. In function, the attraction is be- tween spaces. In context, the attrac- tion is between spaces and external site conditions. Usually in a design problem these two and all the other project issues pull and push the spaces to determine their final placement in the scheme. They are in a very real sense competing with each other to determine the building form.

Some examples of situations that might cause a space or activity to be placed in the scheme due to external linkages to context are presented below. Operations need- ing access to de- livery and pick- up vehicles. Building entry lo- cated to relate to primary ap- proach direc- tion. Zoning of parking areas away from view lines to building.

Activities needing indirect natural lighting. Activities needing direct sunlight. Operations need- ing shelter from high activity zones. Activities needing direct access for vehicles. Integration of form with surrounding contextual im- ages. Relationship of spaces to exist- ing scale and geometric pat- terns. Spaces needing their own con- trolled exterior environment. Our first efforts at optimum placement of functions or spaces on the site in response to contextual pressures may involve any of three approaches.

Where function is considered a more critical form-giving determinant than context, we may place the bubble dia- gram on thesiteand allow thespaces to migrate and shift within the bubble so that their orientations and placements relate to the appropriate site condi- tions. Here the connecting lines be- tween the spaces in the bubble are made elastic while still remaining con- nected to the space bubbles so that the functional ties are always maintained while we are searching for a contextu- ally responsive placement of spaces.

Where relation to context is judged to be more important than internal func- tional efficiency, we may take each function or space and place it in its optimum zone on the site indepen- dently oftheother spaces.

When all the spaces have been placed including exterior spaces then we may begin to condense our spaces and knit them together with a circulation system. The third approach is appropriate where the project is particularly large with several site components. Here we may needto deal with the placement of our building or buildings as wholes before we can address the location of their spaces.

In this approach the prin- ciples and intentions are no different than those in the first two approaches. The scale of the components we are manipulating on the site is simply larger.

Once our buildings are placed in zones on the site, then we may use either of the first two approaches to zone the buildingspaces in responseto their context. Reasonsforlocatinga buildingin aparticu- lar area of the site may involve soil bearing conditions, contours that minimize earth work during construction, ridges to take advantage of views or breezes, streets or corners that ensure high visibility to the building, alleys that allow easy service ac- cess, site scars that have already caused disruption collect existing scars with the scars caused by construction or the avoidance of some particularly valuable asset that should be preserved trees or some particularly negativecondition poor view or noise.

I t is important to remember that site design and building and space place- ment can involve sectional issues as well as plan issues. Relation of floors to contours, heights of spaces in relation to views, stepping of spaces down hillsides and stacking of spaces in relation to contours and neigh- borhood scale are a few of the potential reasons to study the zoning of our facility on the site in section as well as in plan.

A thorough contextual analysis gives us confidencethat we havethe site conditions all recorded. That confidencefacilitates the conceptualization of site responses in de- sign and contributes to the heuristic proc- ess of idea formulation.

In doing the con- textual analysisandengagingthe site issues through diagramming, we trigger design responseimagesfor dealingwith the site. Thecontextual analysisactsasaswitch to recall the parts of our design vocab- ularies that apply to the site problems and opportunities. The role of contex- tual analysis as a stimulant for concep- tualization is vital to responsible de- sign. It helps to ensure that there is an appropriateness to those design ideas that surface in our minds in that they were triggered by the relevant project issues, conditions and needs and not arbitrarily fabricated and imposed on the project.

Too r'i? This will never happen. We must analyze the context to trigger design re- sponses, but the design responses or vo- cabularies must be there to be triggered. As designers we must continually work to ex- pand and deepen our vocabulary of ar- chitectural forms and concepts so that there is something there to draw upon when we "flip theswitch" through analysis.

These conceptual solution types constitute the design vocabulary that we accumulate from reading, travel, past projects we have designed and visiting buildings. Analysis will give us the condi- tions but not the responses. It will tell us that we have a great view but not what to do about it.

We must draw from our vo- cabulary of design responsesfor the appro- priate concepts. Diagramming the information learned through contextual analysis may utilize any of the conventional drawing frameworks to record the data. We may graphically express our site information in plan, section, elevation, perspective, isometric or any of the other types of draw- ings available to us.

The types of drawings we useshould besympatheticto thetypeof information we are recording. Somedata is better expressed in plan, some in section, L L some in perspective, etc.

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Normally there aretwo components to any site information diagram. First, we must have a referent drawing of the site to provide a context for the particular site information we want to record. Second, we must diagram the site fact itself.

The referent drawing may be a simple plan of the site boundaries with bordering streets or a section through the siteshowing only theground plane. We use these simple site drawings as frameworks for diagramming the particular site issues that we wish to express.

There are two rather different postures we may assume regardingthe recording of the site informa- tion over these referent drawings. J one referent drawing. The second approach segregateseach piece of site information to a separate referent drawing. This method values the expression of each issue sepa- rately so that it can be easily understood. By dealing with each fact individually we may be less likely to ignore something.

Keeping these two approaches pure and unadulterated is not important. Where it is appropriate to our situation it is perfectly permissibleto use both methods within the same contextual analysis. The diagrammatic forms that we may useto actually record our site information over the referentdrawings are many and varied.

There are no rules for the forms these must take and no universally agreed upon vo- cabulary for them. We should begin to develop our own vocabulary of diagrammatic forms so that they may become second nature for us and may be used as an effective graphic shorthand for documenting site conditions.

There are essentially four steps to diagramming any site fact. We must design the initial dia- grammatic form, refine andsimplify it, emphasize and clarify the meaning through graphic hierarchy and em- phasis and finally introduce whatever notes and labeling are necessary.

Contextual analysis may be applied tositu- ations of any scale and is relevant to both exterior and interior project issues. We may analyze a region, a city, a neighborhood, a parcel of land, the interior of an existing building or the interior of a single existing interior space. The discussion that follows will deal principally with the analysis of single parcels of land.

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Some attention will also be given to the contextual analysis of interior space under "Other Contextual Analysis Forms. As discussed previously, our goal should be to analyze all relevant issues about thesite becausethoroughness is vital to project success. It is useful in choosing from among the available site issue categories to let our choices be influenced by at least two im- portant inputs: We should think about the nature of the project, its needs, require- ments and critical issues.

What is the essence of the project? What isthe building's reasonfor being? What are its major goals and objec- tives? What roles can the building play in enhancing the site and its surround- ings? All of these concerns should help ustoanticipate the kindof sitedata that will be neededduringthe design phase of the project. Site analysis should never be done at "long range. This "hands-on" direct encounter with site from a personal and sen- sory point of view gives us another set of clues for choosing the types of site information that should be addressed in our contextual analysis.

The visit to the siteallows us todevelop asense of what is unique, valuable and important about the site. This checklist will help ensure that we do not forget any important site factor and will assist us to more efficiently iden- tify the site concerns to be included in our analysis. A prototypical checklist- of potential site issues follows.

Location a. Location of the city in the state including relationship to roads, cities, etc. Location of the site neighborhood in the city. Location of the site in the neigh- borhood. Distancesandtravel times between the site and locations of other re- lated functions in the city.

Neighborhood Context a. Map of the neighborhood indicat- ing existing and projected property zoning. Existing and projected building uses in the neighborhood. Age or condition of the neighbor- hood buildings.

Present and future uses of exterior spaces in the neighborhood. Any strong vehicular or pedestrian traffic generating functions in the neighborhood.

Existing and projected vehicular movement patterns. Major and minor streets, routes of service vehicles such as trash, bus routes and stops. Solid-void space relationships. Street lighting patterns. Architectural patterns such as roof forms, fenestration, materials, color, landscaping,formal porosity, relationship to street, car storage strategies, building height, sculptural vigor, etc. Neighborhood classifications that' miglht place special restrictions or responsibilities on our design work such as "historic district.

Nearby buildings of particular value or significance. Fragile images or situations that should be preserved. Sun and shade patterns at different times of the year. Major contour and drainage pat- terns. Size and Zoning a. Dimensions of the boundaries of our site.

Dimensions of the street rights of way around our site. Location and dimensions of ease- ments. Present site zoning classification. Front, back and side yard setbacks requiied by zoning classification. Square feet of buildable area inside setbacks should also subtract easements. Building height restrictions re- quired by zoning classification.

Zoning formula for determining re- quired parking basedon the typeof The number of parking spaces re- quired if we know the building area. Any conflicts between what the present zoning classification al- lows and the functions we are planning for the site. Zoning classifications that the site would need to be changed to in order to accommodate all the planned functions. Any projected changes that would alter the dimensional characteris- tics of the site such as street widen- ings or download of additional property.

Legal a. Legal description of the property. Covenants and restrictions site area usage allowed, height restric- tions, screening of mechanical equipment or serviceyards, restric- tionson rooftopelements, architec- tural character, design require- ments in historic districts, etc.

Name of the property owner. Name of the governmental levels or agencies which have jurisdic- tion over the property. Any projectedor potential changes in any of the above categories. Natural Physical Features a. Topographic contours. Major topographic features such as high points, low points, ridges and valleys, slopes and flat areas.

Drainage patterns on the site in- cluding directions of surfacedrain- age perpendicular to contours , major and minor arteries of water collection ditches, arroyos, river- beds, creeks, etc. Existing natural features on the site andtheir value interms of preserva- tion and reinforcement versus al- teration or removal. This would also include opinions regarding permanency in terms of difficulty or expense to remove features.

On site features might include trees type and size , ground cover, rock outcroppings, ground surface tex- ture, holes or ditches, mounds, on site water pools, ponds, lakes, riv- ers and stable or unstable areas of the site site scars versus virgin areas. Typeof soil atdifferent levelsbelow surface and bearing capacity of the soil.

Soil type distribution over site. Man-Made Features a. Size, shape, height and location of any on site buildings. If these are to remain; the exterior character and interior layout should also be documented.

Ifthe buildings are to be part of our project, we mustdo a Location and type of walls, retain- ing walls, ramadas or fences. Location, size and character of ex- terior playfields, courts, patios, plazas, drives, walks or service areas. Where it may be important to our designwe should recordthe paving patterns of man-made surfaces. Location and size of curb cuts, power poles, fire hydrants or bus stop shelters. This is particularly impor- tant where the architectural character will be a factor in the design of our facility historic dis- trict, etc.

Somefactors to consider in analyzing surrounding architec- tural character include scale, proportion, roof forms, window and door patterns, setbacks, mate- rials, colors, textures, open space versus built space, visual axes, landscaping materials and pat- terns, paving textures and patterns, porosity extent of openness and assertiveness ins and outs of wall forms, connections, details and ac- cessories, exterior lighting, outdoor furniture andcarstoragemethods.

Circulation a. On site sidewalks, paths and other pedestrian movement patterns in- cluding users, purposes, schedule of use and volume of use. Off site pedestrian movement pat- terns usingthe same characteristics mentioned for on site movement. If a pedestrianmovement pattern is considered valuable and to be pre- served or reinforced, our analysis should also include an evaluation of how the existing pattern could be improved.

On site or adjacent vehicular movement patterns including type of traffic, origins and destinations, schedule, volume of traffic and peak loads. Also included should be intermittent traffic such as parades, festivals, concerts, fire truck routes, service truck fleets, etc. Off site or neighborhood vehicular movement issues such as traffic generators buildings or uses that are significant destinations or ori- gins of vehicular traffic as well as the other traffic characteristics out- lined under on site traffic.

Adjacent or nearby parking areasthat may be used for off site car storage in our project. Off site traffic patterns should also include the relation of our site to the public transportation routes, stops at or near our site, probable directions of approach to our site by the users of the new building and directions of dispersal of traffic from our building.

Traffic analysis should document future Locations of probable or optimum access to our site for each type of pedestrianand vehicular traffic that will use the new building or move through the site. Travel time to walk across our site, to drive across the site or by the site where these times may be impor- tant to our design time it takes to walk between classes at a school. It may also be useful to record the time it takes to drive to or from related locations in the city from our site to downtown, the univer- sity, the shopping center, etc.

Utilities a. Location, capacity and con- veyance form type of pipe, etc. This should involve the depth of each utility under- ground and, in the case of power, whether it is above or below grade. Location of power poles. Where utility lines stop short of our site boundaries, their distances from our site should be given.

Where there are multiple oppor- tunities to connect to utilities that are adjacent to our site, we should record those locations or edges on our site that seem to offer the best connection opportunities. This may be due to the capacities of the utility lines, contour conditions on our site in relation to sewer, the need to minimize on site utility runs, being able to collect utility runs, bringing utilities in at the "back" of the site or dealing with site barriers or difficult soil condi- tions.

Sensory Views from the site including posi- tions on the site where the views are not blocked, what the views are of, whether the views are positive or negative, the angles within which the views can be found, whether the views change over time and the likelihood of view continuance for the long term. Includes what the views are of, whether the views are positive or negative, positions on the site where the views are bestand where they are blocked, the angles within which the views can be found and whether the object of the views changes over time.

Mews to the site from areas outside the ,site boundaries, including streets, walks, other buildings and vistas. Views through our site from posi- tions outside the property. Involves the objects of the views and the various positions where the views occur, whether the views are posi- tive or negative, the angles within which the views can be found, and the likelihood of the view targets as well as the view paths remaining open over the long term.

Locations, generators, schedules, and intensities of any significant noise on or around the site. This analysis should include likelihood ofcontinuanceover the longterm. Locations, generators, schedules and intensities of any significant odors, smoke or other airborne pollution on or around our site. This analysis should include like- lihood of continuance over time. Potential information includes population density, age, family size, ethnic pat- terns, employment patterns, in- come,, recreational preferences and informal activities or events such as festivals, parades or fairs.

Negative neighborhood patterns such as vandalism and other crimi- nal activities. Neighborhood attitudes about the project that is about to be designed and built on our site. Neighborhood attitudes about what is positive and what is nega- tive in the neighborhood. Relative permanenceof the neiah-- borhood'population. Neighborhoodtrends intermsof all the factors mentioned above.

Climate a. Temperature variation over the months of the year including the maximum hiahs and lows and the maximum a d average day-night temperature swing for the days of each month. Humidity variation over the months of the year including maximums, minimums, and aver- ages for each month and for a typi- cal day of each month. Rainfall variation over the months of the year in inches. Should in- clude the maximum rainfall that can be expected in any one day.

Snowfall variation over the months of the year in inches. Should in- clude the maximum snowfall that can be expected in any one day. Prevailing wind directions for the monthsof the year includingveloc- ity in feet per minute or miles per hour and variations that can be ex- pected over the course of the day and night.

Should also include the maximum wind velocity that can be expected. Sun path at the summer and winter solstice high point and low point including altitude and azimuth at particular times of the day for summer and winter sunrise and sunset, position at 9 a. Energy related data such as degree Potential natural catastrophes such as earthquakes, hurricanes and tornados.

May includedocumenta- tion of earthquake zone that our site lies within and history of natu- ral catastrophes in the area. Dependingon our particular project, some of these issues will be more important than others.

Some analysis categoriesmay drop out completely and new ones may be re- quired. It is important to avoid being so con- cerned about the "legalities" of the classification system that we lose sight of the meaning and importance of site analysis.

It is not as important how the site facts are classified as that they are adequately coveredsomewhere in our analysis. There is always a danger inherent in any checklist. Checklists make it easy for us to mentally disengage from the task at hand and sometimes give us a feeling of false security.

We feel that if we simply "put something" undereach heading we will have fulfilled our re- ' sponsibility to analyze the site. We cannot allow our site analysis to be- come a mindlessfilling of "data bins. We mustfollow what may at first seem tangent concerns until we establish that they are irrelevant or that they do indeed contain some valuable information.

We must not allow the implied segregation of data on the checklist to inhibit an understandingof the linkages between our site conditions. It is of value, for example, to juxtapose all the issuesdealing with time or scheduleon the time frame of a typical day andfor different times of the year. This allows us to see the ebb and flow of the site forces in concert rather than in isolation. Italso permits us to feel the composite of the forces on the site in a way that approximates reality.

In some cases this information must come from others, while in other cases we may gather it directly ourselves. Sources of information may vary from city to city andfrom site to site.

It is importantto keep in mind that for some types of data a single source will suffice. This is true primarily for quantitative or technical in- formation. Other types of data, principally the qualitative type, may require several sources for purposes of verification.

An outlineof potential information sourcesfol- lows. Location State maps may be miniaturized with only major highways and cities shown. City maps of a reasonable size can be found in most telephone books. We only need to relate our site to major streets or landmarks. It may be helpful to downloadan aerial photograph of our site and neighborhood from an aerial survey company. These can be pro- duced at different scales and allow us to trace the neighborhood streets and facilities from the photo.

We may trace the neighborhood context from a zon- ing map which can be found in the municipal planning department or ob- tained from local blueprinting com- panies. Documentation of the dis- tances and travel times must be done by actually driving them or, in the case of pedestrian circulation, by walking them.

Neighborhood Context Zoning for our site and neighborhood can be learned at the municipal plan- ning department or at local printing companies that have the zoning maps on file.

Learning about zoning trends may involve conversations with real estate agents who work in the area and municipal planners. We must directly observe the existing building and ex- terior space uses while talking to area businessmen and residents, real estate agents and municipal planners about projected uses. Several other issues re- quire direct observation. Theseinclude architectural patterns, solid-void rela- tionships, significant buildings, fragile situations, street lighting, and the con- dition of the buildings.

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Thank you for notifying us. The page you are attempting to access contains content that is not intended for underage readers. Site Analysis By Edward T. Paperback, Pages. This item has not been rated yet. Contextual analysis is a predesign research activity which focuses on the existing, imminent, and potential conditions on and around a project site.

It is, in a sense, an inventory of all the pressures, forces, and situations and their interactions at the property where a project will be built.

This book describes the process and techniques of visualizing site information for architectural design in the dual sense of converting the information into graphic images and seeing or understanding the information better. The central thesis is that our ability to draw needs, requirements, and early design concepts is just as important as our ability to draw final building design solutions and that, in fact, our diagramming skills profoundly influence the quality of our building designs.

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