Cost Accounting Foundations and Evolutions Michael R. Kinney, Texas A&M University Cecily A. Raiborn, Texas State University—San Marcos Australia • Brazil. Chapter (PDF Available) in Issues in Accounting Education 26(1) · February Cecily A. Raiborn, Texas State University—San Marcos. CHAPTER Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting in a Global Business Environment 1 L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S After completing this.
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Such aggression may range from simply stretching the limits of legitimacy all the way to outright fraud. WorldCom, Enron, Tyco, and HealthSouth are but a few of the many companies whose managers faced criminal penalties from acting unethically within the parameters of their jobs. Some of the aggressive accounting practices that have been exposed involved cost accounting information. In addition, the accounting profession promotes high ethical standards for accountants through several of its professional organizations.
Adherence to these standards helps management accountants attain a high level of professionalism, thereby facilitating the development of trust from people inside and outside the organization. Regularly communicate with business associates to avoid apparent conflicts of interest. Advise all parties of potential conflicts.
In that case, present the issue to the next level. If you cannot achieve a satisfactory resolution, submit the issue to the next management level. If your immediate superior is the chief executive officer or equivalent, the acceptable reviewing authority may be a group such as the audit committee, executive committee, board of directors, board of trustees, or owners.
Communication of such problems to authorities or individuals not employed or engaged by the organization is not considered appropriate, unless you believe there is a clear violation of the law.
Competence means that individuals will develop and maintain the skills needed to practice their profession. Acting with integrity means that individuals will not participate in activities that would discredit their company or profession. Credibility means that individuals will provide full, fair, and timely disclosure of all relevant information.
Federal laws, including SOX, provide for legal protection of whistle-blowers. Accountants should document what if any regulations have been violated, research and record the appropriate actions that should have been taken, and provide evidence of violation of such actions. If accountants cannot resolve the matter, their only recourse could be to resign and consult a legal advisor before reporting the matter to regulatory authorities.
All accountants, regardless of geographical or organizational placement, should recognize their obligations to their profession and to professional ethics. Ethics is one aspect of business that should be practiced consistently worldwide. The world has essentially become smaller through technology advances, improved communication capabilities, and trade agreements that promote international movement of goods and services among countries.
One key responsibility of top managers in organizing their businesses for global competition is the assignment of the authority and responsibility for making decisions. COM Chapter 1 Introduction to Cost Accounting Management accountants must focus on competence, confidentiality, integrity, and credibility in order to attain a high level of professionalism and trust.
Each organization is unique; therefore, even organizations in the same industries have unique strategies that are feasible and likely to be successful. These factors include core competencies, organizational structure, management style and organizational culture, organizational constraints, and environmental constraints.
For instance, in March , Borders Group Inc. Early in , the company closed almost half of its U. Waldenbooks stores and sold or franchised the majority of its overseas stores.
These decisions were made as the company changed its strategy in an attempt to curtail loss of book sales to discount and online chains.
Chapter 1 Introduction to Cost Accounting or activity the root of competitiveness and competitive advantage.
Technological innovation, engineering, product development, and after-sales service are examples of core competencies. The Japanese electronics industry is viewed as having a core competency in the miniaturization of electronics. Disney believes it has a core competency in entertainment. Managers are concerned with formulating strategy, and cost accountants are charged with providing management with the information necessary for assessing progress toward strategic achievement.
Successful cost leaders sustain a large market share by focusing almost exclusively on manufacturing products or providing services at a low cost. For example, Walmart, the Honda Fit, and Bic pens compete in their markets based on prices. Exhibit 1—6 provides a checklist of questions that help indicate whether an organization has a comprehensive strategy in place. Exhibit 1—6 Checklist of Strategy Questions 1.
Who are your five most important competitors? Is your firm more or less profitable than these firms? Is this difference due mainly to the mix of customers, to different costs, or to different requirements for profit?
Do you have higher or lower costs relative to your main competitors? Where in the cost structure for example, cost of raw materials, cost of product, cost of selling, cost of distributing, cost of advertising and marketing are the differences most pronounced? Shielarien Donguila. Ahren Soriano.
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