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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Jesuit discovery of Hinduism: Antonio Rubino's account of the history and religion of Vijayanagara The Japanese authorities quickly saw through thc Jesuits' Chinese disguisc, and imprisoned and tortured Rubino and his four compan- ions over severa! They failed, and Rubino died the following March after being suspended upside down for severa!

In other Shastras. Puranas and Agamas as distinct li wonfa. Cerediio' , and sm selectively interpreted, sufficed to confirm his uegativ! TI1e trans actual disputes in the 'real' ground offered by a rulcr like Akbar or Venkata ll, the ma- two chapters on lndian rrligion of Azevedo's text iII jority of missionaries never ceased to assume the absolutc superiority of Christianity.

Thc authorial question is discussed in S In order to assess the originality and value of Hubino's document as part of the his- his treatise Azcvedo mcntions Couto severa! In effect. His commentl odology outlined above. Rcports of rniracles by idols were na te the genre. Excepting Azevedo, who was an Augustinian and passed his information m; of a rationalist sceptic, but with those of both to the royal chronicler Diogo do Couto and to the Portuguese court in Spain, ali were in fact analogous.

Relatione as an example of early rnissionary consumption as a missionary order. He identified the bino's description was quite realistic. In other Shastras, Puranas and Agamas as distinct literary bodies written in Sanskrit 'thcir mt thc rival religion, bel'ause what he learnt, Latin, which they cal! Medieval and Early: The authorial que,stion is discussed in Sehurhamnwr.

The same ; of the seventeenth century, mainly by. Chinese history and religion by Mattro Ricci cvidencc it can also be established tliat tite autbor of 'Estado da India' Azevedo spent ninctccn nse of lack of succrss amongst the gentiles of ycars in Portugucse Asia in the s and 90s, of whid1 eleven in l lonnuz.

He ktww well Ceylon, response to thc-problems of missionary mrth- and had been to Cambay and Coa. His cormnents are original and penctrating for thcse arcas Rubino' account of Vijayanagara in can which he kncw pcrsonally of particular importance is his nse of native sourccs from lfonnuz and Cey- lon.

With the practical totality of ancient geographical sources on India and the from empirical accuracy and detail. Besides h writings of sixteenth-century European historians including Hamusio's collection at had spent many hours debating and acting a1 his disposal, Azevedo therefore tries to disentangle eonfusions, such as the "traces of the licut, opened by Pimenta like the one at Vij1 Trinity" reported by the famous historian of the Portuguese in Asia Joao de Barros, hooks of his treatise Fenicio was able to sum which he denies hy stressing the existence of a separate, fully idolatrous trinitarian the- with an account of the origins of the world ology of the god 'Mahamurtra'.

He thus notes the analogy god, but also related social rules and ritual J between the Hindu doctrine of the transmigration of the souls and those of Empedocles offering long excerpts in the original langua many later writers would emphasize Pythagoras, rather. This is, interestingly. Sloane The edition by Jarl l'ppsala, The historical valuc of Azevedo's observatious is howevcr ir- sages where Fmicio refutes the hrahminic religion.

T regular. This is particularly clear in his OW'Jl acc. He also provides details 1 Raichur by Rama Raja, the king's anny, the events leading to d11' hattlc of Talikota, the division of the had sailed to India in This rather disorderly report with a servation, but int: TI1e date of A confused and anadmmistic chronology, culminating with a stercotypcd description of.

Sloane , pp. The uniqt tinuc with Azevedo's linc of thought, spcculating that Tiruvalluvar c. TI1e pocm was re-discovered and translated vana, Rama hecomes jealous of Sita.

Is the fact that, for Fenicio, knowledge of gentile: He dcrstood Hindu bcliefs as a mere collection of irrational fablcs compara- le tradition is clearly a precedent of Nobili's ble to Ovid's Metamorphoses, and insisted on the dishonesty of many of these inventions, a g a historical interpretat.

Besides having a long expcrience in Cochin, Fenicio 1istorians including Ramusio' s collection at had spent many hours debating and acting as diplomat in the srnall new mission of Ca- entangle confusions, such as the "traces of the licut, opened by Pimenta like thc one at Vijayana.

He begins of a separate, fully idolatrous trinitarian the- witlt an account of the origins of the world and Hindu cosrnology, and then goes on he proposes a diffusionist theory of gentile with two very extensive treatments of Ixora. Shiva and the avatars of Vishnu on the atura! He thus notes the analogy god, but also related social rules and ritual practices. Fenicio does not shy away from igration of the souls and those of Empedocles offering long excerpts in thc original language, ami he seems to appreciate the poetic tagoras, rather.

This is, interestingly, the the- skills of '. This is particularly clcar when he discusses the Hamayana. Sluanl' The editiun by Jarl Charpentier, Lirro da seita dos Indios oril'ntai. Charpt'ntier's work. The date of Aptil is givcn by Fenicio in rhe middle of bouk ing with a stereotyped description of. Vishnu's eighth avatar Krishna.

VIII The fosuit discovery of Hinduism from ending the theological section of his treatise with a refutation of the doctrine of t11e volved not only serious study of the Sanskr transrnigration of the semis arnJ with an attempt to prove that 'Shiva.

Vishnu and fom1 of Christianity would he acccptable to t1 Brahma are not gods'. For example, ceptable as compatible with Christianity. His observations about the caste system. That and eleanliness, are however similarly ;;ketchy.

This was characterized Although Azevedo's account was similarly sketchy ami derivative. The fact that this work was later used bv Couto adds to its sumptions of Christian ethics especially the interest for the study of early oricntalism.

Between these da worldly aims. This provoked! For example, eeptahle as compatible with Christianity. Rubino was gusting customs, as far as the caste-conscious brahmins were concen1ed , ended up g brahmins and their customs than discussing needing to justify his own version of the religious meaning of the customs of the gentiles caste system.

That is, Femandes Trancoso became an orien-. We must bear in mind that Huhino's talist only to disprove Nohili's application of Thomistic thought to Hindu caste rules. This was characterized by a firm helief in the devil as an active! The Japanese missions, certainly the most sprctacular snccrss of the Jesuits in their first fifty years of activity in Asia, rapidly h there are two difforrnt versions: This was due to a natiw rc- ion Wlitten in the intervining period before , pub- action which first suggested itself in just as the first Japanese Christian cmhassy a' by M.

Betwcen these dates, the. Couto or his censors may havc fclt that to ligious orders who. Eventually the papacy was forced to deny the Jesuits the io, V.

On his 1 that this factionalism within the Catholic Monarchy was the presence, after , of the cornpanied by Laerzio, a serious crisis betwe,en Dutch and English Companies, willing to take over the Portuguese trade with China veloped, but of a different naturc. Vcnkata without requesting the right to preach in retum. Unlike in thc previous incident the context of local political change, and the decisive commercial-military challenge of vailed upon to simply accept sorne presents ar the northern Protestant nations, brought about a sharp decline of the Jesuit missions in fortified, was duly besiegcd by a huge anny.

As in Japan, the combination of these three had been negotiating for that right since elements was intricate and only a careful chronological analysis may allow us to disen- been diplomatically very active defending thi tangle their relative importance. On the one hand Philip 11 of Portugal ordered that monopoly in Coromandel against European c. These accusations, rep- fact, the agreement prc-dated Rubino's leav: Venkata, following tl Fontebona, accused by Viles of rnaking indecent pictures of gentile gods and of the king which included his favourite wife , had finall' playing erotic games in a pool with his wives.

Fontebona who of course simply re- play the Dutch agaim;t tl1e Portuguese. Whethi sponded to the rcquests of Venkata 11 was thus withdrawn to Madurai. Bis willingness to later in tween Philip's court and Venkata 11 - were takcn equally scriously. They clearly bore Pulicat suggests that any preference for the Di. However justified the criticism of Jesuit months.

Aral'idu dynas y, pp. The letter hy Viles is published in ibid. For sorne, pp. Stols, B. VerberckmOf's Madrid Ynasty, p. Thus, as Coutre also explained, thc Jesuits often procured elephants from Ceylon for altero vero 65 dierum spatio me inclusum detinuerunt Venkata ll, lcd by Father: Venkata lI allowed sorne of his relatives - the Gobburi retum. The town, as yet un- about a sharp decline of the Jesuit missions in fortified, was duly besieged by a huge army.

The mission at Vijayanagara, discontinued lowed closely from Venkata's agreement to allow the Dutch in Pulicat. In effect, the Dutch r. As in Japan, the comhination of these three had been negotiating for that right since In il, scandalous pursuits. These accusatfons, rep- fact, the agreement pre-dated Rubino's leaving the court, and furious emhassies from tonio Viles, were obviosulv slanderous, and we both European powers continued throughout tl1e year.

Fontebona who of course simply re- play the Dutch against the Portuguese. Whether the ailing ruler intended this as a tactical fas thus withdrawn to Madurai. They clearly bore Pulicat suggests that any preference for the Dutch was equally conditional.

Rather than the t. Rubino had he. C1ine lette1'1! Fontehona had ohviously not of the king of Portugal's instruction to have the Jesnits recalled. Quae in his carcerihus passus sim, Deus scit. In the provin- ter in compedes conjicenmt, humo iacere semper coegernnt, fa me interimere voluerunt, caput denique the General in Rome.

However, in a dramatic re- travel bevond India. In order to fight thc Dutch the Portuguese instcad seem to have relied Ricci's approach from his colleagucs then on links with tl1e opposing faction dominated by Velugoti Yachama Nayaka. This vicw was exaggerated, and scrvcd the viccroy cover his own in- ever no question of disobeying the General's e ability to outmanoemTe thc Dutch diplomatically or militarily.

Yet ag Chandragiri- Vellore and the Portugucse than with the Jesuits themselves. Vlard1 Frorn abont and until its dissolution in this Counril was largely dominated by the creasingly conflict-ridden Paravas of tl1e Fishc Comlt of Vidigueira. Dom Francisco da: Vasco da Gama. Gama signed many of the king's letters to the viceroy. What made those years so difficult was not "' According to Subrahmanyarn. Scrriio argucs tliat stantia ', in a letter of '. Baltirnore , p. Pedro, managed to attack and Thus, whcn Rubino first visited 1he island in t destroy the fort at Pulicat in !.

Howcver, an expedition from Coa in failed miserably. For Rubino iliis around, and against, Venkata's likely successor, was no longer simply the place where the bones of Saint Thomas the apostlc rested, 1; that of Ranga's eventual opponents, was led by but more poignantly also the location wherc in Francis Xavier, fceling no less ich had introduced the Jesuits to Venkata 11 ten an. However, in a dramatic re- travel beyond India. In reality, from Ruhino had also been hoping for a totally tablishment of the Dutch in that port - a direct new destination in the Far East, China.

Although he was , writing in There was how- rated, and served the viceroy cover his own in- ever no question of disobeying the General's orders. See Documentos remetidos da civilization had for him limited appeal, and where the project of converting a whole hao Pato, vol. The idea of military p III's Spanish favourite, the duke of Lerma, had a great 69 conquest now seemed to be closer to Portuguese minds. What made those years so difficult was not only the obvious waste of his intellectual e enterprise".

IV, p. In , m Vijayanagara now totally alienated from the Ponu- facing a rebellion in Kotte. When the Ponuguese foolishly re- 1 from Goa in failed miserably. In dw following sumed cuntlict against Kandy in , tl1ey suffcrcd a disastrous defeat.

Rubino was tl yond national rivalries, and affected a whole missionary vision and strategy. Paradoxi- possihilities. Not only, and most obviously, cally, when in Despite the tremendous background of a crumbling Ming empire, bi authority which visitors wielded, he was tired and disappointed and had little hope for explosion of the rites controversy.

Hubino's 1 his own possibilities, no less within bis own order than amongst the gentiles. Rubino in this sense turned towards a glorious martyrdom. And could they abandon their Japanese legacy of accommodation of Matteo Ricci, ar converts now that there was no longer a commercial calculation - the need to proteet previous commitment to Nobili's analogous the trade of Mac,ao - to hold them back?

A letter writtcn from Macao in October no effort to draw parallels. Despite the decline of t: Quite of- china. Rhodes owcd to Ruhino the opportunity to pu ten ncw arcas were opened up as others dwindled. E ven after the Dutch con quered Ceylon ami Malabar, policy as visitor to liberatc individual vocations frorn the Jesuits persisted in many arnas of South India and achieved lasting if minor snccess.

F'or details of clined towards - precisely the limitation which he l the evolution of the missions uf Sout11 India aud Ceylon see D. Ferroli, The Jesuits in Malabar, 2 vols. On Rubino's last trip from M Bangalore, More gcnerally D. Lach aud E. Rhodrs suggests that Rubino knew that Cod wanted " 1 have not Jocated any copy of this seven-volumc work, whieh may have been lost after Rnbino's to uuderstand.

The acwuut of Rubino's life by Ped death, but from his own e. Antonio Cardino based in Macao , Antonio Pereira procurator for the province of Cochin, and sire for martyrdom might have been selfish. Juan Bautista de Morales dell'orden de Santo O che mi fauno guerra, e pretendono che nessun italiano governi As rector in a succession retraced many of the steps of Francis Xavier, the great Jesuit apostle of the lndies who n, Rubino's authority often came to be curtailed had opened up Asia for the Jesuits in and who had been proclaimed a saint by 1Ssault on the ltalian Jesuits, however, went be- the Roman Church in Rubino was t.

The re- the afterlife when, ignoring the advice of many of his fellow-Jesuits, he made his dra- 1cial in Cochin for the Portuguese Pedro Fran- matic gesture of defiance against the Japanese authorities.

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Alexander of Rhodes, mis- atternpts to undermine the accommodationists. There even rhetorically clumsy defence of the Jesuit method of accommodation against the criticism o have him forcibly rcturncd from Macao when sometimes made public of the Spanish Dominicans. Rubino in this sense relied more on Jesuit literature Trigault's ;ould the Jesuits fail to emulate the courage of history, for example t.

And could they abandon their Japanese legacy of accommodation of Matteo Ricci, and they must have been strengthened by his 1 eomrnercial calculation - the need to protect previous commitment to Nobili's analogous position in South India, although he makes 1 A letter ' Titten from Macao in October no effort to draw parallels.

Rhodcs owed to Ruhino the opportunity to pursue Iris vocation in Vietnam. E ven after tite Dutch conquered Ceylon and Malabar, policy as visitor to liheratc individual vocations from the obligation to work in areas they did uot feel in- B and achleved lasting if minor success. Rhodes clearly 1Ceylon see D.

Tite Jesaits in Malabar. Asia in th. Rhodes suggests that Ruhino kuew that Cod wanted him to die clsewherc - as martyr in Japau. The acc. Juan Bautista de: Ruhino had re- ful sufforings to which he had he,en suhjected in Tan- ceived a copy of Furtado's 'Hespuesta', which he presumably took along in his trip to Manila, lt ye. VIII Tu.

Dominican Morales was already on his way to Rome he departcd Macao in on the grounds that the. Thc other, more 'probably' not supcrstitious, ami thus acccptablc to converts Nobili, more carefully, and historical analysis of gcntile civilizations would scck the evidcnce to establish beyond rcasonablc doubt that the thread wom bv membercd for his latest activitics in China arn brahmins was originally no more than.

Rubino also ap- nagara, which never left the Jesuit archives. By claiming that Chinese convcrts could scribed by Fernao Guerrciro and other Jesuit 1 legitimatcly perform a civil ritual, or Christian worshlp, within a gentile temple, Ruhino seventeenth century, was soon forgotten. Azevedo was plagii decided to set limits to accommodat. Vloraleb is logical if we considcr that the Spanish Jesuits had been attempting Malabar en Choromandel Domingo e de 8.

A brief discuss now in the: Abraham Rogerius's De open deure wt het, 8mall details revea! JS 15;. As Paul Rule has ernphasized wben analyzing the docurnent: Ruhino saw that it was whlch had survived and prospered against 1 impossihle to sav with cPrtainty that many Chinese cuotoms were free from superstition.

Hubino was coufident of the dian brahmin informcr, one Padmanaba. Th prospcrity of the Cbinese missions and did not calculate tlw impact of the controversy. V1orales Donald Lach and Edwin van Kley as 'the fii' was prohahly determined to ignore Jesuir explanations and reach directly to Rome. On Yloralei impa- 00 Hinduism available in Europe'. The Open tience see G.

Dunnc, Generation of Giants. The story uf the Jesuits in China in the last decades o. In bis aceount of thP comroversv J. Cummins misses this point: Rubino's '" Fenicio 's work was used in the third part, conet views cventually dicited a response from the lending Franciscan missionary in China. Antonio Cabal- daeus probablv wrotc in the carly s. Despite the publication in of and forth from Macao to Manila, prepared for Italian and French accounts of Rubino's glorious martyrdom, by the end of the century: The other, more pervasive and positive.

Ruhino would be re- CJJld reasonable douht that the thread worn by membercd for his latcst activities in China and Japan, but not for his account of Vijaya- l mark of social distinction. Rubino also ap- nagara, which never left. The mission at Chandragiri, repeatcdly de- tion'. By claiming that Chinese converts could scribed by Femiio Guerreiro and otl1er Jesuit puhlicists tlmmghout the first decade of the istian worship. However, thc accounts of Hinduism by Azevedo en civil and religious ceremonies adopted hy and Fenicio would have a significant impact in Europe as sorne of the earliest substantial urky terrain of double-entendres.

This placed af'.. A brief discussion of the key Dutch treatise on Hinduism, 1is manuscript are in a vcry poor state of conservation. Abraham Rogerius's De open deure lot het verbogen heydendom Amsterdam, , particular copy for his translation. Rogerius not unlike Nobili eralier repeatedly interviewed an lu- sort out their difforcnres. Hubino was coufident of the dian bralunin informer, one Padmanaha. The resulting work has recently described by calculate the impact of the controversy.

On Morales' impa- 80 Hinduisrn available in Europe'. Rubino's '" Fenicin's work was used in the third part, conccrning the idolatry of the East-lndian gentiles. Bal- ading Franciscan missionary in China. Antonio Cabal- daens probably wrotc in the carly s. The Leyden p Hinduism to reach the European puhlic.

A reader contemplating tliere could be salvation without Revelation, b the eight engraved images of the original title-page would have been able to rccognize with reference to a diffusionist theory and, m tlie representations of violently ascetic behaviour which had come to characterize the many of its elements resulted from die groping gentile idolatry of Eastern India in tlie European irnagination. Although trying to depict actual scenes, and probably based on real-life What was significant, however, in this imporu 81 sketches, thesc images were meant to be horrific and therefore fell within an existing tlie intellectual ideals of the antiquarian cultm tradition of alrnost stereotyped descriptions.

In effect this tradition went back to die tury, with its renewed hope for a universal pri Middle Ages of Odoric of Pordenone and its plagiarist John Mandeville, and had been which here led the editor to insinuate diat " maintained, but also transformed, by the testimony of sixteeml1 and seventeendi- doors of idolatrv was not onlv a false belief, as century travellers such as Ludovico de Varthema, Duarte Barbosa, Cesare Federici or the title-page of the French.

The idea t seventeenth ccntury a humanitarian sympathy for t11e plight of individuals who were of paganism was the basis for effective convers now pcrceived as victims of the priestly manipulation of superstition. Tite importan! The European reader, hy giving Caland, modero editor of Rogerius' Dutch names to idols and explanations to their peculiar shapes, could now assess the existence Andreas Wissowatius: Of course it was not the intention of Abraham Hogerius or bis editors ever omitted.

The primacy of thc Leyden professor and of his di: Mothe Le Vayer, who in his De la vertu des payens 'The virtue of thc pagans' of readv mature in GelehrsamkPit als praxis: The same comment is valid for narrative accounts: The important preface to the render is signed A. JCtus Lcyden. The European reader, by giving De open-dewY? The French translation by Sieur T. The signature A.

Iris Sketch

JCtus is how-. However, K. Zedehnaier and M. In particular, Iris cmphru;is on the 'empiri- eds.

For this reason. Rad1er, it was thc fruit of a cosmopolitan world accounts: In qu vct the editor went on to refer to 'the best part' of Pagan Theology, 'mysteries' and 'true elemosina fra gl' huornini, e fiorl il loro RamE foundations', even traces of thc GospcL hidden behind a cloak of fablcs. Who was really Ceilano, et uccisero Ravana, ch 'era un moltc inside a labyrinth?

E restando vittoriosi in gratiar waH introducing natural religion through the back door of a hermetic universalisrn. In , as a disappointed Jesuit sought martyrdom in Japan, two re- fiori il loro Damaputram, il quale c. The Jesuits of course continued to be active, especially as France emerged to nel quale si ritroviamo. E dicono che ha de d1 a position of leadership in Europe and took over much of the rnissionary work in Asia. Cio1 Pandya], i quali divisero il regno in tre part A.

Antonio Rubino's account of thc history and religion Zamorino. Ciolen fu re di tutta la ci Archivium Romanum Societatis lrsurn, rns.

A questi tre re successe C. A questi re furono succedendo altri, ir e vint'otto mill'anni; e in questo t. In a letter of: The other! The copy is probably an autograph. To my knowledge, the docnment has never bcen dc,;cribed or manuscript and deduce his author.

The addition seen published. In questo tempo dicono che regnava la verita et t part' of Pagan Theology. Furono a. E restando vittoriosi in gratiarnrn actionem edifico il tempio di Raman- he back door of a hermetic universalism.

Dicono di piu ch'in questo stesso tempo ted Jesuit sought martyrdom in Japan, two re- fiori il loro Damaputram. E dieono che ha de durare 4: H into Bogia Raiulu. Ciolen fu re di tutta la costa de Negapatam insin'a Bengala.

Final- 87 s. A questi tre re suceesse Gemhus flaiulu, doppo il quale regnarono Xalina-: A questi re furono succedendo altri, insin 'a tanto che regno Duodaha Rudaram, 10 danno ad intendere che parlava Dio in al quale succcssero Nabana PracsabaL Avia Raiulu. Aravidu dJ7u1sty, da succedere Xedasiva Raiulu [Sadashiva Raya], ma come che era fanciullo, sottestro in es and his linguistic researches make him the obvious suo luogo maliziosamente Ramaragiu [Rama Raja], zio del presente re.

Questo Rama- Vijayanagara in was tlw Florentiue Bartolomeo ragiu fi'1 molto valeroso e potente; conquisto le terre dclli re mori suoi vicini, arrivo in- t, nor edueated in tbeology. Tiir addition seems to prcsent a problem: Menava seco 4 cipalmentc resto affatto distmtta la cittii di mil'elefanti, 20 mila cavalli, e sey millioni di gente a piede.

Con questi si potente esscr- corte del re, et era 18 miglia di circuito, et h1 cito distrusse affatto le terrc delli vicini re mori. Al re Ramaragiu successe suo fratello Tri: Thomaso, dove palazzo. Tutto questo avvene nel tempo del vicere Don Constantino.

The belief expressed by vol. According to Couto. Couto suggests that the continuous ship of a semi-independent Ponugue. What Couto's story also reveals is that thc root of the relig- Venkata had tlms reigned 22 years, and must ious toleration of the l lindu rulers was an understanding of sovereignty as an all-encompassing tributary broadly corre.

In sharp contrast. Couto's official judgement of the event stands out both for its bigotry and its , after the death of Rama Haja. Menava seco 4 cipalmente resto affatto distrutta la citta di Visnagarano [Vijayanagara], che era la li di gente a piede. Con questi si potente esser- corte del re, et era 18 miglia di circuito, et hoggi di he fatta un hosco di ligri, come la 9: Resto di questo molto sentito citta che fu corte del re di Pegu. Al re Ramaragiu successe suo fratello Trimalaragiu, padre di questo re [i.

Passarono i tre re mori il fiume, et ordi. Ne he meno il diletto che sente in udir le cose di nostra santa fede che ordi- rti idoli, a quali dippoi di. Secundo il 1cudi d'oro, e subito diedero 50 nlila, promet- eostume del paese he maritado con cinque regine, se hene vive con una sola, la quale mpo, se bene insin'adesso non gl'hanno ancora he tutto il suo governo e fa quanto li pare e piace, ne il re ha ordine di contradirli in vicere Don Constantino.

What i: Rama Haja, having them combined annics of the kings of Toungoo and Arakan. In , when Hubino wrote. In Couto's story also reveals is that the root of the relig- Vcnkata had thus reigned 22 years, and must havc been born in 1.

VIII The Jesuit discovery of llinduism si perde non sara per non sapere le cose di nostra santa fede, ma per timore de suoi vas- elefanti, e cavalli. Qucsto re, con esser maritado come fanti, e 1, cavalli. Tutti questi capital anni, e si chiama Trimalaragiu [Tinimala Raya], et he il legitimo prencipe e succesore fortezze del re, senza pagarli tributo alchu del regno, e tiene il suo governo separa to e esta in Cirangapatnam [Srirangapatnam], in qualsivuglia guerra con tutti i suoi sol 97 lontano dal re miglia.

Questo he como il hraccio dir. In ricompensa di questo beneficio che il prencipe fece al naiche, li da ogni armo tanza. Di piu possiede 72 fortezzc fabricare in piano, delle quali la piu bella he questa di che ogni auno da a cantori, suonatori, mus1 Vellur,'"' fatta con tanta arte e hellezza, che compete con qualsivuglia fortczza d'Italia. Ha trc vassali che si chi- circa. Il primo ha due milioni Trina? Two of OLa Raya's daughters were fantL e cavali.

From to Coutinho rcported and fornier viceroy of Srirangapatnam. Two years latcr Vcnkata 11 moved his capital therc. Finalmente, il naiche di Gingia arma 10, huomini. Queslo re, con csser maritado come fanti, e 1, cavalli. Questo he como il braccio diritto del re nelle emprese di rnaggior impor- he il prencipe fece al naiche, Ji da ogni armo tanza.

Queilo ch'haveva qt1esto officio mori qucst. Ha tre vassali che si chi- circa. Ad alt. Questj t re naiclti sono da ogni anno altri 12 mila scudi;' ad un'altro suo cugino da altri 12 mila scudi.

WO ele- end of te reign. Tite ncw Dalavai was in rumala's power i11 the Ka11areoe viceroyalty, sup- Chenchu.

Tirumala Raja and Sri Ranga Raja. From to Coutinho reponed and forrner viccroy of 8rirm1gapatnam. Although Barradas says e mission of Chandragiri, whilst Coutinho and that Jagga Haja was the queen's father. Huhino's ohservation that Jagga Haja had rnarricd his daughter lo apital there. Seringapatam - possihle hcir - is intcresting.

VIII The Jesuit discovery of Hinduism Nella sua festa reale che fa ogn'anno alla luna nuova di Settembrc spende 40 mila una sortc di bramani chiamata vartomuncl scudi. Et avenne i giorni passati finalmente restituiscono! Ha di piit questo tempio due carret veniva eccelentemenete, per che e tale quale dicessirno.

Con tutto cio il re li tiene gran- l'altra per l'idolo istesso. L'altro tempio di qt dissimo rispetto, e se li soggetta fuor di modo per l'officio che tiene, stendendose e dambaram], che ha dieci rnila scudi d'enttJ postrandose per terra quando lo vede, restando sempre il!

L'entrate di questo infernal ministro, inimicissimo della fede di festa del carro, e mantiene cento e. A questo i giorni passati avenne un caso ha tre mila scudi d'entrata. Vellore and Gingee than to Tanjore. Ha fra questi centuries.

Madurai 'Madure'. Rama Raja had already had a spiritnal Timvrumaikovil in Srirangam mostly a 'layaka templ preceptor of the Vaishnava sect named Tatacharya. Having obscrved how a son succeeded a fatber, Ru- between Chnndragiri nnd S. Micli rat. Questi quando staillno in un luogo a cio apparechiati sta a vedere le avanti il re, per leggere overo disputare, s'assentano vicino a lui, favore che non fa ad 1que primi giorni, ch'appartegono al re.

Oba- altre persona nissuna, perche tutti i suoi parenti s'assentano dietro a lui, e tutti gl'altri del campo, naichi di Tangere e Gingia, cias- stanno in piede, solamente questi falsi ministri godino di questo privilegio. Et il giorno 'n le sue figure di molte inventioni.

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Havera da 70 in circa d'lspren mila bramani in circa, tutti poveri, a quali la [Isvara, i. Shiva], che per altro nomc si chiama Oriaven, et e il dio delli Malavari e: Canara, che portano al collo un'infame divisa che chiamano lingamo. Di questi tempi, il vestire saran da cento mila scudi ogn'ano, et maggiore he quello di Cangiveram [Kanchipuram], citta del naiche de Tangeur. Et avenne i giomi passati finalmente restituiscono!

Fanno ogn 'auno i!

Ogni mese una volta fanno la 1fernal ministro, inimicissimo della fede di festa del carro, e mantiene cento e 20 case d'elemosina. L'altro tempio he Calartin, che: A questo i giorni passati avenne un caso ha tre mila scudi d' en trata. However, Kauchipuram is closer to egno.

Vcllore and Gingee than to Tanjore. The idcntification of 'Trisilicrinna' and 'Trivitur' is more difficult. Questo idolo non si lava se non con l'acqua che roganti che vanno per le piazze e pigliano d1 portano dal fiume Gange de Bengala. Vishnu], he adorato dalla corte di gravi e richi legendo il loro libro, che chiarnf questo regno, dal re e da tutti gl'altri signori, che comunmente si chia. U tina per tempi dicendo se e!

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