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Introduction to Endocrinology Pituitary Hormones and Their Control by the Hypopthalamus Thyroid Metabolic Hormones Adenocortical Hormones Insulin, Glucagon, and Diabetes Mellitus Pregnancy and Lactation Sports Physiology CHAPTER 1 Physiology is the science that seeks to explain the physical and chemical mechanisms that are responsible for the origin, development, and progression of life. Each type of life, from the simplest virus to the largest tree or the complicated human being, has its own functional characteristics.
Therefore, the vast field of physiology can be divided into viral physiology, bacterial physiology, cellular physiology, plant physiology, invertebrate physiology, vertebrate physiology, mammalian physiology, human physiology, and many more subdivisions. Human Physiology. The science of human physiology attempts to explain the specific characteristics and mechanisms of the human body that make it a living being.
The fact that we remain alive is the result of complex control systems. Hunger makes us seek food, and fear makes us seek refuge. Sensations of cold make us look for warmth.
Other forces cause us to seek fellowship and to reproduce. The fact that we are sensing, feeling, and knowledgeable beings is part of this automatic sequence of life; these special attributes allow us to exist under widely varying conditions, which otherwise would make life impossible.
Each type of cell is specially adapted to perform one or a few particular functions. For instance, the red blood cells, numbering about 25 trillion in each human being, transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.
The entire body, then, contains about trillion cells. For instance, oxygen reacts with carbohydrate, fat, and protein to release the energy required for all cells to function. Further, the general chemical mechanisms for changing nutrients into energy are basically the same in all cells, and all cells deliver products of their chemical reactions into the surrounding fluids.
Almost all cells also have the ability to reproduce additional cells of their own kind. Fortunately, when cells of a particular type are destroyed, the remaining cells of this type usually generate new cells until the supply is replenished.
Although most of this fluid is inside the cells and is called intracellular fluid, about one third is in the spaces outside the cells and is called extracellular fluid. This extracellular fluid is in constant motion throughout the body.
In the extracellular fluid are the ions and nutrients needed by the cells to maintain life. Thus, all cells live in essentially the same environment—the extracellular fluid. Differences Between Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids. The extracellular fluid contains large amounts of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions plus nutrients for the cells, such as oxygen, glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids.
These transport processes are discussed in Chapter 4. Essentially all organs and tissues of the body perform functions that help maintain these relatively constant conditions.
For instance, the lungs provide oxygen to the extracellular fluid to replenish the oxygen used by the cells, the kidneys maintain constant ion concentrations, and the gastrointestinal system provides nutrients. The various ions, nutrients, waste products, and other constituents of the body are normally regulated within a range of values, rather than at fixed values. Variations in blood hydrogen ion concentration, for example, are normally less than 5 nanomoles per liter 0.
Blood sodium concentration is also tightly regulated, normally varying only a few millimoles per liter even with large changes in sodium intake, but these variations of sodium concentration are at least 1 million times greater than for hydrogen ions. Powerful control systems exist for maintaining the concentrations of sodium and hydrogen ions, as well as for most of the other ions, nutrients, and substances in the body at levels that permit the cells, tissues, and organs to perform their normal functions despite wide environmental variations and challenges from injury and diseases.
A large segment of this text is concerned with how each organ or tissue contributes to homeostasis. Normal body functions require the integrated actions of cells, tissues, organs, and the multiple nervous, hormonal, and local control systems that together contribute to homeostasis and good health. Disease is often considered to be a state of disrupted homeostasis. However, even in the presence of disease, homeostatic mechanisms continue to operate and maintain vital functions through multiple compensations.
This balance is needed to maintain life, but over long periods of time the high blood pressure can damage various organs, including the kidneys, causing even greater increases in blood pressure and more renal damage.
The discipline of pathophysiology seeks to explain how the various physiological processes are altered in diseases or injury. The first stage is movement of blood through the body in the blood vessels, and the second is movement of fluid between the blood capillaries and the intercellular spaces between the tissue cells.
Figure shows the overall circulation of blood. All the blood in the circulation traverses the entire circulatory circuit an average of once each minute when the body is at rest and as many as six times each minute when a person is extremely active.
As blood passes through the blood capillaries, continual exchange of extracellular fluid also occurs between the plasma portion of the blood and the interstitial fluid that fills the intercellular spaces. This process is shown in Figure The walls of the capillaries are permeable to most molecules in the plasma of the blood, with the exception of plasma proteins, which are too large to readily pass through the capillaries.
That is, the fluid and dissolved molecules are continually moving and bouncing in all directions within the plasma and the fluid in the intercellular spaces, as well as through the capillary pores. Diffusion of fluid and dissolved constituents through the capillary walls and through the interstitial spaces.
Nutrition and excretion Gastrointestinal Tract. A large portion of the blood Kidneys pumped by the heart also passes through the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. Not all substances absorbed from Regulation of electrolytes Excretion Venous end Arterial end the gastrointestinal tract can be used in their absorbed form by the cells.
Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. One of the most common liver diseases that is Most women during pregnancy experience some kind of morning sickness characterized by nausea and vomiting. Coombs test is also known as antiglobulin test. Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Drugs used in treatment of tuberculosis are known as antiTBs.
The first detailed clinical Neurotransmitters refers to molecules which are used by the nervous system to transmit messages between neurons, or from neurons to Wernicke encephalopathy WE is a neurological disorder induced by thiamine, vitamin B1, deficiency.
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