Your Brain on Food How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings Gary L. Wenk, PhD Departments of Psychology and Neur. Cartoon Animation by Preston Blair. Pages·· MB·7, Downloads. is the starting point to a world of exciting cartoon animation. Learn & Enjoy. ANIMATION by PRESTON BLAIR. LEARN. HOW TO DRAW. ANIMATED. CARTOONS. PUBLISHED BY WALTER T. FOSTER.
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Preston Blair - Cartoon Animation - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online. by PrestOn Blair. WALIER 1।। can be an exciting experience to create and develop an original cartoon character. to a world of exciting cartoon animation. FOSTER. LEARN HOW TO DRAW ANIMATED CARTOONS Preston Blair, Cartoon Director, is one of the fine artists of Animation. Associated with the Disney.
This chapter includes excellent practice exercises to help develop an understanding of timing in the animated sequences. The poses and extremes shown on pages - are simple, but excellent, examples. Overlapping actions, holding poses, and other movements, as shown in the exercises involving the sheriff, the dancing girls, the hippo, and the alligator, are valuable examples of the highest-quality professional animation.
Other actions included in this chapter are the "take" a surprise expression , straight-ahead and rhythm animation, balance and tilt in movement, and arcs, curves, and paths of action. The movement of legs, arms, and hands, and the anticipated movement or actions are covered in the section entitled "The Wave Principle.
The chain reaction of waving actions is extremely important to character movement. Changing the speed of the animated movement, along with expressing attitudes, emotions, gestures, and reactions, can all be combined and fitted to your character.
Chapter 3 - Page Chapter 4 - Introduction. Dialogue, mouth movements, body movements, and facial expressions all work together to portray the correct animation of the character.
The examples on pages are a great beginning for turning your character into an actor. Although it is interesting when your cartoon character simply walks across the screen, making it speak with the proper mouth movements and adding the gestures that go along with them turn the character into an actor with a distinctive personality.
This is when the real excitement of animation begins. Mouth movements used in dialogue make the character seem alive, and the dialogue delivery develops the personality of the character.
In addition, the information on scientific phonetics is invaluable. Included are diagrams showing mouth positions, along with a thorough explanation of how sounds are made using the throat, tongue, teeth, and lips. Schedule diagrams showing timing and duration of sounds, along with explanations of what sounds are nasal, throat, or explosive, are covered.
Study the charts and the mouth drawings, paying close attention to the studies of the consonant sounds, the vowel sounds, and the diphthong vowel sounds. By studying this entire chapter, you can make your character say anything you wish, while creating the personality you had in mind when you first designed it. Chapter 4 - Page Chapter 5 - Introduction.
This chapter includes clear explanations of many technical topics: The storyboard and script are the foundations for the rest of the animation. Methods of synchronizing dialogue with character actions and gestures and camera positions are shown on a single chart that ties them all together into smooth, progressive animation.
Cycles of planned animation and limited animation cutouts that can save a great amount of time on certain types of animation are shown on pages The use of background pans, overlays, and cels is also explained. Pointers on how to set up and build your own animation studio and camera compound are shown and discussed on page You can make your studio as elaborate as you wish, but a well-functioning studio can also be constructed economically.
Of course, the camera is the most expensive part of the venture, but the camera "truck" is easy to construct. The most critical part of this construction is that all of the angles between the camera and the filming surface compound top be accurate so that no distortion occurs.
This chapter contains all of the vital information needed to get you underway in your studio to develop and produce your own animated film cartoons. Chapter 5 - Page The animator is the "actor" of the film cartoon. The actor must learn the craft, such as how to walk or move with meaning, to never pause unless there is a reason, and if there is a pause, to pause as long as possible. He must also decide whether to jump into a hold or to cushion into it gradually, when to "freeze" a hold or when to keep up subtle secondary actions to give it a "breath of life", when to start small actions during the hold that anticipate the following move, when to move the eyes to anticipate coming movement, and, finally, after such anticipation, when to jump out of a pose or when to slowly move out.
Such is the craft of the art. The swings and ticks of a metronome can determine the exact speed of the frames of a walk, a run, or any action you visualize. Set the arm at 8 frames and act out a fast walk or run with your fingers. You may then decide that 12 frames are closer to what you need. Make frame-count marks, as shown above. Then check the clock so thirty frame ticks fit in fifteen seconds. To check the look of even speeds, place your pencil over a straight field, as in figure 12 below simply a line divided evenly by Then move the pencil back and forth, from one end of the field to the other, at a frame tick metronome set at 54, which equals 24 frames per second.
By doing this, you can visually check the look of an even speed. From this test, you will find that it takes one frame lick to move across 12 inches. The pendulum pattern figure 1 is evenly spaced. This pattern occurs in leg and arm movements in walks and runs. The unevenly spaced figures figures 2 and 3 change the action considerably. Figure 2 is slow-out, slow- in, slow-out, etc.
Figure 3 is either slowout, fast-in, slow-out, etc. Figures 4 through 11 are actions of the head or body in walk and run cycles. The recoil drawing is at the base. When lime is spent around this, the weight is accentuated and the creature simply cannot seem to get off the ground.
When the high drawing is accentuated, the creature is so lightweight that he bounces up, floats, and scarcely touches the ground. Walks with character usually have uneven spacing.
Figures 4 and 6 are for heavyweights. A lightweight deer would bounce and float like figures 5 and 7. Recoil is bottom, rise to the left midway up, high on top, and contact midway down on the right. Any of these four positions can be accentuated in timing to create character.
In figures 10 and 11 the head or the body and the head are moving from side to side in the walk or run action on a pan. Reverse the direction on these or on figures 8 and 9 and you will get a different character. Often, the best way to move is simply in a straight line as in figures 12 to All patterns may be better when evenly spaced in various accents.
Figure 19 happens constantly in live action. A hand and arm move in an arc, then suddenly jump to a different arc as the result of another body action accent or jerk such as a kick. On figure 21, a hand and arm or an entire character comes back in anticipation, moves fast, then violently stagger-stops. Figures 22 to 26 are some of the many stagger actions for takes, stops, collisions, crashes, etc. An evenly spaced series of drawings can be a stagger action: The filmed result and meaning of a spaced move depend on 1 actual measurement, 2 relation to the field size, and 3 relation to the size of the character.
The animator has a specific action to do in a certain time or number of frames. From experience he knows how specific patterns of spacing will work when they measure and path the actions in the character. He often charts a pattern in advance, but these patterns are usually inherent in the animation structure and they evolve intuitively during animation. A puppet moves as the strings are adjusted.
An animated character moves according to spaced-move patterns in the actions. When the animator starts a scene, you can check the looks of even speeds by moving your pencil back and forth across a field as timed by a metronome.
You can figure it out: My advice to the beginner is to first try to develop a sense of timing by animating and film testing a large and a small circle in various speeds in the patterns outlined throughout this book. Then study the action of the patterns and learn to adjust the spacing of the animation to create the exact character action for the specific scene.
You can then plan the timing so your animation will do whatever you visualize. You will learn to think of animation in a series of motion picture frames and how to register takes, gestures, actions, and poses. As shown above, a small move on a small circle has the same relation to the circle as a large move on a large circle.
A large move on a large held appears the same on film as a small move on a small field. Each scene is described in the script for picture and sound. Layout drawings based on the storyboard are made of the background and key character positions. Each frame, foot, and scene has a number. Each music beat, action accent, word sound, and timing detail also has a number.
For a drawing to appear "in sync" with a sound accent, the drawing should be exposed two or three times before the sound. Some animators allow for this, but most animate to the same frame as the sound, then shift the entire film two or three frames ahead of the sound track during editing.
Sound accents can be "hit" by any radical change in picture timing, such as sudden starts or stops, jumps, and action reversals or freezes. Sudden slow spacing or wide spacing in a continuous action can accent a sound.
Accents on walk and run cycles come at the recoil-bottom or high point drawings. Most action and dialogue can be on 2s. When the action is fast with wide spacing, use 1s to avoid too wide, jumpy spacing. The four cels over the background in cartoon films allow four action levels. Also, parts of a character can move on one level 12A- E, as shown on the production sheet "The Lost Kitten" below , while the other parts are held on the next level TV bar sheets as shown above have one foot 16 frames per bar.
Theatrical music bar sheets vary in bar length to fit the musical mood of the film. Dialogue and music are planned in these bar sheets with a stopwatch. Music is then composed and recorded with dialogue and the scene timing may have to be adjusted to fit.
Adjustments and changes are a constant in animated films. The animator must time his acting to plan the number of frames for each action. Some watches have footage scales. A second hand on an electric clock, a metronome, or live-action film research can also be used for scene timing. When the foot is placed on the ground in a pan scene, it moves with the pan moves, as in those indicated on this page below.
The "pan" in this case is the movement of the background while the character is walking in the middle of the scene. The background art is moved a precise distance as required by the character action.
For example, the background would be moved more slowly for a walk than for a run. Consequently, foot contact on the background and speed of movement must be precisely coordinated by using the methods shown at the left below. These moves are related to a stationary centerline. The body and all the parts move in paths of action, these are the usual patterns.
The action can move in either direction. As in life, cycles have countless variations, and you can exaggerate or subdue any position or move. Never move a character without meaning. Bring out a gesture, mannerism, or story mood in every cycle.
Two of the cycles below are combined in a double-bounce-strut. Notice the cocky gesture at high points. It is a series of closely related drawings, no time is lost in going to the opposite step gesture. Funny walks can "make" a film. It is used to produce the considerable film footage of a television cartoon series.
A change of pace results from the use of full animation in critical actions of the story and the use of limited animation in dialogue with bursts of full animation for important gestures.
Animation, backgrounds with overlay backgrounds, and camera fields and trucks are planned for use in many combinations. Thus, the production work gets more "mileage. Such animation can be used in the field center with a moving pan as the background. The same cels placed on moving pegs can move the character through a still background scene. The same cels can also walk into another background, stay centered as the background moves, and then move out when the background stops.
On the other three cel levels in the animation scene, other cycle characters can move at a different speed, in any direction. It is especially adaptable to the type of characters illustrated on page The dialogue system is often more elaborate, as seven heads up and down and seven heads in a sideways move, all around a centered head. Laughs and giggles are often animated by a laughing, evenly spaced, up-and-down series of such heads in a stagger-timing on the exposure sheet.
A dialogue head series can be fitted to a body cycle walking on a pan background. A bottom peg camera device moves the pegs up and down to fit the walking action.
Heads can fit characters in a vehicle on a pan. This entire action bounces on the rough road using the same device attached to the bottom peg bar. Such mechanics are endless. After the cel is placed on camera, the cutout is placed over or under the cel according to a few dot guides on the cel.
For example, an elaborate line engraving of an antique auto is cut out and placed under a cel series that animates the wheel action, dust, smoke, and characters seated in the auto. Animation cutouts can be very cost effective in producing animated films.
Body poses, with different head attitudes, can be used over and over in multiple combinations. For example, different arms can be used on the same body, as can mouths, eyes, and noses on a single cel head without having to redraw the entire body for each movement.
All parts of these "animation cutouts" can be stored for recall in another scene or film.
Here are some examples of the many divisions possible. The same set of character cels can be used in many scones. Each head has a series of four to seven mouth drawings that work on the cel level above the head. Thus, the head nods in many timings for any amount of dialogue.
Here is the order of setting up the parts of a dog that are joined at socket points. Use perspective guidelines on the body when needed - as you do on the head. This is a colored cel made from the cleanup drawing on page The cleanup drawing was enlarged on a copy machine, and then a brush and ink were used to trace it onto the cel. The cleaned up animation drawing is transferred to a transparent cel celluloid.
The drawing can also be photocopied onto the cel. Then the colors are painted on the back of the cel with opaque acrylic paint acrylics are used because they will adhere to the cot.
After the cot is colored, it is placed over the background and photographed with the camera. This process is explained in more detail on page Most cartoon cels are inked with a pen, but the brush can be used to give a heavier, more accented line the drawings on these two pages were done with a brush.
If you are designing an original character, experiment with its coloration by using transparent watercolors on photocopies or enlargements of your cleanup drawings. Color many drawings until you perfect the color scheme, and then make acrylic-colored cels using the watercolor paints as guides.
You can make colored backgrounds for the cels using both watercolors and the opaque acrylics the way studios do. Background texture can be created with a wet sponge and opaque acrylic paint. On this page below is an example of a storyboard that is the basic plan of an animated cartoon film. It resembles a page in the newspaper comics. Artists in a story department develop the story line of the film by attaching these story sketches onto a large blackboard-size board with pushpins.
The storymen will replace drawings and re-edit the storyboard constantly as they visualize and originate additions and changes to add humor to the story. The inanimate object that has come to life the tree is another type of cartoon character to add to this book. The course covers volumetric drawing, construction, clear silhouettes, line of action, posing, expression and much more.
This course is valuable for other types of artists as well. Cartooning and illustration require the same fundamental skills. Applications are now being accepted to join this free online course.
If you are interested, Lesson 00 is your entry test. Do the lesson until you feel you have mastered it, and send a high quality image of your BEST bear head for review. Only one- your BEST! The instructor will be reviewing the submissions and choosing the artists who will participate in this class.
There is no charge for this course, but space is limited, and preference will be given to members of Animation Resources. You can reach the course instructor, JoJo Baptista at jbaptista animationresources. Practice each lesson until you master it and it becomes second nature. As you may have already noticed, the examples provided in these lessons are drawn in an old fashioned funny animal style.
You may have no interest in learing to draw in this style. We understand completely that you might want to work in a more contemporary style of drawing, and we encourage that. The principle advantage of learning using these particular designs is their simplicity. Lesson O: In this lesson you are learning volumetric construction, hierarchy of forms, and proportions.
This exercise is a qualifying round. Start with the largest shapes first, and work your way down to the details. Next add the guidelines on the sphere following the curvature of the sphere vertically. The guide lines will help you visualize the head as a volume, not a flat shape on your paper. They will also help you judge the proportions so your features fall in the same place on the sphere each time.
Now wrap a guideline around the form horizontally. You have created a volumetric sphere. When the basic volume of the head is clearly defined, you can move on to the secondary forms. Attach the muzzle to the sphere. The muzzle is volumetric and wraps around the surface of the sphere. When you have constructed the muzzle properly, you can begin to wrap the eyes around the form.
Use the guide lines as an aid to turn the eyes around the shape. The eyebrows do as well. Even the small bits of fur are anchored to the main shape of the ear. Can you guess what the basic shape of the ears looks like without the details? Nothing is floating in space. It all wraps around the form. You design the basic rough pass of the movement using just the primary shapes. Accuracy is also important in animation.
If your drawings fluctuate from drawing to drawing, your animation will shimmer and shake. In order to get your drawings to flow from one to the next, you have to have complete control.
Draw it many times. Strive to do better each time. With each attempt the process will be ingrained deeper and deeper into your mind. All freely available for download. So assume if the jpeg images of the pages are free for everyone, a simple compilation to pdf with no modification should be fine - kind of like changing the jpegs to tga's. If anyone knows better please help me out. I am under the impression that this content is in the public domain or something?
Like if someone mirrored my keying tutorial, I suppose I could see a situation why I might courteously ask them not to if I was depending on the exclusive of the web traffic the content created, but I don;t know if that would constitute a copyright violation Actually the more I think about it, I'm gonna take that link down. If anyone wants to save themselves the hassle of converting to pdf, email me.
It is not public domain. As such, we have special provisions of "fair use" under copyright law. Some of these provisions do not apply to individuals who might choose to redistribute our media files. You can use an image or two to accompany links to our articles, and feel free to use the material for reference yourself.
But please don't repackage or redistribute the images or separate the media from the accompanying articles.
Good to see the respect given to Stephen W's polite post. Seems that the PDF's have been pulled from the above sites. Make your own PDF but keep it off the web. I highly recommend digging around the site, as there are character sheets for hundreds of characters, sketch pages by tons of highly talented and creative artists spanning the history of animation and lots of information on specific animated films and shorts from the past.
They are one of my more frequent online stops: On the site they compare the original version of the book with the reprint he was forced to make After MGM changed their minds about letting him use their characters in his book.
Like posters on the site, I agree that the original art was more alive. The original characters had more 'character'. The generic characters are constructed the same way so the purpose of the book --to teach drawing animated characters-- remains fulfilled , its just that the original art is so much better, even though there is more detail in the newer characters. Its like comparing the new Saturday morning cartoons vs. Something got lost along the way.
So does anyone know where to get a copy of the revised book? Can't find it on site right now Preston Blair also has a concise book of around 32 pages, the one which has basics of drawing characters.
Can somebody let me know where can I get that from??? To add a profile picture to your message, register your email address with Gravatar.
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