Solar tracking system pdf


PDF | The generation of power from the reduction of fossil fuels is the biggest In this context solar tracking system is the best alternative to increase the. PDF | This thesis proposes an algorithm for detection of the position of All the works of solar tracking system performed up to these days are. system is required which should be capable to constantly. rotate the solar panel. The Automatic Sun Tracking System (ASTS) was made as. a prototype to solve.

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Solar Tracking System Pdf

There are two main solar tracking systems types that depending on their movement Azimuth degrees of freedoms are single axis solar tracking system and dual. Solar Module's Performance and Solar Tracking System. 8. Solar URL: Accessed Abstract- “ Solar Tracking System” is a power generating method from sunlight. This method of power generation is simple and is taken from natural resource.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. Keywords: solar orientation, solar position, sun sensor algorithm, sun tracking system 1. Introduction Solar energy systems have emerged as a viable source of renewable energy over the past two or three decades, and are now widely used for a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Such systems are based on a solar collector, designed to collect the sun's energy and to convert it into either electrical power or thermal energy. The literature contains many studies regarding the use of solar collectors to implement such applications as light fixtures, window covering systems, cookers, and so forth [ 1 - 6 ]. In general, the power developed in such applications depends fundamentally upon the amount of solar energy captured by the collector, and thus the problem of developing tracking schemes capable of following the trajectory of the sun throughout the course of the day on a year-round basis has received significant coverage in the literature. For example, various schemes have been proposed for optimizing the tilt angle and orientation of solar collectors designed for different geographical latitudes or possible utilization periods [ 7 - 8 ]. In , one of the first automatic solar tracking systems [ 10 - 13 ] was presented by McFee, in which an algorithm was developed to compute total received power and flux density distribution in a central receiver solar power system [ 10 ]. By subdividing each mirror into elements and summing the contributions of all elements, the sun position could be determined with a tracking error tolerance of 0.

Since the suns position in the sky changes with the seasons and the time of day, trackers are used to align the collection system to maximize energy production. Several factors must be considered when determining the use of trackers. Some of these include: the solar technology being used, the amount of direct solar irradiation, feed-in tariffs in the region where the system is deployed, and the cost to install and maintain the trackers. Solar panels are usually set up to be in full direct sunlight at the middle of the day, facing south in the Northern Hemisphere, or facing north in the Southern Hemisphere.

Therefore morning and evening sunlight hits the panels at an acute angle and reduces the total amount of electricity which can be generated each day. A solar tracker is a device onto which solar panels are fitted which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky, thus ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day.

When compared to the price of the PV solar panels, the cost of a solar tracker is relatively low. We provide highly efficient, proprietary single and dual axis solar tracking systems. Make the all connection on the PCB Board as given in the circuit diagram. Assemble and solder all the components as given in the circuit diagram. Check the Continuity of the tracks on the PCB board with the help of Multimeter setting on the continuity mode.

Check the Voltage on the all IC pins with the Mulitimetre by setting multimeter on the 20v dc. Check the serial communication on the PCB board by using serial cable with the pc by hyper terminal or using Terminal Software. To in- in Fig. The or- plications []. Khalifa and Al-Mutawalli [] showed dual-axis ientation of the PTC to rotate on the sun direction using a voltage di- solar tracking system on a parabolic concentrator to improve the vider circuit, whose each part contains LDR and a protective resistor, thermal of it where the tracking system is designed to track the sun are shown in Fig.

Abu Khader et al. The system was microcontroller and LDR to control the movement of the solar panel. Gama et al. Experimental system A angular sensor, B pyramidal supports of sensors [59]. Abadi et al. Sensor geometry along with incidence angles [59]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 91 — with dual-axis orientation considered.

Two DC motors 12 V are used to actuate and move the two axes in addition to control the movement of the two axes by the two angular sensors, as shown in Fig. For changing and dusting the direction of the sensor tracked the sun, an angular rotation was used besides maintaining the articulation axis horizontally.

Moreover, a pyramidal sensor is used as shown in Fig. The two light dependent resistors resistivity is measured by a digital multimeter in each angular position case [59]. An analog control circuit intends to move to the next position when the sensor signal triggered on the frame.

Schematic of sun position sensor [37]. As mentioned, Microprocessor and electric-optical sensors is the most widely used not only in active tracking but also in all tracker types in general.

It is also shown that this type is also widespread in Photovoltaics applications [21,37,47,56,59,62,64,—,] and few studies in applications related to parabolic concentrators [27,]. Some scholars directed their interest to study this type by implementing it on dual-axis tracking systems using two electric motors as actuators [56,59,64,,,,] while others focused on investigating one- axis tracking using microprocessor and electric-optical sensors to ac- tuate only on DC motor [21,27,37,47,].

Furthermore, some researchers studied this type of Fig. The tracking system using two opposite position sensors [40]. LDRs are showed with their system []. Bentaher et al.

The accuracy of the system This system is one of active tracking system types. The bifacial solar was determined with respect to the angle between the two LDR, and the cell senses and, then, drives the motors to the correct position of system, optimal angle between photo-resistors estimated numerically and ex- where the driver is a permanent magnet DC motor and the solar cells perimentally.

Karimov et al. Components of the solar tracker: The focus of fed from a DC supply with a power converter. PLA chip [40]. Gordon et al. Salawu four-phase, reluctance stepper motor RSM. The system used a reluctance stepper motor RSM , which and solar tracking system of solar cells. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 91 — actuator operates as a heat engine during the thermal cycles. The best geographic locations to use the solar passive tracking systems near the equator due to the minimum variation in azimuth and elevation angles, high solar irradiance, and it can be useful to both high power generation and isolated applications.

Moreover, in case of bad and adverse weather conditions, the tracking system is not propped. Parmar et al. Central part of the gravity based sun tracking system, consisting of a without motors, gears, and control circuits where the gravity turns the semicircular steel pipe having a long slit, a spring, a vertical bolt and a nylon tracker, using the heat from the sun to move liquid from one side to the chord [23].

This passive solar tracking system sensors based. I presents the full design of the passive solar [40,,] and other literature studied the driving system based on tracking system with two metal canisters that are mounted on the both dual axis tracking [99]. The number of sensors considered in literature sides of the PV modules frame and kept connected together with a metal is also varying; some considered four solar modules as sensors located pipe.

Then the panel can rotated for tracking the 5. II shows the four working mechanism processes of Passive tracking system is one of the solar tracking systems which the passive solar tracker: When one of the canister faced to the sun more period than the to the change in path of the sun with time. The shifting weight of the liquid causes the rack to rotate from the highest incidence reservoir to the smaller one.

The passive until the canisters are equally shaded.

Another passive night in the same position until the morning of the next day. The pas- tracking system is developed using shape memory alloy SMA based on sive solar tracking system consists of main components as shown in axis actuators by Poulek in , where SMA deformed at low opera- Figs. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 91 — not need any external power source since the tracking power was drawn from the gravitational potential energy stored in a spring.

The proto- type performance was analysed in addition to experimental results. This system inserted inside the steel pipe, which is curved. The system shown in Fig. When the top can rotate with respect to the bottom due to the pipe section of the top of the tracking system inserted into the bearings of the bottom of the tracking system.

The curved steel pipe is installed horizontally through three struts on the bottom. The tracking system contains a Fig. The direct incident intensity of light on the horizontal surface is I [23]. In addition, the nylon chord connected to a water container and an intravenous drip set added to control the rate of water discharged, which added to the bottom of the water container. The vertical bolt top canisters. Canisters or cylinders, which coated with black color for end connected to the steel rod, which is moveable through the slit in the getting best heat transfer and made from stainless steel, where the both steel pipe and inserted inside a loose hole in the rectangular wooden canister connected together with pipe.

When the temperature changes, board top. Neagoe et al. Peterson and Gray [29] search articles published as shown in Fig.

Btech eee major project report on automatic solar tracking system f…

Coot-tha, Queensland, Australia in order to furnish garden by sun rays volatile liquids [14,] and using gravitational potential irrigation through dryness conditions. In addition, myriad applications has view of the passive solar tracking system at Sudan []. The inate the need of usual manual solar tracking.

The novel method does Fig. Semi-passive solar tracking concentrator encompasses a micro-heliostat array, a Fresnel lens and a receiver []. Semi-passive solar tracking concentrator formed by two prisms arrays and a Fresnel lens [61]. The solar dryer used in drying experiments; a Pictorial view, b cross-section view [38].

Regarding the receiver, it plentiful advantages of using it instead of using the complicated systems is kept stable and stable placed on the lens focus, and, as a result of that utilize control circuits, sensors, gears, motors and so on. Semi-passive tracker centrator SPSTC for tracking the sun through two independent arrays of acrylic prisms.

The prisms applied to refract sunlight by the means of A semi-passive tracking system is a technique where the solar rotating said prisms for redirecting solar beams as required. The system is methyl methacrylate PMMA prisms, the received solar beams re- consisted of a micro-heliostat array, a Fresnel lens and a receiver.

According to the Fig. As a result, the resultant ray will leaves perpendicular to on the next day sunrise. This type of compact that tracks position of the sun by computing hourly azimuth angle lens focuses and concentrates solar energy in a smaller area [61]. As mentioned, the substantial during emergency as shown in Fig.

The systems studied by re- using an optical sensor azimuth sensor and halogen lamp as an searchers mainly use either micro-heliostat array [] or two layers of equivalent of the sunlight. Active tracking Fresnel lens aiming to reduce the mechanical system movements. Manual tracker To conclude, the manual tracker system is not a widespread type of tracker systems through the literature similar to the semi-passive one.

Few studies focus their re- maintenance. The performance of 5.

This tracking system is a typical open loop control tracker Choi et al. The laboratory- [31]. Sidek et al. In addition, the microcontroller based tracking system em- shown in Fig.

The experiments acted to the solar panel for 5 bedded with a PID controller. Design and development of a solar thermal mainly on the chronological data inserted into the system to allocate collector with single axis solar tracking mechanism. Design and implementation of PLC-based automatic shade the light on implanting this type of tracking system on single axis sun tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrator.

Solar tracking system with momentary tracking based system to study the performance of this tracking drive type [66]. Direct tracking error 6. Conclusion characterization on a single-axis solar tracker. Energy Convers Manag ; Optical losses due to tracking The conclusion from the literature review that solar tracking sys- error estimation for a low concentrating solar collector.

Renew Energy ; Design and implementation of a laboratory-scale categories based on the tracking technologies, namely, active tracking, single axis solar tracking system. Passive solar tracking system. Int J Emerg which developed over the past 50 years. The most conclusion points as: Technol Adv Eng ;5: Optical performance of an azimuth tracking linear Fresnel tracking systems. Sol Energy ; Thermal load based adaptive power output increases covers by the cost increases also.

Energy Procedia ; The active tracker is major type used in Leon A. A photovoltaic solar tracking system with bidirec- cost.

Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor

A study on development of azimuth angle where Azimuth and altitude tracking achieve Adv Sci Technol Horizontal tracking by Design of single axis solar tracking system at tracking by 4. Proceedings of the 5th Brunei International Conference Eng. BICET Experimental study of desalination technologies and timer-based solar PV tracking system. Renew [23] Farooqui SZ.

A gravity based tracking system for box type solar cookers. Energy ; Laboratory-scale single axis solar tracking system: Linear and implementation. Procedia Eng ; Fuzzy control based solar tracker using arduino uno. Power analysis of non-tracking PV system with low Innov Technol ;2: Design and realization of a novel Proc An experimental comparison Notes Electr Eng Case study in east coast Malaysia.

Design and experimental execution of a Bangkok, Thail; Desalination ; A multipurpose dual-axis solar tracker with two Optimized use of solar renene. Procedia Technol ;4: Energy Environ Res ;2: Building integration of con- tracking system to monitor solar PV panels. Energy Convers Manag centrating solar systems for solar cooling applications. Conference ; Polygeneration, , p.

Design and im- Rotating prism array for solar tracking. Energy plant. IFAC Proc Procedia ; Proceedings 2nd [35] Tomson T. Discrete two-positional tracking of solar collectors. Renew Energy South.

African Sol. J Renew Energy Microcontroller based smart solar tracking system. GPS based portable dual-axis solar tracking system using astronomical equation.

J Food Eng ; Comparison of the optics of non- stoves. Solar tracking with photovoltaic panel. Energy solener.

Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

An intelligent fuzzy based tracking controller programmable logic array PLA controller. Autom Constr ; Performance of dual-axis solar tracker versus et al. Comparison of performance and cost efectiveness of solar water heaters at static solar system by segmented clearness index in Malaysia.

Energy Convers Manag Hybrid strategy for [42] Radajewski W. Water-driven solar tracking mechanism. Energy Agric bi-axial solar tracking system. J Control Eng Technol ;2: A microprocessor controlled solar tracking system.

J using AVR microcontroller. Int J Sci Eng Res ;3: Microcomput Appl ; Optimal heliostat system using hybrid type Novel high accurate sensorless dual-axis solar tracking system con- ; An Energy ; A preliminary study on the 2- Spain.

Appl Energy ; Energy A novel prediction algorithm for solar angles using solar [46] Njoku HO. Upper-limit solar photovoltaic power generation: Sol Energy tracking collectors in Nigeria.

Design of one axis three target-aligned heliostat for solar tower power plants. Renew Energy position solar tracking system for paraboloidal dish solar collector.

Mater Today ; Proc ;3: Design, construction and operation of [48] Vijayalakshmi K. Designing a dual axis solar tracking system for maximum power. Economical design of a two-axis tracking system for solar cooker with automatic two axes sun tracking system.

Appl Energy collectors. Power Gener. Conference RPG , London, , ; Supervisory control developed for a solar tracking [50] Bhaskar K, Yuvaraj K. Int J Eng Dev Res ;4: Tracking collector consideration of tilted with a solar tracking system. Tracking two-axis degree freedoms based on picture processing of bar shadow. Renew strategy for photovoltaic solar systems in high latitudes. Energy Convers Manag Energy ; Experimental and numerical studies of a U-shaped solar application in improving tracking accuracy of solar collector.

The realization of a simple solar tracking Increasing of electrical energy with solar tracking system at the http: Robust variance control algorithm for the dish solar 92 U. Annual economic performance of a solar-aided MW coal- ment. Renew Sustain Energy Rev ; Appl Therm Eng ;