Medical Mnemonics. A politically correct, non-inclusive approach to remembering things you might otherwise forget in med school. Joel G Ray, MD MSc FRCPC. Tennessee ACP Annual Meeting James B. Lewis, Jr., MD, MACP. Affiliate Professor of Medicine, UTHSC. Memory and Medical Mnemonics. Paul's Boutique Western University College of Osteopathic Medicine of the .. same letter (eg: chocolate and chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic, .
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Paul's Boutique Western University College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific. Branches of Internal Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped. Over medical mnemonics & images to help medical students, physicians & nurses prepare for your medical board exam | ABIM & USMLE Board. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (FMT) 95 Oblique ligature mark Mnemonic: Hang SSS and Mnemonics96 Negroes Indians Mnemonic: PANI.
Your Email: Select a mnemonic. Pancreatitis Acute: Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis: Rheumatic Fever: Functionality disabled. Share This Mnemonic: Visual images for over mnemonics Our collection of mnemonics contains over visual images and growing to help you learn and recall complex concepts even more easily.
All the concepts you want to master are only a click away. Thanks Knowmedge! What a great site and learning tool! Lordosis Mnemonic: Superior thyroid artery Facial artery Lingual artery Posterior: Occipital artery Posterior auricular artery Medial: Ascending pharyngeal artery Terminal: Maxillary artery Superficial temporal artery Mnemonic: Mnemonics10 — Intervertebral joint between vertebral bodies sacro- coccygeal joint — Manubriosternal Joint — Xiphisternal Joint Mnemonic: Skull Gomphosis: Tooth in its sockets Syndesmosis: Inferior tibiofibular joint, middle radioulnar joint, tympanostapedial joint Mnemonic: Joint between articular process of vertebra Intercarpal and intertarsal Mnemonic: Metacarpophalangeal joint Atlanto-occipital joint Wrist joint Mnemonic: Knee joint Right and left jaw joint Mnemonic: J and K are bicondylar Saddle sellar: Sternoclavicular joint 1st carpometacarpal joint Calcaneocuboid joint Mnemonic: Stern 1st CM of Calca is sad Ball and socket: Shoulder joint Head of femur Condyles of tibia Lower end of radius Mnemonic: Press HCL Traction epiphysis: Tubercles of humerus—Mastoid process Trochanters of femur Mnemonic: TMT Atavistic epiphysis: Coracoid process of scapula Osmium trigonum Aberrant epiphysis: Great cardiac vein Coronary sinus Small cardiac vein Mnemonic: GCS Anterior cardiac vein drains directly into right atrium Mnemonic: Rest drains into coronary sinus, i.
PMT The neurons of Spinal dorsal root ganglia Sensory ganglia of 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th cranial nerves Sympathetic ganglia Pia-arachnoid mater Schwann cells Melanoblasts mesenchyme of dental papilla and pharyngeal arches Mnemonic: Superficial branches Superficial external pudendal Superficial epigastric Superficial circumflex iliac Deep branches Profunda femoris PDM External iliac artery: Branches Inferior epigastric artery Deep circumflex iliac artery Note: Inferior epigastric artery anastomoses with superior epigastric artery a branch of internal thoracic artery.
Profunda femoris is the largest branch of femoral artery. It is the chief artery to supply all 3 compartments of thigh. Medial circumflex femoral artery 2. Lateral circumflex femoral artery 3. Mylohyoid Muscles of mastication Anterior belly of digastric Tensor tympani Tensor veli palati Mnemonic: Stapedius Stylohyoid Posterior belly of digastric Muscles of facial expression Mnemonic: Stupid style Dip muscles of facial expression Stylopharyngeus Mnemonic: Muscles of larynx except cricothyroid Note: Cricothyroid muscle is supplied by external branch of superior laryngeal nerve.
S for S Malleus: Downward, backward and laterally. DBL, i. Nasolacrimal duct Mnemonic: INLD Middle meatus: Middle ethmoidal air cells Maxillary sinus Anterior ethmoidal air cells Frontal sinus Superior meatus: Posterior ethmoidal sinus. C for C Sagittal suture—between 2 parietal bones. Asterion—parietomastoid occipital PMO. Lateral pterygoid. Forceful opening of mouth: Digastric Geniohyoid Myelohyoid Mnemonic: Omohyoid Sternothyroid Sternohyoid Mnemonic: Thyrohyoid Geniohyoid Mnemonic: Seminal vesicles E: Epididymis E: Ejaculatory duct D: Ductus deferens Vas deferens Mnemonic: Inferior—Independent Garm gol puri in steel basket Deep cerebellar nuclei: Dentate Emboliform Fastigial Globose Mnemonic: DEFG Note: The axons of Purkinje cells are the only output from the cerebellar cortex, generally pass to the deep nuclei.
MEA Pig GFR 17 Biochemistry 2 CLP Also remember: Vitamins B and C Mnemonic: WBC Vit. Synovial fluid Loose connective tissue Cartilage Bone Cornea Mnemonic: CBC Karatan sulphate: Mast cells Heparan sulphate: Aortic wall Skin fibroblasts Dermatan sulphate: Ox in spa Fumarate forming amino acids—Phenylalanine, tyrosine Mnemonic: PheTyr fumes Succinyl CoA: Threonine, valine, isoleucine, methionine Mnemonic: Proline, histidine, arginine, glutamine Mnemonic: Cystine, threonine, glycine, alanine, serine Mnemonic: Leucine, isoleucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine Mnemonic: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome Mnemonic: Histry Phe Tyr Gala Milo Aspartic acid—Hb bristol Mnemonic: Brass Alanine—Hb sydney Mnemonic: BB no.
PFK 2 is bifunctional 2 is bi.
It is required in: Ribonuclease In Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, tyrosine is used to produce the alkaloid morphine. Sense codon to change into nonsense stop codon, causing premature termination of translation. Missense mutation: Change of one sense codon into another sense codon, for different amino acids Mnemonic: Different Miss Silent mutation: Change of one sense codon into another sense codon for same amino acids Mnemonic: S for S Null mutation: Leads to no functional gene product complete loss of function Loss of function mutation: Results of gene product having less or no function.
Gain of function mutation: Change the gene product such that it gains a new and abnormal function.
Neutral mutation: Different but chemically similar amino acid. It is extracellular and its function is to bind insulin. It is a transmembrane protein and its function is signal transduction.
The cytoplasmic portion of subunit has tyrosine kinase activity enzymatic receptor. These reactions are catalyzed by — Hexokinase—glucokinase glucose to glucose 6-phosphate — Phosphofructokinase fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate — Pyruvate kinase phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvic acid To remember: All three are kinases. One involves glucose, another fructose and third one pyruvate. Protein degeneration in lysosomes—involves lysosomal proteins.
This process does not involve ATP. Protein degradation in proteosomes—involves ubiquitin- proteosome pathway. This process requires ATP, i. ATP dependent. Enterokinase Calcium Trypsin itself Mnemonic: ECT Inhibitors: HU Topoisomerase—Relieves torsional strain that results from helicase induced unwinding. T for T K Mnemonic: Mid day minimum At high heart rates: PCS is insensitive Also remember: Vasomotor center VMC Excitatory: Cortex Pain pathway Carotid and aortic chemoreceptors Direct stimulators: CO2 Hypoxia The ventral tract enters into the cerebellum through superior cerebellar peduncle.
Dorsal respiratory group DRG , located in the dorsal portion of the medulla, which mainly causes inspiration Mnemonic: Din Ventral respiratory group VRG located in the ventrolateral part of the medulla, which mainly causes expiration. T for T Muscle spindle—detects muscle length—stretch reflex Mnemonic: S for S Neocerebellum—planning and programming Motor functions of skeletal muscles derived from somites: Supplies extraocular muscles XII Hypoglossal nucleus: Supplies tongue muscles Mnemonic: Fer pin Pain Transmembrane sarcolemmal proteins Dystroglycans, integrins, sarcoglycans and caveolin Mnemonic: DCM-Dorsal column cross over in medulla Sensations transmitted by spinothalamic tract Anterior spinothalamic tract Mnemonic: PLT Note: The spinothalamic tract crosses more or less at point of entry itself such that it remains contralateral along the whole length of spinal cord.
Opening batsman Eyes closed Alpha waves D Mnemonic: Major estrogen in postmenopausal women Mnemonic: NM Estradiol: Major and most potent estrogen in women Estriol: Major estrogen in pregnancy, marker for fetoplacental unit. Upper motor neuron lesion corticospinal pyramidal system involved Mnemonic: Up in Spa Lead pipe and cogwheel rigidity occurs in extrapyramidal syndrome, e. FG Cerebrovascular disease.
Thoracolumbar outflow Mnemonic: SLT Parasympathetic outflow: Craniosacral outflow Mnemonic: PCS Ovulation—hormone picture High estrogen Low progesterone Mnemonic: Sweat gland—secretion of sweat. Vasodilatation in skeletal muscles—a part of the neurons to blood vessels in skeletal muscles is anatomically sympathetic but secrete acetylcholine. Stimulation of this system of neurons produces vasodilatation in skeletal muscles. Presence of peptides and amino acids in contact with mucosa of small intestine.
Presence in the duodenum of fatty acids having more than 10 carbon atoms. Stimulus for secretin secretion: Acidity of chyme b. NREM sleep disorders: Sleep walking somnambulism Penile tumescence is seen in REM sleep. T3 has faster onset of action. T3 binds more avidly to nuclear receptors. T4 is more secreted by thyroid. T4 is major circulating hormone. T4 binds more avidly to plasma proteins 15 times. Potassium Phosphate organic Protein Magnesium Mnemonic: Erlotinib reversible Canertinib Irreversible Gefitinib Mnemonic: Cell cycle specific G2 phase specific: DEBT S-phase specific agent: Vinca alkaloids Paclitaxel and Docetaxel G1 phase: Pharmacology 37 Oxazepam Lorazepam Alprazolam Mnemonic: Acid labile Penicillin V: Acid stable Mnemonic: IVF Mnemonics38 Note: Ketoconazole is both topical and systemic.
Tacrolimus versus cyclosporine Tacrolimus causes more Neurotoxicity Nephrotoxicity Diabetes mellitus Diarrhoea Mnemonic: Glucagon, somatostatin delta cells Pituitary: PTH Parafollicullar C cells of thyroid: Calcitonin Posterior pituitary: Asli Glu Also Remember: Efavirenz Etravirine Nevirapine Delaviridine Mnemonic: Hepatomegaly with steatosis Mnemonic: Arab Gem inhibit elongation Muscimol Antagonist: Bicuculline Agonist: Baclofen B for B Antagonist: GB Mnemonic: May precipitate absence status when used with clonazepam.
Nice guidelines Cyclosporine calcineurin inhibitor Azathioprine anti-proliferative agent Prednisolone corticosteroid Mnemonic: CAP Note: Azathioprine may be replaced by mycofenolate mofetil. Mnemonics44 Peripheral neuropathy Myocardial depression Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis lung —dry cough Corneal microdeposits Liver toxicity Photosensitization Mnemonic: Petro Grenal Note: Pharmacology 45 Clarithromycin Azithromycin Rifabutin Mnemonic: CML Note: Not in iron and cadmium poisoning Mnemonic: Not in mercury poison Mnemonic: ENM Penicillamine: Not in iron poisoning Mnemonic: Teratogenicity Amphotericin B Hamycin Nystatin Polypeptides: Polymyxin Colistin Mnemonic: Fluoroquinolones Mnemonic: Aminoglycoside Mn: Pharmacology 47 Clindamycin 50S Mnemonic: Enzyme inducers: Phenytoin, phenobarbitone primidone, carbamazepine, rifampicin, griseofulvin.
Mnemonics48 Isoprenaline: D1 receptors in renal and mesenteric blood vessels are very sensitive IV infusion of low doses of DA dilates mesenteric vessels and improves renal perfusion.
Ameliorative test: Edrophonium anti-cholinesterase b. Phenoxybenzamine is the agent of choice. MICE Most marked kaliuresis: Acetazolamide Mnemonic: AK Most marked natriuresis: Furosemide Mnemonic: SOAP Note: CTZ Chemoreceptor trigger zone is also outside blood—brain barrier and responsible for vomiting. They can cause SLE. Sympathetic nerve fibres going to sweat glands release acetylcholine sympathetic cholinergic Mnemonic: HR Conduction—Dromotropic Mnemonic: Vesamichol—inhibits entry of acetylcholine in the vesicle Botulinum toxin—inhibits release of acetylcholine.
P for P Bethanichol acts on Bladder M3 —contracts urinary bladder in urinary retention.
B for B Methacholine acts on Myocardium M2 —used in tachyarrhy- thmia. Carbachol action—Common action—acts both on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. C for C Oximes are used only for organophosphorous poisoning. Ciliary muscle contracts to cause accommodation. Its nerve supply is short ciliary nerve—branch of oculomotor nerve 3rd cranial nerve. So, it is a part of parasympathetic system.
That is why anticholinergic drugs cause cycloplegia by blocking ciliary muscle contraction and causing loss of accommodation. Anticholinergic drugs are— Atropine—strongest cycloplegic drug. Very long acting. Used for refraction testing in children.
Homatropine Cyclopentolate Tropicamide Shortest acting. Preferred in adults. SOFT bladder Heart Mnemonic: Lungs Mnemonic: Vasodilatation Mnemonic: Circular muscles—Constrictor pupillae—supplied by short ciliary nerve—active miosis—parasympathomimetic. Radial muscles—dilator pupillae—supplied by long ciliary nerve—active mydriasis—sympathomimetics. Mnemonics54 Salmetrol Formetrol Mnemonic: Metro is long acting.
B for blood vessels Note: NO release—Nebivolol. Loop looses calcium. It causes hypocalcemia. Digitoxin—contraindicated in hepatic failure. Toxin is metabolized in liver Pharmacology 57 Remikiren Enalkiren Mnemonic: Depines are calcium channel blockers. Angiotensin receptor blockers also follow these except first 3 CAP.
Sartans are selective AT1 receptor antagonist. Longest name Shortest acting nitrate—AN Mnemonic: I—Sodium channel blockers II—Beta blockers They can cause Torased des pointes. Short acting BZD are—safe in elderly, liver disease, no hangover and no active metabolite.
Vigabatrin is the drug of choice for infantile spasm with tuberous sclerosis. ACTH is drug of choice for infantile spasm.