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Brian Souza Gandeste bine si in stil He received a great deal of publicity following the success of his reality television show, T Donald John Trump is an American business executive, entrepreneur, television and radio personality, author and 45th President of the United States of America.
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Gandeste bine si in stil mare — Donald Trump; Nu stii cum sa calculezi bine bugetul de marketing si … Gandeste si devii bogat - Conferinte video in direct ; Arthur Nash, un croitor din Cincinnati, si-a folosit afacerea aproape falimentara drept cobai in testarea formulei. Afacerea a prins viata din nou si i-a imbogatit pe proprietarii ei. Se bucura inca de mare succes, desi domnul Nash nu mai este printre noi.
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In the 20th century, the appearance of faster means of communication, such as the telegraph, the telephone, radio and television, reduced more and more the distance between elites and average people. In contemporary world education is not so expensive as in the past so it is not the privilege of small wealthy groups anymore. Apart from the good effects of culture globalisation, there are also some by-effects of this process: Maybe the solution to a problem prompted because of masses and communities is, paradoxically, an individual one: Read the following text and then answer the questions: Mass communicators have a set of common characteristics which distinguish them from other groups and institutions.
First of all, mass communication is produced by complex and formal organisations characterised by specialisation, division of labour, focussed areas of responsibility. This means that mass communication will be the product of a bureaucracy. As in most bureaucracies, decision-making will take place at several different levels of management and channels of communication within the organisation will be formalised.
Another important factor that characterises the mass communicator is the presence of multiple gatekeepers. A gatekeeper is a person or group which has control over what material eventually reaches the public.
Gatekeepers exist in large numbers in all mass communication organisations, some being more obvious than others. The third rule is that mass communication organisations need a great deal of money to operate, so that they have to have strong financial resources in order to penetrate the market.
Another characteristic of mass communicators is that these organisations exist to make profit. The consumer is the ultimate source of this profit, but there are various secondary means of financing. Last but not least, mass communication organisations are highly competitive. Since the audience is the source of profit, mass communicators compete with each other as they attempt to attract the public. Which are the five characteristics of mass communicators?
What is a gatekeeper? Why should mass communication be formalised? Which is the ultimate source of mass communicators? Why do mass communication organisations compete? What are mega-media concerns? Complete the missing words in the following texts: The struggles which ………to transform the legitimate hierarchies through the legitimating of a still ………art or genre, such as photography or the strip cartoon, or through the ………of minor or neglected authors, are precisely what creates legitimacy by creating belief in the value of the ………in which the value is produced and reproduced.
These arts, not yet fully legitimate, which are ………or neglected by the big holders of educational capital, offer a ………and a revenge to those who, by appropriating them, try to remove the existing systems, having in the same time a great impact over the ………. Missing words: What makes a best seller? This is a sixty-four dollar question.
It can be answered, ………largely by guess and summarise, and never satisfactory to the ………who wants a formula. The creation of a best seller does not follow an exact ………anymore than does the making of a ………man. Moreover, since there is not just one ………audience, no single formula could be expected.
There are certain elements of………appeal, as religion, sensationalism, information and guidance, or adventure, democracy, humour, ………, juvenile suitability, timeliness and so on.
Write an essay about the themes, plots, character type, spatial and temporal structures, stereotypes used in soap operas. Try to define melodrama in the context.
Explain your opinion. Make use of the table below. It would be suitable to watch the most popular serials for a week, to make a fresh opinion, and then to try to find several theoretical materials. Just after you have passed through these stages write down your essay. Point of comparison High culture Mass culture Folk culture Degree and type of Recognised, protected Left to media and Originally neglected.
Not universal but persists in time Audience and effect Relatively small, being Everyone in principle, All members of the trained or educated, heterogeneous. Intellectual satisfaction Immediate and direct Continuity, custom, Prestige. Diversion solidarity, integration Enlarging experience D. Give the synonyms and antonyms of the following words: Join the halves: If money were not spent on advertising, it 1.
Some firms spend large sums of money on 2. The target audience is the selection of the 3. A jingle is a short tune to statements about their products, services. Ego bait is intended to 5. Many manufacturers see advertising as an pedestrians and motorists. Advertising can be seen as a means to benefit from those goods and services.
The advent of satellite television has 7. Reduce large numbers of their workers. A hoaring is a site for poster advertising 9. If manufacturers do not advertise when The Trade Descriptions Acts were passed The purpose of much advertising Protect themselves against their own too- expenditure on established brands is to optimistic forecasts.
Translate the following sentences, using the following verbs and phrasals: Then build up your own sentences containing the phrases given at the end of the text: Complete the sentences with these phrases: Despite being a critical disaster, the film was a huge ……… 2.
The orchestra and their conductor were given a………at the end of the concert. People who are addicted to a particular ………seldom miss an episode. At the local arts cinema, foreign films are usually shown with ………, and only occasionally dubbed. Compared with most American blockbusters, it was a ………film, as very little funding was available.
Programmes on ………television attract the greatest number of viewers. Although the lead actor and actress were excellent, the ………were very well acted, too.
Official phone calls and letters. People often find themselves in official situations, in the company of their superiors or in relation with public institutions, and they feel embarrassed, they do not know what to do or how to express their opinion. We have already seen that information is usually standardized according to certain criteria as channel of communication or type of sender and receiver, and we have discussed the necessary procedures for sending and getting correct data through telephone or in writing.
Official situations make us even more formal, more polite. Compare the formal phone invitation with the informal one. Compare the formal letter of invitation with the informal one. Then compare a phone invitation with a letter of invitation. Is there George? Maybe you should also bring a friend. But what is on that day? Do you know the opera? And thanks for the invitation. See you there. Black, please? Black speaking. What can I do for you? David Wilson, the director of the Opera House.
Wilson for the invitation.
A cultural evening away from the office is always a pleasure. I shall be there. But could you be so kind so as to tell me whether the invitation is for two, because I would like to also bring my wife? Thank you again. Good bye, Mrs.
Consider the letter of invitation at point A1 in course number 3 and then conceive another one from your part to one of your friends whom you want to invite to a symposium you know he would be interested in. Attendance is limited so we must have our confirmation by November 25th. We sincerely hope that you will be able to join us on this occasion.
Yours faithfully, Andrew Patterson A2. Translate into English a letter of request and a letter of application: Stimate domn, Ref.: We have to learn a new part of the letter, used in the official correspondence, the reference number, which makes easier the filing and storing of information. Compare the Romanian polite formulas with the English ones. Rearrange the following paragraphs in the correct order to make up a covering letter.
Bear in mind that extensive letters for job application are drafted nowadays in case the applicant sends his professional documents to all firms likely to employ his services even if they have not made a public announcement of vacancies.
Try to apply this technique to your situation. At the moment I am working part time as an independent agent for Romanian and German importers of Chinese textiles and chemical products. I find the relevant Chinese factories for the downloaders, negotiate for them and translate their contracts into Chinese, Romanian or English.
I would appreciate if you considered meeting or speaking with me within the next two months about the possibility of my working for your company. I am writing in order to enquire about the possibility of an opening in your company.
My goal is to find a position in an international company and I would be interested in either research and development or marketing and sales. Please find enclosed my CV containing further details of my educational background experience. I am particularly interested in finding a position that would offer me management training, and that would involve my knowledge of chemical processes and my foreign language skills. My long experience of actively participating in committee meetings as a representative of my student unit has given me good presentation skills, as I am able to present ideas clearly and concisely to an audience.
The liaison work I have been doing has been challenging. I have learnt a great deal about the cultural differences in conducting business with Asian and European clients. I see my strong points as my ability to lead teams and manage tasks and groups, take the initiative, solve problems, make decisions and open and maintain friendly relationships with people from all walks of life, I have limitless energy and I am willing to work hard to achieve all the goals of any task I am set.
Make up phone dialogues or letters on the following topics: You are a student. Arrange through the telephone an appointment at your dean with the secretary of the faculty.
Write a letter of thanks for the scholarship offered to you by the board of the faculty. Write a polite letter of refusal to take part in the opening ceremony of an organisation. Conditional Clauses B1.
The latter denotes an action whose fulfillment is conditioned by the fulfillment of the action expressed by the verb of the former. The conditional clause can be introduced by if, provided that , suppose, supposing that , in case, so long as, on condition that, unless.
Conditional sentences are not difficult to understand, because there are three types of conditionals in Romanian and in English, too. You have got a present if you have come with me.
This emphatic structure is possible only for type 2 and type 3. The topic of the sentence is that of the interrogative. Had they informed me about the meeting, I would have attended it.
Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets: I will call the electrician if the lights to fail again. If more governments to wake up to what is happening, perhaps he would be able to avoid the disaster. It would be risky if you to drive this old car to Spain. I would take the day off if I to have stomach ache. I to stop working if I won a lot of money. If they to change more money, they could have stayed in a hotel. Even I had run as fast as I could, I to miss the bus.
Complete the following conditional structures: If a driver sees a zebra crossing the street ………………. I shall be happy if ………………. I should be rich and successful if………………. I won the prize unless ………………. If I went to visit London, ………………. I should have called you if ………………. I would have bought myself a new car in case………………. Had I been in your place ………………. Unless he had told me differently ………………. Write compositions on the following topics: What would you do if you were the president of the state?
What would you have done if your best friend had cheated on you? In case you become the director of an advertising company, how will you treat your employees? Where would you have liked to use your skills unless you had been born in Romania? When we talk about mass communication, we also need channels to carry the message. We will refer to these channels as the mass media.
Our definition of a mass medium will include not only the mechanical devices that transmit and sometimes store the message TV cameras, radio microphones, printing presses , but also the institutions that use these machines to transmit messages. When we talk about the mass media of television, radio, newspapers, magazines, sound recording, and film, we will be referring to the people, the polices, the organisations, and the technology that go into producing mass communication.
There are seven main and different mass media: Of course, these seven are not the only mass media that exist. If we choose, we might also include billboards, comic books, posters, direct mail, matchbooks, and buttons in our discussion. Answer the following questions: Which medium influences you the most? Do you know any specialised Romanian newspaper?
What kind of British television do you know? Is there a gap in the media market? What kind of new magazine, newspaper, TV or radio programme would you launch if you had adequate funds and a creative team behind you? How important is the image or presentation of an organisation or public figure?
Is employing a public relations firm a good way of improving this? Read, translate and comment the following text: We define the term communication as the process of sending, receiving and interpreting messages through which we relate to each other and to our larger world. It means that, if for centuries speech has been considered entirely individual, at the moment it represents social interaction, with established targets and expected feedback.
Contemporary theories of language prove our tendency to conceive utterance as connection between people, rather than self-expression of personal ideas.
In conclusion, communication is a process involving groups of people, of words, of gestures, of interests and of new realities facts , so we can say that starting from this point it is not difficult to reach organisational communication, mass communication or issue management. Organisations consist of independent goal-oriented activities of people who work together within a system of rules, norms and routines.
While there are important differences between the different media and between national societies and types of social system, there are also some similarities on which to base a generalisation.
Any social institution comprises a set of activities, carried out by people occupying certain roles, according to rules and shared understandings. The special features of media institution, as it is widely constituted, are as follows: This is in response to collective social needs as well as the demands of individuals. These are not only the physical channels of the communication network, but also the channels of custom and understanding which define who should, or is likely to, listen to whom.
The media institution also has a public character in that mass media deal with matters on which public opinion exists or can properly be formed i. Correlative is the association of media use with leisure and free time and its disassociation from work and duty. Relate also is the formal powerlessness of the media institution: These features are not all unique to the media, but their existence in combination gives the mass media their distinctive character and particular significance in a modern society.
We can find other characteristics, of course, but these ones are the necessary minimum for a proper definition. Try to find other possible feature of mass media and discuss them. Think of the good and bad parts of the media, of written and electronic press. Discuss the ethics of mass media. Read and translate the following text and then answer the questions.
What do you think about such an approach, is it functional or not? Have you read about other theories of the kind? Can you conceive a theory of your own about the use of media? At the individual level, the functional approach to media is given the general name of the uses-and- gratifications model. In its simplest form, this model posits that audience members have certain needs that are satisfied by using non-media and media sources.
The actual needs satisfied by the media are called media gratifications. Our knowledge of these gratifications typically comes from surveys that have asked people a large number of questions about how they use media. Several researchers have classified the various uses and gratifications into a fourfold category system: Cognition means the act of coming to know something.
When a person uses a mass medium to obtain information about something, than he or she is using the medium in a cognitive way. Diversion can take many forms, including: Psychologists have also identified a set of social integrative needs, including our need to strengthen our contact with family, friends and others in our society. The media function that addresses this need is called social utility, and this usage can take several forms: On the other hand, humans occasionally need to escape from certain activities and they use media not only for relaxation but also for purposes that are best described as withdrawal uses.
At times, people use the mass media to create a barrier between themselves and other people or other activities. For example, the media help people avoid certain chores that must be done. Which are the main gratifications obtained through the media? Which are the basic forms of diversion through media? What is social utility? What is parasocial relationship?
What is withdrawal? Translate into English and comment upon the categories of media described in the text. Try to give examples for each type. Write an essay giving your opinion about the role of media in one of the following situations: The rise and fall of super-stars in music industry example: Michael Jackson. The image of the president of a country for the citizens example: Explain the following words and phrases and make sentences with them: Complete each sentence with a word formed from one of these verbs: Choose the correct word or phrase from the pair in brackets to complete each sentence: The actors have been ………the play all this week.
The audience applauded wildly when the director appeared on the ……… to take his bow. Although the play has a large number of ………, it is comparatively easy to follow the plot. The latest television dramatisation was filmed entirely ………in a country village not far from here. Which ………did Marlene Dietrich play in her last film? Translate into English the following sentences, using the verbs to notice, to observe, to perceive and to remark.
Try to make sentences with the phrases related to these verbs, thus learning to use them in the suitable contexts: Commercial correspondence It is a well-known fact that any letter is the equivalent of a visiting card for the person who sends it. This is of capital importance in the case of commercial correspondence, because a firm is appreciated by the people with whom it establishes connections through the quality of the letters sent by the members of the organisation.
Thus, writing business letters represents an essential element within a transaction, and the techniques have developed and refined along the ages, commercial correspondence becoming almost a science.
For being considered well done from the technical point of view, a business letter should be clear, concise, polite, accomplishing a union of the style with the message. Read and translate the following business letters. Bear in mind their names. We are a large chain of retailers and are looking for a manufacturer which could supply us with a wide range of sweaters for the teenage market.
We would like to know about your usual terms of a contract. If these conditions interest you and if you can meet orders of over garments, please send us your current catalogue and price-list. We hope to hear from you soon. Yours faithfully, Lionel Crane General Manager This type of letter contains in the body of the letter data about the source from which a firm has found out about the other firm, a brief presentation of the activities of the requiring company, the description of the terms of a possible contract or understanding and the enquiry for catalogues and price lists.
The shortest form of this kind of letter would include a presentation and a polite request of information. Remember the structure, the pattern of this type of letter and try to conceive an enquiry yourself. Letters of reply and quotations Satex S. Crane, General Manager Dear Mr. Crane, We are pleased to receive your enquiry and to hear that you liked our range of sweaters. There will certainly be no trouble in supplying you from our wide selection of garments which we make for all age groups.
However, we would be prepared to review this once we have established a firm trading association with you. Enclosed you will find our summer catalogue and price list.
We are sure you will find a ready sale for our products in England as have other retailers throughout Europe and America, and we do hope we can reach an agreement on the terms quoted.
Thank you for your interest, we look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely, D. Causio Notice how, in the reply, Mr. Causio does not turn down the request but suggests a counter-offer. Observe two newly introduced parts of a letter, the letterhead antet and the attention note for the addressee attn. Write a quotation of your own. Complete the following sentences which open and close business letters: Our firm is aware that you are exporters of ……… b.
Your name was given to us by……… c. We are informed that your firm produces………and we would be interested in……… d. If you are interested in downloading our merchandise we inform you that……… e. We are very interested in your offer as so ……… f.
If you agree with our terms, please ……… g. We are looking forward to ……… h. We thank you for your confidence in us and ……… i. Having favourably solved our first offer, we hope ……… j. We would certainly appreciate ……… k. You may be sure of ……… l. Enclosed to this letter ……… m. With our best thanks ……… n. Translate into English the following letters, adding to them the missing parts: Cu respect, Lionel Crane Director general b.
Cu respect, Lionel Crane Director general A4. Choose a topic and write a letter: Request for a catalogue from a firm of tapes and cassettes whose products you have seen at a fair.
You are the director of an advertising agency, answer to the proposal of co-operation of a television station. Answer the two letters you have translated before, on behalf of Mr. Write a letter of complaint for the products you have ordered from a company of cosmetics.
The items arrived to you very damaged. You are the manager of a firm which offers shipment for goods. Write a reply to another company, explaining the ways in which you can help them with transport.
You are the manager of a small company. Write a letter to a larger company in the same field, proposing to co-operate in certain activities. The Subjunctive B1. In English, we should try to remember the phrases requiring Subjunctive, which usually express: There are two types of Subjunctive in English: Subjunctive 1 synthetic: Rules Examples 1.
In sentences expressing greetings or Long live our Queen! So be it! Curse the wind! In sentences expressing an order or a demand Everybody come here. After verbs expressing order, decision, I doubt that he be here on time. I doubt that he suggestion, condition, doubt, purpose, fear, should be here on time.
In expressions taken from the Medieval If need be, I shall be there. English Language: After phrases like would rather, had better, I would rather go to the mountains than stay in had best, would sooner, would have town. You had better leave now. Subjunctive 2 analytical: Sometimes Subjunctive 2 can be used instead of Subjunctive 1 in situations 3 and 4 mentioned in the table above, but anyhow the specific form for these cases remain Subjunctive 1.
It is better that we went now. I doubt that he were here on time. It expresses a desire introduced by an Oh, that it were possible! I wish I were you. After phrases like as if, as though, even if, I asked him if this were what he wanted. L-am even though, rather than, than that. After the expressions with —ever: After be afraid that, fear that, be terrified I am so glad that you were here.
I am afraid lest he missed the train. Lest is a negative form, so it is used with a verb in the affirmative form. Finish the sentences: It is important that this paper ……… 2. My mother took me to the cinema so that I ……… 3. I wish you ……… 5. I suggest that he ……… b. Replace the Infinitive in brackets with the appropriate forms of the Subjunctive: You had better to listen to me.
It is likely that he to be awarded a prize. I wish you to learn better. I asked her if this to be what she meant.
You look as if you to be tired. Whoever they to be tell them to wait. Even though she to ask she would not have been given an answer. It is high time you to make up your mind whether you want to do the job or not. She had rather to come with you. I should like to have a rest rather than to join you on the trip.
Cezar Petrescu — Fram, ursul polar B4. Conceive a composition on one of the following topics: Things you would rather do. If you were the first man on the moon, what would you write back home? Which are your secret wishes?
Newspapers are publications usually issued on a daily or weekly basis, the main function of which is to report the news. Newspapers also provide commentary on the news, advocate various public policies, furnish special information and advice to readers, and sometimes include features such as comic strips, cartoons and serialised books.
In nearly all cases and in varying degrees, they depend on the publication of commercial advertising for their income. Periodicals are publications released at regular intervals, often called journals, or referred to as magazines when designating those for recreational reading. Periodicals differ from the other major form of serial publication, newspapers.
Most newspapers are issued daily on pulp paper and have relatively large, unbound pages; periodicals generally appear on finer paper, with smaller bound pages, and at intervals longer than a day weekly, biweekly, monthly, quarterly, or even annually. As a whole, periodicals feature, often exclusively, material of special interest to particular audiences.
The contents of periodicals are often unrelated to current new stories; when dealing with the news, they tend to do so in the form of summaries or commentaries. Do you regularly read newspapers? Which newspaper do you prefer?
Do you read any magazines? Which one do you like from the Romanian market? If you were the editor-in-chief of a newspaper, what would you do to improve its circulation? Which target-audience would you choose? Do you think Romanian newspapers and magazines are comparable to those in the Western countries? Are they better, are they worse? Which part of a newspaper would you rather write: Which articles do you consider the most interesting in the Romanian newspapers?
What kind of magazine would you like to work for, one for entertainment, one specialised on politics, one for the teenagers, or one specialised on informatics? Can you give examples of these kinds of magazines on the Romanian market? Would you like to be a journalist for the printed press?
Do you consider our written press to be a free one? Give reasons for or against it. Give examples for each type of newspaper or magazine described. Find the Romanian terms for the English words and phrases related to newspaper and magazine industries. The newspaper industry is currently examining how well it fits with modern lifestyles and what it must do to keep and attract readers in an age in which competition for their time has become intense.
Obviously, there are many ways to categorise an industry as diverse as this one.
We group papers by frequency of publication dailies and weeklies , by market size national, large, medium and small and, finally, by their appeal to specialised interest groups for minority groups, students, professionals and shoppers. The departmental structure and staffing of a newspaper vary with its size, but all papers have certain common aspects.
They have a publisher and are generally divided into three main departments: Getting out a newspaper is a twenty-four-hour-a-day job. News happens at all hours and many stories happen unexpectedly. There are two basic sources of news copy: As the day progresses, reporters return from assignments and write their news stories at the keyboard of a video-display terminal VDT. The finished story is transmitted electronically to a computer, where it is stored.
These stories are called up by copy editors, who trim and make changes and code the articles for use in the paper. The managing editor decides that the story is newsworthy and sends it back to the computer for processing. Decisions about page make up, the amount of space to be devoted to a story and the photographs are made as the deadline for publication appears.
Meanwhile, in the composing room, high speed computerised photocomposition machines take electronic impulses and translate them into images and words. An offset plate is made by placing the negative between glass and a sheet of photosensitive metal and exposing the plate to bright light. Then, huge rolls of newsprint are threaded into the press and the printing process begins.
Finished and folded papers are sent by the conveyor belt to the distribution area. If we try to classify magazines, we can divide them according to two criteria: A consumer magazine is one that can be acquired by anyone, through a subscription or a single-copy download or by obtaining a free store.
Business magazines or trade publications serve a particular business industry or profession and are published by independent companies that are connected with the field they serve. Literary reviews and academic journals, generally with circulation under 10,, are published by non- profit organisations and funded by universities, foundations or groups of professionals. Newsletters are publications of typically four to eight pages which try to give their readers inside information about highly specialised topics, establishing a personal tone between writer and reader.
A second useful way of structuring the magazine industry is to divide it by function. The production function consists of approximately 2,, publishers and encompasses all the elements necessary to put out a magazine — copy, art work, photos, titles, layout, printing and binding.
The distribution function handles the job of getting the magazine to the reader, through paid or free controlled circulation. The retail function deals with the sellers, which may be corner newsstands, drugstores, supermarkets, tobacco shops, bookshops.
A typical magazine is generally headed by a publisher who oversees four main departments: Producing a magazine requires a great deal of lead time. Most issues are planned several months or at least several weeks in advance. The first step in all magazine production is preliminary planning and the generation of ideas for upcoming issues.
Once this step is completed, the managing editor starts assigning certain articles to staff writers or freelancers. The next step involves putting together a miniature dummy. A dummy is simply a plan or blueprint of the pages for the upcoming issue that shows the contents in their proper order. The printing of the magazine resembles that of the newspaper in the final stages.
Read the following text and then answer the questions. The lack of proper legal regulation in the totalitarian era has made it practically impossible for the media to publish any critical information concerning the upper ruling circles and a whole range of social phenomena. The legislative vacuum engulfing the sphere of social life was affecting the media as well. In recent years, media situation has changed considerably.
In the course of establishing a government of law, society could not disregard the media. There was an urgent need to establish a legal basis for the work of journalists. The recent political and social changes disclosed many social cankers: The lack of media legislation was more than obvious. The long-awaited day came in with the adoption of the Press and Media Act still within the former Soviet Union.
On its ratification, the act came into effect in the Republic of Moldavia. This act eliminated the strict political control over the press and provided acceptable work conditions for the journalists. It established the freedom of media and the inadmissibility of censorship. Now there was more freedom, but the responsibility of the editorial staff and the author for the published information increased as well.
Nevertheless, the freedom of press is not absolute.
The press is prohibited from disclosure of state secrets, propaganda of war, cruelty, and violence, race, national, and religious discrimination. Another important point is the legalisation of the right to publishing.
The act established that media may be founded by government agencies, lawfully acting parties and organisations, as well as by private persons of legal age. The act also regulated the relations between editors and founders, editors and authors, stipulating also the right of the editors to collect information.
Thus, conditions were set to grant freedom of speech and freedom of press and to give all power structures the opportunity to propagate their views through the mass media. This legislative act was in line with the requirements of the respective historical period, laying the foundations of a further legislative progress in the sphere of mass media […]. V, no. Was it easy for the Moldavian journalists to do their job?
What difficulties did they encounter? What were the main provisions of the Press and Media Act of in Moldova? Was this law all that the journalists needed to protect their work conditions? Do you think it is easy to work as a journalist in a small former communist country? Accomplish a table with the best, the most well known and the most circulated newspapers in Romania. Use as a model the table of the most famous U. The paper has recently celebrated its hundredth anniversary.
Today International, a newcomer to the scene, with a circulation of about 40,, a Gannett-owned paper, read most of all by U.
Explain the following words and phrases: Match the words on the left with the correct definitions. Supply the suitable words: A person who sends news, articles, reports to a newspaper is called ………..
Insert in the blanks the right word: We should consider the major changes in ………. In short, we can identify four such changes. The ………. The large circulation of the penny press made ……….
Moreover, the ………. As a result, advertisers were greatly attracted to this new ………. The missing words are the following: Appearing with the consolidation trend and enjoying a short but lively reign was ………. The radio, Hollywood, the airplane, prohibition and Al Capone were all ………. It was perhaps inevitable that ………. The papers that best exemplified jazz journalism all sprang up in New-York between and ; all were characterised by two features: The New-York Daily News had a slow start but by ……….
Its tabloid size was easier for the people to ………. Comic ………. Translate into English, using the verbs to earn, to gain and to win: Searching for a job Of all the things you do in life, few are more important than getting a job. Whether it involves your first job or one further down your career path, job seeking is directly related to your success and your happiness.
It is vital that you conduct the job search properly, that you prepare wisely and carefully and proceed diligently.
You can begin your job search long before you are ready to find employment, building relationships with people who could help you find work when you need it. Such persons include classmates, professors and business people.
When you are ready to search for your career job, you should begin the effort by analysing yourself, your potential and abilities, your desires and ideals and the real opportunities on the market. You should take into account education, personal qualities and special qualifications, but in the same time the requirements of the possible employers.
The stages from picking up a desired position to getting a certain job comprise writing the application letter as we described it in the previous course and eventually completing the application form, writing the Curriculum Vitae and sustaining the interview.
If your self-analysis and your behaviour during the stages were well established and well prepared, then you have received the job you were looking for. The following steps form an ideal chain in the process of applying for a job. Which of them do you think you could skip in reality? You identify what you do well and enjoy doing You network, i.
You receive a letter saying that you have been You receive a letter saying that you have not shortlisted, i. Curriculum Vitae is an essential part of your job hunting. There are many ways of writing it and on the following pages you will discover two of them. The first one is very detailed and it describes your abilities and training widely, but it is not very comfortable for the future employer as he could have to read many CVs in a short period of time and he would need synthetic presentations.
The second one is very easily readable and systematic, but maybe it does not always tell all the important things about you. The courses I attended at the above-mentioned faculty included: My responsibilities included: My responsibilities include: Family name: First names: Date of birth: Nationality and Passport No: Civil status: Contact address: Institution Faculty of ……… Date: Bachelor of Arts Institution Faculty of ……… Date: Post-graduate in ……… 8.
Language skills: Membership of professional bodies: Other skills: Present position: Years within the firm: Key qualifications: Professional Experience Record: Interview Myths.
Here are some assumptions about job interviews, some correct, some not. Decide which of them are real tips for success in an interview situation. While waiting in the office, you should just sit and wait to be called. Preparation will help me do well. If the interviewer asks me if I have any negative points or weaknesses I should indicate that I have none. It is perfectly acceptable to call the employer within two weeks of submitting my job application materials to ask when I might expect to hear about the final decision.
They often fail to do that. The most important time of the interview is the last five minutes, when I discuss salary, ask about hiring decision and close the interview. I should keep my answers as short as possible, so the interviewer will have time to ask more questions.
I can also ask questions regarding the organisation of the company. I should say that I am looking for a job which can offer me greater challenge and more opportunities for using my skills. Most employers issue invitations to interview by phone.
My job interview begins as soon as I walk through the office door. As I might be under observation all the time, I could ask the secretary some friendly questions about the organisation, in case they ask her opinion about me. The interviewer is the only one who can ask questions. Be tactful, by turning a possible negative situation into a positive one. I should mind how I look and sit. What the interviewer thinks about me in the first minutes will set the tone of the interview.
I cannot prepare for an interview because: I do not know if I will get an interview; I do not know what the interviewer will ask; actually, once I am invited to an interview, I almost have a job. Once I submit my application papers for the job, the proper thing to do is to wait until I hear from the employer. The interviewer is looking for thoughtful answers that indicate some depth on my part. So I should go from general responses to specifics that indicate my depth of knowledge and interest.
If asked why I am leaving my job, I should criticise my colleagues or say I find my present work boring and underpaid. Invitations to interviews normally come by letter or telegram. Read and translate the following interview, paying attention to the things people say to each other in this official situation. Then try to simulate your answers to the questions comprised in the interview.
Do you think your answers could be firmer and better prepared? Why do you think the interviewers liked the fellow and, even though he seemed hesitating sometimes, in the end they were about to decide that he was the proper person for the job? What do you think a possible employer would appreciate the most in your attitude? Which quality would you like to stress as being your dominant feature?