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proceeds from this book to NFAAA. The Firefighter's Handbook: Essentials of Firefighting and Emergency Response, .. vi CONTENTS Firefighter's Handbook . Chapter Contents. Chapter 6 • Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment Structural Fire Fighting Protective Clothing.. Wildland Personal Protective. Books shelved as firefighting: Report from Engine Co. 82 by Dennis Smokejumper: A Memoir by One of America's Most Select Airborne Firefighters ( ebook) by.
In addition to career firefighters, there are conscripted firefighters, generally young adults between the ages of , that join under the national service scheme see Conscription in Singapore. In India municipalities are required by law to have a fire brigade and participate in a regional fire service. Each city has its own fire brigade. The main functions of firefighting services in India are provision of fire protection and of services during emergencies such as building collapses, drowning cases, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees, appropriate action during natural calamities, and so on.
Industrial corporations also have their own firefighting service. Each airport and seaport has its own firefighting units.
Chile is the only country in the world where all firefighters are volunteers. This institution works with all the companies in the country, coordinating, guiding and serving as a link between the government and the Corps.
The training in Denmark is at their local firestation. You start on a standard training where you are learning to cut open cars and other vehicles together with a special first aid course. This takes around a year to complete, and when you have that "degree" it is posible to be educated even further.
The focus is now "how to put out fires", here you undergo training with fire and specialized drills to improve the skills of the firefighters. This education takes around a year aswell. After this you are a fully educated firefighter and can now move into buildings on fire.
You can be educated furthermore, when you have experience. After 5 years of expirence you can take "holdleder" which is an teamleader on the scene of the fire, here you are in charge of a team with four to five members.
Communication and command structure[ edit ] New South Wales Fire Brigade station officer red helmet and firefighters yellow helmets The expedient and accurate handling of fire alarms or calls are significant factors in the successful outcome of any incident.
Fire department communications play a critical role in that successful outcome. Fire department communications include the methods by which the public can notify the communications center of an emergency, the methods by which the center can notify the proper fire fighting forces, and the methods by which information is exchanged at the scene.
One method is to use a megaphone to communicate. A telecommunicator often referred to as a Operator [ citation needed ] has a role different from but just as important as other emergency personnel. The telecommunicator must process calls from unknown and unseen individuals, usually calling under stressful conditions.
It is the dispatcher's responsibility to bring order to chaos. While some fire departments are large enough to utilize their own telecommunication dispatcher, most rural and small areas rely on a central dispatcher to provide handling of fire, rescue, and police services.
Firefighters are trained to use communications equipment to receive alarms, give and receive commands, request assistance, and report on conditions. Since firefighters from different agencies routinely provide mutual aid to each other, and routinely operate at incidents where other emergency services are present, it is essential to have structures in place to establish a unified chain of command, and share information between agencies.
The U. A longer story shows why. A colleague and I recently helped an electronics company solve a major yield problem.
The company fabricated parts in one U. The company had transferred assembly to Asia to reduce labor costs just as a new product was being introduced. At about this time, the assembly yields crashed; half or more of the devices failed. The result was an outbreak of fire fighting. A team was charged with finding a quick solution. Each member had a pet theory about what was happening and how changing the process would fix it.
Because of constraints at the factory, it took about a month to get the results from each trial. Hence there was no proof that the problem was due to a difference between the two facilities; it could have resulted from a change in fabrication that happened to coincide with the factory move.
After all, the fabrication process was ramping up at the same time. But once the pressure from customers got too great, people fell back on patching, believing it would deliver faster results.
We suggested that the company develop a scientific understanding of the problem. To that end, we used lab experiments, mathematical analysis, and large controlled experiments in the factory. The main problem turned out to be previously unknown temperature sensitivity in assembly, the direct result of a process change that had been instituted to solve a problem the year before.
It had been happening in both the U. Once the cause of the problem was understood, fixing it was straightforward. Based on its new knowledge, the company also improved yields on many other products. And the knowledge gave the company a significant advantage over competitors grappling with similar problems. It took months to solve the problem this way, but fire fighting had taken even longer, to no avail. When changes are introduced haphazardly, as they were for this process, they are frequently institutionalized without careful study.
Many years later, he met an old friend who was still working there. The friend told him the factory was producing an anticorrosion paint that contained a compound likely to accelerate corrosion. As it happened, Levi had first included the compound in the formula.
He did it strictly as a temporary measure to counter contamination in an important raw material, but his rationale was forgotten when he left, and the recipe was carved in stone. Haphazardly introduced changes raise an even more serious issue: they can easily create new problems elsewhere in the process. That happens all the time in software development: while patching one bug, you create another. The same thing often happens in factories. In a metalworking factory, in order to improve performance of their part of the process, engineers changed the makeup of a coating.
Patching can create new problems whenever the patches are not validated carefully. Haphazardly introduced changes can easily create new problems elsewhere in the process. Patching can be justified in a few situations. If that error occurs, the software delivers an error message and stops further computation.
This is a patch because it does not solve the real problem, but it does prevent it from worsening. This weeding out raises costs, but it avoids passing on the defective parts. Such superficial solutions are acceptable if several conditions are met. And third, they should have a better benefit-cost ratio than other solutions. The key cost here is not dollars but engineering time. With those exceptions, patching is destructive. Solution rates fall and the number of hidden problems rises.
Such turnarounds are a major drain on money and management time. And even when executives intervene, they sometimes make fire-fighting worse by tackling only the current crisis without fixing its deeper causes.
Fortunately, there are ways to avoid reaching such a crisis point.
They can be loosely sorted into three categories: tactical, strategic, and cultural. Tactical Methods.
Tactical methods can be put into effect quickly without making high-level policy changes. Although some of the methods are culturally difficult in U. Add temporary problem solvers. When the rate of new problems jumps, bringing in temporary assistance is a good short-term solution. Fire-fighting departments, the real kind, put out calls for fire-fighters from neighboring areas to deal with the biggest blazes.
In high tech, most hard-disk-drive companies have learned to send development engineers from the United States directly to their Asian factories when they start manufacturing a new product. These extra troubleshooters bring crucial expertise because they have often seen related problems during prototyping. Furthermore, this practice creates a powerful incentive: the U.
There are drawbacks to temporary workers, of course. Second, pulling problem solvers from other parts of the organization risks setting fires in those areas. Third, temporary workers are often unfamiliar with the situation. Shut down operations. When the number of problems becomes too large, shut down operations until all are solved. Or, allow a new problem into the queue only when an old one is removed. Organizations where fire fighting is not part of the culture do this instinctively during product ramp-up.
Some Hewlett-Packard development centers shut down a pilot line for the rest of the day once a certain number of problems is backlogged because until those problems are solved, there is no stable baseline for detecting and solving additional problems.
Few companies have the fortitude to limit the queue size during normal operations. Perform triage. Another approach to limiting the queue is to do deliberately what will happen anyway: admit that some problems will not be solved.
The triage technique, borrowed from military medicine, controls the queue by regulating entry. Rather than let problems queue up indefinitely, or work their way through the queue only to be worked on sporadically, decide whether to commit resources to a problem when it first arises.
This technique is organizationally difficult. Strategic approaches to fire fighting take longer to implement than tactical methods, but they pay off across a range of projects and over long periods. The first several changes we mention focus on product design, but they have a major impact on manufacturing as well.
Change design strategies. New product design has come a long way in the past decade. In some industries, companies have increased the commonality of designs across generations and products. That has reduced the number of design problems within and across product generations as well as the changes, and therefore the problems, in manufacturing.
Commonality can be further enhanced by modular designs, which allow improvement of one section of a product without much change to others. For example, hard-disk-drive companies used to have separate teams on successive drive generations—leading to designs where even the screws changed with each product.
Now the capacity of a drive can be doubled by changing only the heads, media, and firmware, and substituting the latest and fastest signal processing chips on the circuit card.
The new design is manufactured almost exactly as the previous one was, and the problems are concentrated in the new areas. Seagate, for instance, can transfer some products into manufacturing by moving only a few development engineers to the factory temporarily; five years ago, 20 or more were commonly needed.
Outsource some parts of design. The subcontractor building the subsystem determines the best way to achieve the objectives, including which technologies to use.
While the total number of problems may not go down, many are removed from the central design team. Solve classes of problems, not individual problems. An example of problem classes comes from the semiconductor industry. When integrated circuits were first manufactured, most circuits had to be thrown away because of defects. Companies developed codes for describing the failures based on which tests the circuits failed.
When losses due to a particular code were high, a team would try to figure out why. Gradually it became clear that many individual problems were caused by particles falling on wafer surfaces and ruining the circuits. As circuits got smaller, ever smaller particles became problematic.
Another breakthrough came when engineers realized that people brought particles into the clean rooms. Determining classes of problems requires a deliberate, extensive, and sustained commitment to formal problem solving. A company must correlate information from different parts of the organization over long periods of time, develop scientific models that yield higher levels of process understanding, and run controlled experimentation in the factory.
These are exactly the kinds of long-term activities that fire fighting pushes out. Determining classes of problems requires a deliberate, extensive, and sustained commitment to formal problem solving—exactly what fire fighting pushes out. Use learning lines. Learning lines are production lines run to maximize real problem solving. Unlike pilot lines, which use special equipment and operators, learning lines use standard materials to make real products for customers.
Often the performance of learning lines is the best in the factory, because innovations are put in place there first and problems are rapidly detected and solved. Part of the art of using a learning line is ensuring that it faithfully reflects conditions throughout the factory—and that improvements are quickly transferred to the rest of the plant.
This is accomplished by not isolating engineers on the learning line. Every engineer should be able to use the learning line as a laboratory for investigation. Develop more problem solvers.
One of the successes of the TQM movement is that nonengineers have been trained to solve simple problems. Even though they are not as fast or as knowledgeable as engineers, technicians and others can free up resources for difficult problems by handling many of the more mundane ones. Cultural Methods.
Cultural changes require shifts in the mind-set of the whole organization and in the behavior of senior managers. If managers are too far removed from the problems to see the consequences, and if the reward system favors firefighters, then the vicious cycle of fire fighting will begin.
Avoiding this depends on the culture of middle and senior managers. We suggest the following guidelines. Computer Thrashing A computer operating system OS can exhibit a behavior that is analogous to fire fighting. An OS has many demands placed on it simultaneously.
For example, desktop PCs monitor a network connection, update the clock, interpret keystrokes, update the display, perform calculations, drive a printer, accept data from the hard-disk drive, collect garbage, and so forth.