TEFL courses in person and tutored those taking distance your lesson plan so that they can talk to you Putting Your Le Encyclopedia of African Religion. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA. Encyclopedia of religion / Lindsay Jones, editor in chief.— 2nd ed. p. cm. Fully updated edition! The new edition of the Dartmouth. Medal-winning Encyclopedia of Religion, published by Macmillan Reference USA,™ an imprint of Gale.
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The encyclopedia of world religions / Robert S. Ellwood, general editor; Gregory D. Alles, associate .. is the one on the Study of Religions (see RELIGION. PDF | of the,abstract conception,of selfhood,and,dogmatic rationalism found in In the Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (ERN) we set. BOOK REVIEWS The first edition of the ER appeared in under the editorship of Mircea Eliade, the preem- inent Romanian historian of religion whose aca-.
It is an intensive academic work, diverse and deep. Yet it is also eminently readable and very enlightening. Each article may stand on its own as a valuable essay, but taken together, the articles provide a comprehensive examination and introduction to the themes that will stand for years to come It will make an outstanding and valuable tool for anyone interested or working in anthropology, philosophy or sociology of religion, religious or environmental studies.
I thoroughly recommend it. Student essays ought to be greatly improved not only by the wealth of data provided, but also by the different examples set in "how to write academically". More advanced scholarship will find not only a ready reference on myriad topics but also provocation of new thoughts, arguments and research.
Great foundations are laid here for all kinds of scholarship. Religiously and environmentally motivated people will also find inspiration here for further thought and engagement. Superbly edited and carefully crafted, the ERN is essential.
Furthermore, its thoughtful design accommodates scholars with either a cursory interest in a particular subject or a more expansive one.
In these and other ways, this work offers considerably more than meets the eye. Summing up: Highly recommended. Protestants have less egalitarian attitudes about gen- It seems reasonable that such Manichean beliefs der roles in the family, and sectarian Protestant could also sustain support for the practice of tor- men perform less household labor than members ture against non-Christians, or for war against the of other religious groups.
However, denominational infidel, though, as Greeley and Hout note, such be- differences in female labor force behavior are less liefs are also fairly prevalent though significantly profound—particularly when compared to mainline and substantially less so among mainline Protes- Protestants, who also champion housewifery in their tants. Sectarian Protestants are also active in reli- lifestyles. Sectarian Protestants are no different from gious organizations, matching the participation rates other groups in their sexual behaviors, and are some- of African-American Protestants, and exceeding the what more likely than other religious groups to have commitment of mainline Protestants.
Notably, Greeley and Hout convinc- Religious beliefs bleed over into the social ingly show that all religious groups are becom- world.
Greeley and Hout shed light on conservative ing more conservative in their orientations toward Protestant opposition to science, skepticism about premarital sex, teen sex, and extramarital sex.
The theories of evolution, and their doubts about the exception is homosexuality, where attitudes have lib- efficacy of scientific endeavors. Greeley and Hout eralized for all religious groups with the exception demonstrate the importance of biblical fundamen- of Bible-believing sectarians.
Sectarian Protestants talism for structuring these beliefs. Denominational are more connected to family and support traditional ties can have varied influence, in part because of di- family orientations, including negative views of di- versity within denominations, and in part because of vorce; they are no different from mainline Protes- the weakness of nominal attachments in the absence tants, however, in terms of rates of divorce, and are of cognitive resources supportive of particular un- more apt to divorce than Catholics or Jews.
Biblical fundamentalism is interpreted The most important contribution of this book is by white sectarian Protestants to promote political the formidable presentation of the demographic dy- conservatism, opposition to euthanasia, support for namics of U. Greeley and Hout mandatory Christian prayers in school, and oppo- provide a well-reasoned and accessible account of sition to policies promoting racial equality.
Oddly, the projections and implications of results forged Greeley and Hout argue that subscription to sectarian in previous works.
I think of cognitive fundamentalism Mainline Protestants reduced fertility rather dramat- as providing a sociological explanation for rooted ically, while sectarian Protestants lagged even be- racism, sexism, and homophobia in white fundamen- hind Catholics in reducing fertility over the course of talist Christian subcultures. Greeley and Hout are the 20th century. With continued below-replacement certainly correct that this is not a necessary conse- fertility and the dying off of older cohorts in the quence of conservative Christianity, as evidenced by Protestant mainline, the authors provide a com- the varied stances taken by equally sectarian African- pelling recipe for a reduction of liberal Protestant American Protestants.
Oddly, they often use great effort to argue that sec- He notes that the growing pluralism in most mod- tarian conservatism is unimportant or politically ir- ern societies dictates that states find ways to relate relevant. Greeley and Hout are certainly correct that to religious interests of various kinds.
Not to do so sectarian Christians are diverse and hold varied opin- invites disorder, according to Edge. He presents a ions around the margins of many social issues. He then examines international a potential force in politics. He stitute 9 percent of voters voted for Bush in African Americans constitute So, white sectarian Protes- world.
The brief but insightful assessment of the le- tants are about as important to the Republicans as gal basis for dealing with religious interests in each African-American voters are to the Democrats. And, of the countries covered in his volume is a useful conservative Christian political success is quite evi- example of comparative legal study. Edge divides his stories into public school science books.
American analysis into sections dealing with religiously-based sectarian Christians are battling and winning, every- motives for disobeying generally applicable laws where outside of Iraq and Afghanistan, and the pros- such as those against drug use and refusals to take ecution of those wars are a victory for the sectarian required acts such as serving in the armed services crusaders—just as Christian anti-communist groups of a society or paying taxes.
He also discusses the successfully provided a much needed margin of sup- contentious issue of proselytization, which has been port for the Vietnam and Korean Wars.
By concept of entanglement. He contrasts situations as Peter W. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, He discusses such top- Peter Edge, a U. The volume covers ings in various societies, and disputes between re- a broad range of Anglophone jurisdictions, includ- ligious functionaries and their organizations. For Protestantism, and different strains of Judaism are scholars and others interested in this arena of study, included. An African-American perspective is miss- the volume will be a welcome addition to avail- ing, and even more problematically, no Muslim voice able resources.
The volume has a useful list of is heard in this intramural Judeo-Christian dialogue. Karen Jo Torjesen, for example, University of Nevada, Reno maintains that the real is located in the material and Reno, Nevada physical, discusses atonement theology, and argues for similarities between contemporary society and medieval culture.
Edited by J.
She draws attention to the Shawn Landres and Michael Berenbaum. Walnut physical suffering in a warrior culture in the medieval Creek: Altamira Press, Beal and Tod Linafelt.
Its orientation is toward the the rapid growth of scholarly writing in the field place of the film in contemporary society as a cul- of film and religion. The two books obviously took tural event and a part of popular culture. While also shape simultaneously among religious scholars in covering mainly theological topics in a number of the aftermath of the appearance of The Passion of the articles about the background and biblical sources Christ in , with even a few authors contributing of the film, this volume is most committed to exam- articles to both volumes.
The aims of the editors are ining the relationship between religion and popular not the same, however, and the results are of differing culture.
The contributors explore understandings of value. While some articles bury themselves ological interpretation of The Passion of the Christ, in details about exclusive Catholic interpretative lay- attending to the differing perspectives of and seri- ers and meanings of the film, other articles push for- ous exchanges between Christian and Jewish theolo- ward perspectives of the film that have far-reaching gians.
Especially for a non-American scholar, this relevance. She scape. The film, then, reflects hope that the different perspectives involved in this and reestablishes the Christian hegemonic moment volume allow a serious debate about controversies of the United States today.
America, bloody and violent.
The editors of After the Passion is Gone are In order to explore current ideas imbedded in well aware of the complexities of visual imagery as culture, several articles discuss theological perspec- the main language for many in society today and tives in ways that also target commercial Western they should be credited for gathering a wide range society.
William G. Little examines the idea of Je- of scholars to put The Passion in context. A little too sus as a figure who undergoes an extreme physical often this context is exclusively American, with all its makeover. This tering the body.
The nipping and tucking of the flesh, could attract not only Mel Gibson but anyone with a being a secular attempt to manipulate the impure certain kind of conservative religious affinity that has body to redeem the pure essence of inner ideal, is a suppressed reaction to present modernity—with all shaping the material surface of the body to match kinds of equal rights—and longs for a return to male the ideal of immaterial beauty.
In such a context, authority and paternal honor.
The publication of the Muhammad appearance. Precisely because of this contemporary character, however, there is a danger that entries that are contentious in themselves may well be superseded.
Jeffrey Kaplan's interesting piece on "Millenarian Violence: United States" closes: "Given the minute numbers of the faithful, the vast array of forces that could be mobilized against them, and the dearth of indisputable signs of the times, the small fraction of the millenarian community who might be attracted to violence remains content to wait, to watch, and to dream" p.
It may well be that this is overoptimistic. So may be Afe Adogame's hope for a genuine strand of democracy "irrespective of religion or ethnicity" to emerge in Nigeria p. This ends an interesting article on Nigeria. Its tone, however—"unprecedented bestiality. The volume has much to offer. The major omission is the lack of a lengthy introduction, or indeed any conclusion. The book closes on the entry "Zulu", more specifically on the role of religion in Zulu nationalism, but there is an unfortunate unfinished feel to it.
It would, for example, have been useful to have a systematic study of how far religions believed themselves permanently at war with diabolical and other hostile forces, ensuring that the standard definition of "war