Physical Hydrology. Second Edition. S. Lawrence Dingman. University of New Hampshire .. C Normal pdf and cdf C Log-Normal Distribution Physical hydrology by S. L. Dingman, , Prentice Hall edition, in English - 2nd ed. lntroduction to Hydrologic Science . hydrology and civil engineering;the first English- . rate, we can often use physical principles to derive.
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CEE Physical Hydrology. Homework 8. Solar Radiation direct approach handout medical-site.info Dingman, S. L., (), Chapter 7. Physical Hydrology By S. Lawrence Dingman, ; Waveland Press Inc., Long Grove, IL, USA; Physical Hydrology, now in its third edition, is an estab-. S. Lawrence Dingman, Macmillan Publishing. Company, pages, , $ Physical Hydrology is a refreshing addi tion to the literature on.
Because this method incorporates all storage in the watershed, using it made it easier to accommodate for additional watershed components that would diminish the effective rainfall and runoff amount i.
Due to a lack of information on the local meteorological conditions, such as the average wind velocity and pressure gradient, I chose to calculate this amount based on the estimated potential evapotranspiration PET and from that a predicted actual evapotranspiration, as demonstrated in Chapter 7 of Dingman. To convert this potential evapotranspiration rate to actual, a lack of reliable data on the average annual precipitation and soil water content led me to rely on the complementary advection-aridity approach used in Equation of Dingman.
Already relying on the assumption proposed by Brutsaert and Stricker that the PET is under equilibrium conditions as employed in the Priestly and Taylor method , I used the net incoming radiation as the primary source of the energy flux and assumed such energy represented the difference between potential and actual.
Naturally, this led to certain days having a negative evapotranspiration reading, primarily during or following rainfall, when a larger portion of the incoming solar energy would be absorbed by the increased surface water content or reflected by the increased cloud cover.
Finally, determining the net change in storage also required determining the total runoff from the area, as opposed to the total outflow.
This outflow over the recorded time appeared to taper off and steadily recede at a steady rate about 15 days after the end of the initial storm, to the point it dropped below the initial outflow in spite of some periods of light precipitation following the storm.
This suggested that 1 the hydrograph was initially receding from a storm event before the recorded time period, 2 the periods of light precipitation following the initial storm event were too small to contribute to storm runoff, and 3 the watershed was undergoing a net loss of water shortage.
Keeping these assumptions in mind, I used the straight-line method used in Page of Dingman to compose an average constant base flow for the watershed and subtracted this from the outflow to determine the total runoff for the period. The second phase of Part 1 required interpreting the specific time instants on the hydrograph to determine a series of characteristic intervals, specifically the response lag time TLR , the lag-to-peak time TLP , the centroid lag time TLC , and the concentration time TC.
The first two intervals were derived from observed instants in the recorded hydrographs of the precipitation and outflow of the watershed; for the centroid lag time, I relied on Equation in Dingman to compute the centroids of effective water input and hydrograph response.
Given the broad time intervals, I estimated the time of peak discharge tpk occurring roughly halfway between the 12th and 13th day of the recorded storm event. To determine the concentration time, Dingman provided four different methods over the course of the text; after comparing the results of each, I decided simply basing it on the time between the estimated end of response and end of effective water input intervals produced the most reasonable result.
Rainfall Amount Weff m3 : Deriving these estimates required use of the same assumptions as Part 1, and for consistency the same spreadsheet format. The high Outflow:Inflow ratio used in both assessments implied the watershed was undergoing a massive net decrease in water storage, suggesting I had severely underestimated this base flow, as my first attempt at modeling the watershed response would prove.
Finally, the beginning and end of the effective water input for this future storm event were observed on days 1 and 7, respectively; I estimated the beginning of the hydrograph rise and the time of peak discharge by adding the derived response lag time and time of rise TR , respectively, from Part 1.
Flow Cum. ACOE handbook. This design accounted only for the initial outflow and the response time of the given watershed, the latter of which I had initially based on the centroid lag time calculated in Part 1.
Needless to say, this initial model greatly exaggerated the expected outflow of the watershed, showing a peak discharge more than twice that of the recorded peak while having a residual outflow towards the end of the recorded period that dropped well below that of the recorded outflow. However, when basing the response time instead on the centroid lag time, as suggested on Page in Dingman, the calculated peak outflow dropped by an order of magnitude, signifying my first customization of parameters for the project.
Essentially this first reservoir would come to represent the total catchment area of the basin, while the second reservoir that the Weff flow fed into would represent the total precipitation that could contribute to surface runoff i. Finally, for the sake of realism I added an evapotranspiration outflow from this new reservoir based on a rounded graph of the given ET data, based on the assumption that the most significant amount of evapotranspiration from tree and plant cover would emanate from this early stage, before feeding into surface and groundwater flow.
Outflow ET Effective Precip. The relatively short response time and small ratio of total precipitation to outflow of the watershed suggested the presence of ulterior modes of outflow and secondary reservoirs with differing outflow velocities. Going under the assumption that the first of such modes would occur from the interception of precipitation from tree cover and subsequent evaporation, I first added such a fractional flow of the same global response time of the watershed from the first reservoir based on rough assumptions of tree cover regression modeling proposed in Chapter 7 of Dingman, ensuring only residual flow from the treetop would contribute to the effective precipitation ratio.
Ultimately I reasoned that this first reservoir would primarily represent precipitation suspended by tree and crop cover, the fractional outflow of which would represent water directly evaporated from the plant surface not considered in the evapotranspiration flow.
I then added another reservoir after the first outflow with a higher initial water content and much slower outflow rate, representing two areas of starkly contrasting topography.
Figure 4: First Advanced Model For the second advanced model, I significantly cut the evaporative outflow from tree cover, increased the estimated base flow, and added groundwater GW outflow components, as the watershed description of heterogeneous loamy soils with some tree and agriculture cover suggested the former aspect would have a stronger impact. Download Electric Motor Drives: Download Elliot Wave Techniques Simplified: A short, specialist English course.
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