Geology of petroleum By A. I. Levorsen. pp., illus., 47 tables. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. Price $ (68/‐). First published: . Geology of Petroleum Levorsen a I Arville Irving - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Levorsen, A. I. (Arville Irving), Geology of Petroleum (San Claudia Aranda, and Rob Pitingolo (PDF wth commentary at medical-site.info); [Info] Levy.
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Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Author: Levorsen, A. I. ( Arville Irving), ; Format: Book; x, p. illus. 25 cm. A. I. Levorsen American Association of Petroleum Geologists remains a useful reference resource for working petroleum geologists as well. This book is intended primarily for students who have had the basic courses in geology and also for petroleum geologists who are- actively exploring for oil and .
Source: Levorsen, A. Freeman and Co Subscribe to view the full document. The Amal field top consists of lenses of Tertiary sandstones.
The Belayim field bottom shows the same plus fault- related sandstones to the east of an antithetic fault. Cross-hatching represents Middle Miocene evaporites. There is even an indication of a shift of the system in the northern part.
These fields are aligned along a paleo- shoreline and consist of barrier bars. The analogy with the depositional system on the present East Coast of the USA is shown on the next slide. These are the so-called combination traps , and they often involve an unconformity.
In fact, unconformities are important not only for the formation of such traps - which are quite common - but also for migration, because they often form a horizon along which permeabilities can be high, while above it they are low.
Common seals include evaporites , chalks and shales. Analysis of seals involves assessment of their thickness and extent, such that their effectiveness can be quantified. The trap is the stratigraphic or structural feature that ensures the juxtaposition of reservoir and seal such that hydrocarbons remain trapped in the subsurface, rather than escaping due to their natural buoyancy and being lost. Analysis of maturation involves assessing the thermal history of the source rock in order to make predictions of the amount and timing of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion.
Finally, careful studies of migration reveal information on how hydrocarbons move from source to reservoir and help quantify the source or kitchen of hydrocarbons in a particular area.
Mud log in process, a common way to study the lithology when drilling oil wells. Major subdisciplines in petroleum geology[ edit ] Several major subdisciplines exist in petroleum geology specifically to study the seven key elements discussed above.
Source rock analysis[ edit ] In terms of source rock analysis, several facts need to be established. Firstly, the question of whether there actually is any source rock in the area must be answered. Delineation and identification of potential source rocks depends on studies of the local stratigraphy , palaeogeography and sedimentology to determine the likelihood of organic-rich sediments having been deposited in the past.
If the likelihood of there being a source rock is thought to be high, the next matter to address is the state of thermal maturity of the source, and the timing of maturation.
This is performed with a combination of geochemical analysis of the source rock to determine the type of kerogens present and their maturation characteristics and basin modelling methods, such as back-stripping , to model the thermal gradient in the sedimentary column.
Basin analysis[ edit ] A full scale basin analysis is usually carried out prior to defining leads and prospects for future drilling. This study tackles the petroleum system and studies source rock presence and quality ; burial history; maturation timing and volumes ; migration and focus; and potential regional seals and major reservoir units that define carrier beds.
All these elements are used to investigate where potential hydrocarbons might migrate towards. Traps and potential leads and prospects are then defined in the area that is likely to have received hydrocarbons. Exploration stage[ edit ] Although a basin analysis is usually part of the first study a company conducts prior to moving into an area for future exploration, it is also sometimes conducted during the exploration phase.
Exploration geology comprises all the activities and studies necessary for finding new hydrocarbon occurrence.
Usually seismic or 3D seismic studies are shot, and old exploration data seismic lines, well logs, reports are used to expand upon the new studies.
Sometimes gravity and magnetic studies are conducted, and oil seeps and spills are mapped to find potential areas for hydrocarbon occurrences.
As soon as a significant hydrocarbon occurrence is found by an exploration- or wildcat-well the appraisal stage starts. Appraisal stage[ edit ] The Appraisal stage is used to delineate the extent of the discovery. Hydrocarbon reservoir properties, connectivity, hydrocarbon type and gas-oil and oil-water contacts are determined to calculate potential recoverable volumes. This is usually done by drilling more appraisal wells around the initial exploration well.