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Things are still changing rapidly, with recent solutions already being questioned e. We therefore do not wish to re-iterate what has been written so eloquently by others e. Instead, we only wish to highlight a few ways in which publishing in Frontiers can help overcome this crisis and we then move on to discuss research avenues that we believe would particularly enhance knowledge and understanding in personality and social psychology. In personality and social psychology effect sizes tend to be small to moderate, in part because social behavior is complex and influenced by many factors.
As a consequence, what any one study can reveal is at best a small fraction of these factors. Hence, our findings tend to be sensitive to the particular statistical analysis conducted, the particular population sampled, and the particular social context.
Instead of seeing this as a problem, we encourage recognizing this variability, and publishing null results, which is possible in Frontiers as long as there is sufficient statistical power and the design is valid.
We encourage transparent reporting of the ways in which the analyses were conducted and we also strongly recommend including statistical indicators that are not based on significance testing, such as effect sizes. In Frontiers, findings do not have to be striking or unprecedented to merit publication. Instead, it is sufficient to report valid research. It is then up to the research community and the wider public to judge the importance of the research, and potentially build on it and develop the research question further.
The possibility to publish null results means that the public and research community are routinely informed about known effects that have not been replicated.
Lack of replication should not be seen as a failure. Instead, it can help us understand better under which circumstances an effect exists, as the replication may be done under different circumstances, languages, social contexts, cultures, and populations. All the solutions that have been proposed so far by the research community cannot operate in a vacuum. As long as reinforcement strategies for career survival and progression require publications of surprising or attention-grabbing findings, researchers will remain under pressure to do what they can to produce such findings.
We call other journals to re-think the importance of surprises and instead emphasize rigorous research, whether it produces surprising findings or not. Although the replication crisis is usually seen as arising from methodological flaws, it is also a symptom of structural issues in today's personality and social psychology that end up undermining the reliability of research findings.
By structural issues we mean trends, conventions and practices in the production and appraisal of scientific knowledge that are upheld by institutions.
In what follows, we focus on scope, range, and person-centeredness as aspects that are critical to reproducibility and validity, but are increasingly compromised by structural problems in today's social psychological and personality science. Today, this statement could be applied just as well to the domain of personality and social psychology. In a field that has grown so extraordinarily vibrant and diverse, integration would seem more important than ever.
Yet, developing a unified theory of the universe has turned out to be a more attainable goal than developing a unified theory of social behavior. As a result, many theories in personality and social psychology are essentially mini theories, intended to explain particular forms of behavior under a set of circumstances.
Although theories with a broader, more inclusive scope exist e.
Rather than repeating what others have said on the subject of scope and integration e. At first sight, research approaches with a narrow focus may seem more likely to yield reproducible findings than those that aim at revealing general principles of social and personality processes. However, discounting much of the complex and multi-determined nature of social behaviors can also make findings more brittle. For example, Wheeler and DeMarree identified 21 moderators of priming effects.
When many potentially relevant factors are left out of a study, for reasons of parsimony or control, they do not therefore cease to influence the behavior of interest. Rather, their influence becomes imponderable—it can be negligible in one study, but more prominent in another. The inconsistent influence of factors that are left out of studies is bound to result in inconsistent findings. In contrast, work that succeeds in integrating the complexity of factors involved in social behavior and personality may be less vulnerable to replication failures because a large number of otherwise unpredictable variables is factored in.
Complexity may be accounted for by adopting one of two basic strategies. One is to include the largest number of potentially significant extraneous variables and treat them as control variables.
Because measuring many extraneous variables is arduous, this strategy tends to be neglected. Another, yet more taxing strategy, is to directly model the effects of potentially significant extraneous variables by drawing from theory or empirical evidence. To engage in extensive work of this kind, one needs to be prepared to work for the long haul and often outside beaten tracks.
However, such work is at odds with current reinforcement strategies for career progression that urge and reward rapid rates of publication. As long as this is the case, there is minimal incentive to engage in work with a large and inclusive scope. We call on peers and colleagues to raise awareness for the limitations current career advancement practices impose on the scope of social psychological and personality science, and to think about ideas for changing current practices.
The Eighth Edition has been reorganized and streamlined to mirror the organization of today's courses, updated to include extensive coverage of the latest discoveries and research, and reimagined with new pedagogy, figures, and technology. James Gross, co-author of the text and Director of the Psychology One Teaching Program at Stanford University, believes in an integrated approach that looks at multiple perspectives to understand the larger complexities of the field.
In the Eighth Edition, the authors present psychology as a central discipline that connects to the humanities as well as the exciting advances in neuroscience. The Seventh Edition introduces a new four-part structure that highlights the central issues that motivate psychological research and previews them through thought-provoking introductory essays. Throughout, the part reorganization is reinforced by carefully refined questions and themes, providing a coherent and exciting view of psychology today.
Most importantly, Professor Gleitman has taught introductory psychology for five decades to over 40, students. Click to enlarge. Psychology 11th Edition by David G.
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