# Basic electronic components and their functions pdf

An introduction to electronic components that you will need to build a motor speed are polarized. Note the different length terminals on one of the capacitors. 6. fundamental electronic components used in every electronic product. Resistors. Capacitors There are many different types of resistors used in electronics. function of the active devices as well as the circuit as a whole. Here we shall discuss about some important electronic components and their characteristics.

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Main article: Analog electronics A circuit diagram representing an analog circuit, in this case a simple amplifier Analog electronic circuits are those in which current or voltage may vary continuously with time to correspond to the information being represented. Analog circuitry is constructed from two fundamental building blocks: series and parallel circuits. In a series circuit, the same current passes through a series of components. A string of Christmas lights is a good example of a series circuit: if one goes out, they all do. In a parallel circuit, all the components are connected to the same voltage, and the current divides between the various components according to their resistance. A simple schematic showing wires, a resistor, and a battery The basic components of analog circuits are wires, resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes , and transistors. In it was demonstrated that memristors can be added to the list of available components. Analog circuits are very commonly represented in schematic diagrams , in which wires are shown as lines, and each component has a unique symbol.

In a series circuit, the same current passes through a series of components. A string of Christmas lights is a good example of a series circuit: if one goes out, they all do.

In a parallel circuit, all the components are connected to the same voltage, and the current divides between the various components according to their resistance. A simple schematic showing wires, a resistor, and a battery The basic components of analog circuits are wires, resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes , and transistors.

In it was demonstrated that memristors can be added to the list of available components. Analog circuits are very commonly represented in schematic diagrams , in which wires are shown as lines, and each component has a unique symbol.

## Components

Analog circuit analysis employs Kirchhoff's circuit laws : all the currents at a node a place where wires meet , and the voltage around a closed loop of wires is 0. Wires are usually treated as ideal zero-voltage interconnections; any resistance or reactance is captured by explicitly adding a parasitic element, such as a discrete resistor or inductor. Active components such as transistors are often treated as controlled current or voltage sources: for example, a field-effect transistor can be modeled as a current source from the source to the drain, with the current controlled by the gate-source voltage.

An alternative model is to take independent power sources and induction as basic electronic units; this allows modeling frequency dependent negative resistors , gyrators , negative impedance converters , and dependent sources as secondary electronic components.

## Basic Electronic Components and What They Do

Wires are treated as transmission lines, with nominally constant characteristic impedance , and the impedances at the start and end determine transmitted and reflected waves on the line. Circuits designed according to this approach are distributed element circuits. Such considerations typically become important for circuit boards at frequencies above a GHz; integrated circuits are smaller and can be treated as lumped elements for frequencies less than 10GHz or so.

Main article: Digital electronics In digital electronic circuits , electric signals take on discrete values, to represent logical and numeric values.

In the vast majority of cases, binary encoding is used: one voltage typically the more positive value represents a binary '1' and another voltage usually a value near the ground potential, 0 V represents a binary '0'.

Transistors interconnected so as to provide positive feedback are used as latches and flip flops, circuits that have two or more metastable states, and remain in one of these states until changed by an external input. We use LEDs to give a visual feedback from our circuit. For example to show that the circuit has power. But, you can also used them to make cool light-show circuits. A very common circuit to build as a beginner is the blinking light circuit.

Transistor Find the transistor symbol in the schematic symbols overview. This is probably the hardest of the basic electronic components to understand. A simple way is to look at the transistor as a switch controlled by an electrical signal. If you put about 0. Note that this is true for NPN transistors. There are also other types, but worry about these later.

## Introduction to Basic Electronics, Electronic Components and Projects

A bit of current on the base produces a current of maybe times more depending on the transistor through the Collector and Emitter. We can use this effect to build amplifiers. Inductor Find the inductor symbol in the schematic symbols overview. Inductors are a bit weird. They are often used in filters.

See his response at the end of that article. Integrated Circuit Find the integrated circuit symbol in the schematic symbols overview.

## Electrical & Electronic Symbols

An Integrated Circuit IC consists of many basic electronic components. It could be an amplifier, it could be a microprocessor, it could be a USB to serial converter… It could be anything! To figure out what a specific IC does, you can read its datasheet.