Environmental degradation pdf


PDF | The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green Environmental degradation is of many types and have many. PDF | Our environment is deteriorating for the last two centuries and almost every part of the planet has been touched by it in one way or the. environment–and especially environmental degradation–on social structures and Individuals respond to environmental degradation in a variety of ways: they.

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Environmental Degradation Pdf

Environmental Degradation: Causes, Impacts and Mitigation Dr. Mahendra Pratap Choudhary Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University. came a big issue in the eighties, however, that environmental degradation was perceived between economic growth and environmental degradation. I define . Essays on environmental degradation and economic development. Economies and finances. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I,

Access the publication Climate change will have a progressively increasing impact on environmental degradation and environmentally dependent socio-economic systems with potential to cause substantial population displacement. However, we know little about the interplay between environmental change and stresses on ecological systems, resulting socio-economic vulnerability and potential outcomes in terms of population displacement or induced migration. So far these relationships are poorly conceptualized, lack systematic investigation, and are reduced to simplistic causal explanations. When people are faced with severe environmental degradation they have one of three options: 1 stay and adapt to mitigate the effects; 2 stay, do nothing and accept a lower quality of life; or 3 leave the affected area. The process of movement and migration is usually subject to a complex set of push and pull forces, where push forces relate to the source area while pull factors relate to the destination. These forces are in constant flux, as much as environmental change, and interact with socio-economic and political conditions including state or government decision making powers, which can tip the balance at any point by either denying movement or the right to settle elsewhere.

Irrigation increases salt and nutrient content in areas that would not normally be affected, and damages streams and rivers from damming and removal of water.

Fertilizer enters both human and livestock waste streams that eventually enter groundwater, while nitrogen, phosphorus, and other chemicals from fertilizer can acidify both soils and water. Certain agricultural demands may increase more than others with an increasingly wealthier global population, and meat is one commodity expected to double global food demand by , [13] which directly affects the global supply of fresh water.

Cows need water to drink, more if the temperature is high and humidity is low, and more if the production system the cow is in is extensive, since finding food takes more effort.

Water is needed in processing of the meat, and also in the production of feed for the livestock. Manure can contaminate bodies of freshwater, and slaughterhouses, depending on how well they are managed, contribute waste such as blood, fat, hair, and other bodily contents to supplies of fresh water. Reservoirs are operated based on past hydrologic records, and irrigation systems on historical temperature, water availability, and crop water requirements; these may not be a reliable guide to the future.

Re-examining engineering designs, operations, optimizations, and planning, as well as re-evaluating legal, technical, and economic approaches to manage water resources are very important for the future of water management in response to water degradation. Another approach is water privatization ; despite its economic and cultural effects, service quality and overall quality of the water can be more easily controlled and distributed.

Rationality and sustainability is appropriate, and requires limits to overexploitation and pollution and efforts in conservation. Classically, resources simply become depleted. Air, water, and soil are all resources which are vulnerable to depletion through overuse, as are natural resources like minerals and oil deposits.

Habitat pressures which force animals into a small area can also contribute to resource depletion, as the animals consume a high volume of material in a small area. Pollution is another cause of environmental degradation. When the environment becomes polluted, it means that toxic substances have rendered it unhealthy.

Pollution can come from a variety of sources, including vehicle emissions, agricultural runoff, accidental chemical release from factories, and poorly-managed harvesting of natural resources.

Climate change, environmental degradation and migration

Human Sources Humans and their activities are a major source of environmental degradation. Water and Air Pollution Water and air pollution are unfortunately the common causes of environmental degradation.

Pollution introduces contaminants into the environment that can maim or even kill plant and animal species. The two often go hand in hand. Acid Rain Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide from coal plant emissions combines with moisture present in the air.

A chemical reaction creates this acid precipitation. Acid rain can acidify and pollute lakes and streams. It causes similar effects to the soil. According to the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA , if enough acid rain falls in a given environment, it can acidify the water or soil to a point where no life can be sustained.

Essay on environmental degradation pdf

Plants die off. The animals that depend upon them disappear. The condition of the environment deteriorates. Agricultural Runoff Farming creates agriculture runoff issues. Agricultural runoff is a deadly source of pollutants which can degrade environments, so much so that the EPA identifies agriculture as the primary source of water pollution. When it does so, it carries the fertilizers and pesticides used on the farm lands into water resources.

Introducing poisons into waterways will have dire consequences. Fertilizers, whether or not they are organic, carry equal risks. Fertilizers containing large amounts of phosphorus can cause explosions of algae in lakes.

As the algae die, bacteria start to breakdown the organic material. It soon develops into a situation where bacteria are using up the available dissolved oxygen in the water. Plants, fish, and other organisms begin to die off. The water becomes acidic.

Like acid rain, lakes become dead zones with conditions so toxic that neither plants nor animals can live in these environments. Urban Development According to many noted ecologists, urban development is one of the primary causes of environmental degradation.

As populations increased, so did the need for land for homes and farms. Wetlands were drained. Grasslands were ploughed over. Natural Sources While environmental degradation is most commonly associated with the activities of humans, the fact is that environments are also constantly changing over time.

With or without the impact of human activities, some ecosystems degrade over time to the point where they cannot support the life that is "meant" to live there.

Climate change, environmental degradation and migration | Environmental Migration Portal

Things like landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and wildfires can completely destroy local plant and animal communities to the point where they can no longer function.

This can either come about through physical destruction via natural disaster or by the long- term degradation of resources by the introduction of an invasive alien species to a new habitat. The latter often occurs after hurricanes, when lizards and insects are washed across small stretches of water to foreign environments. Sometimes, the environment cannot keep up with the new species, and degradation can occur.

Degradation occurs when earth's natural resources are depleted.

The resources which are affected include water, air and soil. The degradation also impacts our wildlife, plants, animals and micro-organisms. Our land, water and soil are compromised when people exhaust resources or release harmful chemicals into the air. Deforestation, wasting resources, and pollution all add to the demise of an environmentally-sound and safe planet.

When factories produce harmful chemicals and toxic waste into bodies of water, humans suffer. Pesticides and fertilizers can also get into a region's water system and pollute it. Drinking water is contaminated. People are highly affected by the degradation of our planet and these unhealthy practices cause the illnesses, death in children and adults.

As humans dump waste products, use chemicals, and over fish in the oceans and seas, areas of beauty such as coral reefs are damaged.

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