comments, and editorial insight. It has been many years since my first aquarium, but my love and respect for the marine environment and its inhabitants have. 67 guide Saltwater aquariumsSuccessful setup Natural care Contents The sea: An incredible living world 3 W. Saltwater aquariums for dummies pdf. Saltwater Aquariums For Dummies Gregory Skomal Publisher: For Dummies Release Date: ISBN.
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Is your aquarium stand and floor able to withstand the weight of your reef ( approx. 10lbs per gallon). •. Ambient sunlight can fuel algae growth. Reefs by. There are so many saltwater tank Internet forums today that I've lost count of .. Aquarium Conference of North America (MACNA), Marine Aquarium Expo. Saltwater Aquariums For Dummies, 2nd Edition (pdf download). Gregory Skomal, PhD. Demystifies aquarium setup and maintenance. Combine and care for a.
Chapter 7: Figuring Out Filters. Chapter 8: Heating and Lighting Your Aquarium. Chapter 9: Fishy Furnishings and Finishing Touches. Chapter Partial to Salt: The Brackish Aquarium.
Getting Your Aquarium Up and Running.
Part III: Taking Proper Care of Your Aquarium. The Nitrogen Cycle. More Chemistry: Salt, Acidity, and Gases.
All About Algae. Keeping Your Aquarium Clean. Part IV: Taking Proper Care of Your Fish.
Feeding Your Fish. Preventing Stress. Diseases and Treatments. Observing Your Fish. Part V: The Part of Tens. Ten Fish to Avoid. Ten Invertebrates to Avoid.
Five Simple Metric Conversions. Ten Great Public Saltwater Aquariums. Part VI: The chart included in the test kit makes it easy to determine the level of free ammonia by comparing the measured value and the pH value.
If the concentration of free ammonia is above 0. The next step in the nitrogen cycle is the biological conversion of ammonium into ammonia, and then into nitrite by Nitrosomonas bacteria. For this to happen the bacteria need oxygen. Therefore, this is called an aerobic with oxygen process.
Nitrite is highly toxic to fish and invertebrates. Increased ammonium, nitrite, or nitrate levels result from mistakes or improper aquarium maintenance. Another cause could be an insufficient surface area for useful bacteria to colonize. Check the nitrite level of the aquarium water with the sera nitriteTest. If the value exceeds 0. The nitrogen cycle Lower the ammonium and nitrite levels with sera ammovec.
Nitrate is considerably less toxic than ammonia and nitrite.
The biological decomposition of nitrite by Nitrobacter bacteria leads to nitrate. Also, at this stage the bacteria need oxygen to thrive. Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter bacteria live in all the oxygen-rich zones of the aquarium, which include the upper gravel layers, the filter, and the live rock surfaces.
From this we see that oxygen-rich water is important not only for the fish and invertebrates, but at the bacterial level as well. Check the nitrate level in the aquarium with the sera nitrate-Test. Nitrate breakdown can take place only in oxygen-poor zones. There the bacteria take oxygen from the nitrate. This is called an anaerobic without oxygen process. This final step produces harmless nitrogen gas that escapes into the atmosphere.
The biological breakdown of nitrate is achieved by a slow flux filter with sera siporax. Saltwater that is prepared with sera sea salt begins with the correct calcium concentration, but is nevertheless constantly lowered by regular, necessary consumption.
The calcium level in saltwater can easily and safely be determined by using the sera calcium-Test. Unlike kalkwasser, sera calcium plus affects neither the pH value nor the trace elements.
Replenish consumed magnesium according to aquarium requirements with easy-to-dose sera magnesium plus.
Use the sera magnesium-Test to monitor the exact magnesium level. Saltwater that is freshly prepared with sera sea salt contains all the trace elements that are important for your marine life. Although the level of these trace elements are very low example: manganese 0.
Protein skimmers, along with natural consumption, eventually reduce the level of trace elements.
Stony corals and other invertebrates need strontium, besides calcium, to build-up their calcareous skeleton. Regular addition of sera marinvit plus ensures the ideal supply of strontium for corals and other invertebrates.
It contains all the trace elements, in the biologically correct amounts, that are necessary for keeping and breeding ornamental marine algae and invertebrates. Invertebrates With a good maintenance routine, invertebrates are rarely affected by disease. Furthermore, the symbiotic algae that live in the tissues of the coral Zooxanthellae die and as a result the coral also dies.
These parasites could be miniscule and possibly come out only at night. Planarians are flat white or red worms of approximately 5 mm 0. They can harm anemones, corals and other vertebrates with their excreted slime. These worms can be siphoned-out of the aquarium by means of a flexible tube. Sometimes it is useful to place a strong flashlight above the 28 aquarium at night. Many planarians assemble in the light and they are much easier to remove.
Watch invertebrates thoroughly before downloading them! Small, brownish-red, oval spots are usually planarians.
Bristle worms Polychaetes are actually carrion eaters, and will eventually nibble on mushroom anemones and stony corals. Furthermore, they tear their prey away from them and, in doing so, often injure these sessile immobile animals with their sharp jaws.
It is possible to attract Bristle worms with fish meat and then catch and remove them. As they are mainly active at night, this procedure should be carried out in the dark.
Be careful: Do not touch these worms. The bristles break off and may cause skin inflammations! Small bristle worms hide in the gravel during daytime and can be removed by siphoning off a larger quantity of the gravel approx. Usually, this is sufficient to remove these Polychaetes from time to time.
What to do if a marine animal gets sick? Many snails nibble on sea anemones, corals, and other invertebrates. In a reef aquarium every snail should be carefully removed with a pair of tweezers. Some snails feed exclusively on sessile invertebrates. If disease does occur, sera has a line of support products that are safe and reliable to use. The most frequent and disturbing diseases that affect marine fish — and the recommended care for your fish while ill, are described below. Predatory shrimp species, for example marbled shrimps different Saron species , can literally cut up anemones.
These animals, which are active at night, should be siphoned off with a flexible tube or removed with a pair of tweezers. Parasitic diseases caused by micro-organisms such as bacteria, or unicellular parasites, can only occur after preliminary damage has been caused by a chemical, such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide, or phosphate, and they are almost never observed in well maintained aquariums. The parasitic Oodinium ocellatum Velvet, or Coral Fish disease , in saltwater, attacks the gills before migrating to the skin — often leaving the fish unable to pass sufficient oxygen to breath.
Copper-based products, used carefully, such as sera oodinopur have been effective — although copper must never be used in aquariums with invertebrates. Apply only in a quarantine tank. Use sera cyprinopur according to the instructions for symptoms of white spots of up to 1 millimeter in diameter and strong scraping movements of the fish. As many invertebrates do not tolerate treatments, we recommend caring for your fish in a quarantine aquarium.
Illness can considerably weaken a fish.