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Everett stopped doing research in theoretical physics shortly after obtaining his Ph. Andrew Gleason and James Hartle independently reproduced Everett's work  which was later extended. Neill Graham later provided alternative and longer derivations to Everett's derivation of the Born rule. Decision theory[ edit ] A decision-theoretic derivation of the Born rule from Everettarian assumptions, was produced by David Deutsch  and refined by Wallace —     and Saunders He has proved that the Born rule and the collapse of the wave function follow from a game-theoretical strategy, namely the Nash equilibrium within a von Neumann zero-sum game between nature and observer.
Zurek  has produced a derivation of the Born rule, where decoherence has replaced Deutsch's informatic assumptions. Carroll , building on work by Lev Vaidman ,  proposed a similar approach based on self-locating uncertainty. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message In Everett's formulation, a measuring apparatus M and an object system S form a composite system, each of which prior to measurement exists in well-defined but time-dependent states.
Measurement is regarded as causing M and S to interact. After S interacts with M, it is no longer possible to describe either system by an independent state. According to Everett, the only meaningful descriptions of each system are relative states: for example the relative state of S given the state of M or the relative state of M given the state of S. In DeWitt's formulation, the state of S after a sequence of measurements is given by a quantum superposition of states, each one corresponding to an alternative measurement history of S.
Schematic illustration of splitting as a result of a repeated measurement. For example, consider the smallest possible truly quantum system S, as shown in the illustration.
This describes for instance, the spin-state of an electron. Considering a specific axis say the z-axis the north pole represents spin "up" and the south pole, spin "down". The superposition states of the system are described by the surface of a sphere called the Bloch sphere.
To perform a measurement on S, it is made to interact with another similar system M. After the interaction, the combined system is described by a state that ranges over a six-dimensional space the reason for the number six is explained in the article on the Bloch sphere.
This six-dimensional object can also be regarded as a quantum superposition of two "alternative histories" of the original system S, one in which "up" was observed and the other in which "down" was observed.
Each subsequent binary measurement that is interaction with a system M causes a similar split in the history tree. The accepted terminology is somewhat misleading because it is incorrect to regard the universe as splitting at certain times; at any given instant there is one state in one universe.
January Learn how and when to remove this template message In his doctoral dissertation, Everett proposed that rather than modeling an isolated quantum system subject to external observation, one could mathematically model an object as well as its observers as purely physical systems within the mathematical framework developed by Paul Dirac , von Neumann and others, discarding altogether the ad hoc mechanism of wave function collapse.
Since Everett's original work, there have appeared a number of similar formalisms in the literature. One such is the relative state formulation. It makes two assumptions: first, the wavefunction is not simply a description of the object's state, but that it actually is entirely equivalent to the object, a claim it has in common with some other interpretations.
Secondly, observation or measurement has no special laws or mechanics, unlike in the Copenhagen interpretation which considers the wavefunction collapse as a special kind of event which occurs as a result of observation. Instead, measurement in the relative state formulation is the consequence of a configuration change in the memory of an observer described by the same basic wave physics as the object being modeled.
The many-worlds interpretation is DeWitt's popularisation of Everett's work, who had referred to the combined observer—object system as being split by an observation, each split corresponding to the different or multiple possible outcomes of an observation.
These splits generate a possible tree as shown in the graphic below.
Subsequently, DeWitt introduced the term "world" to describe a complete measurement history of an observer, which corresponds roughly to a single branch of that tree. Note that "splitting" in this sense is hardly new or even quantum mechanical.
The idea of a space of complete alternative histories had already been used in the theory of probability since the mids for instance to model Brownian motion. Partial trace as relative state. Light blue rectangle on upper left denotes system in pure state. Trellis shaded rectangle in upper right denotes a possibly mixed state.
Mixed state from observation is partial trace of a linear superposition of states as shown in lower right-hand corner. An observation or measurement is modeled by applying the wave equation to the entire system comprising the observer and the object.
One consequence is that every observation can be thought of as causing the combined observer—object's wavefunction to change into a quantum superposition of two or more non-interacting branches, or split into many "worlds".
Since many observation-like events have happened and are constantly happening, there are an enormous and growing number of simultaneously existing states. If a system is composed of two or more subsystems, the system's state will be a superposition of products of the subsystems' states. Each product of subsystem states in the overall superposition evolves over time independently of other products.
Once the subsystems interact, their states have become correlated or entangled and it is no longer possible to consider them independent of one another.
In Everett's terminology each subsystem state was now correlated with its relative state, since each subsystem must now be considered relative to the other subsystems with which it has interacted. Properties of the theory[ edit ] MWI removes the observer-dependent role in the quantum measurement process by replacing wavefunction collapse with quantum decoherence. Quantum cosmology also becomes intelligible, since there is no need anymore for an observer outside of the universe.
You will also get to learn various types of Chemical Reactions such as Combination Reaction, Disproportion Reaction etc. The chapter has a total of 20 questions. The first three questions are of objective nature. Question number sixth, seventh and eighth is of balancing the equation type of questions. Rest are short answer type questions. Chapter 2: Acid Bases and Salt Acid Bases and Salts, as the name suggests, deals with the concepts of acid, bases, and salts. What are the different types of chemical reactions that they undergo and how is their reaction with certain compounds have been explained in this chapter.
This chapter also takes you through neutralization reaction and gives a brief on the pH scale that measures acidity or basicity of any compound. The exercises contain total fifteen questions of which first four are of objective type. For the fifth question, you need to write balanced equation of the given reactions. Remaining questions are of short answer type.
It gradually reaches the chemical side and takes into account the reaction of metals and non-metals with various compounds and with each other. The chapter also describes the process of corrosion and briefs about the occurrence of metals in the environment and how they can be extracted. There is a total of 16 questions in this chapter. First four questions are of objective nature. Rest of the questions are of short and long answer type. Chapter 4: Carbon and its Compounds Carbon and its compounds start with the description of the covalent bond that exists in Carbon.
Learn the nomenclature of Carbon and its compounds. The chapter deals with soaps and detergents and accounts for their cleansing actions towards the end. A total of fifteen questions are there in the chapter. Chapter 5: Periodic Classification of Elements In this chapter, you will learn the arrangement of elements into the periodic table.
The chapter starts with a brief history of modern periodic table and how and why we reached to it. It then goes on to describe the modern periodic table in detail.
Coming to the questions, there are ten questions in the chapter.
The First two questions are of objective nature. In the last question, you need to state the differences between Mendeleev's Periodic Table and the Modern Periodic Table. Rest of the questions are of short answer type.
There are total thirteen questions in the chapter of which first four questions are of objective type. In the question number eighth, twelfth and thirteenth, you need to differentiate between the given two topics. Rest of the questions are of short answer type questions.
Chapter 7: Control and Coordination In this chapter, you will delve deeper into the topics such as nervous system of human beings, explanation about anatomy of the Human Brain, coordination in plant and hormones in animals. A total of 12 questions are there in this chapter. First three questions are of objective type. In the last two questions, you will be asked to differentiate between the given two topics. Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce This chapter explains the entire process of Reproduction for single-celled organisms as well as multi-celled organisms.
It describes both asexual and sexual modes of Reproduction. For sexual modes of reproduction, the reproductive systems of both animals and plants is explained. There is a total of eleven questions in this chapter. First three questions are of objective nature. In the seventh question, you are asked to draw a labelled diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower. Remaining questions are of short and long answer type. Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution In this chapter, you will learn how passing on of genes from one generation to another takes place.
It also sex determination process after reproduction. There is a total of 12 questions. Chapter Light Reflection and Refraction In this chapter, you will understand the two basic phenomena that light undergo. Reflection off plane and curved surfaces and bending at the interface of two mediums with different properties.
It explains laws for each Reflection and Refraction and briefs into the basic mathematical side of it. There is a total of seventeen questions in this chapter.
First five questions are of objective nature. In the eighth question, you need to tell the name of the mirror used in some specific situations.
Chapter Human Eye and Colourful world In this chapter, you will primarily learn the structure of the human eye and various functions of each part of it. This chapter also explains the various eye defects that might occur.