Convergence culture: where old and new media collide / Henry . with the leaders of the Survivor fan community; and Cynthia Jenkins. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Jenkins, Henry, –. Convergence culture: where old and new media collide / Henry. Jenkins. p. cm. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide Author: Henry Jenkins. 16 downloads Views 17MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF.
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Henry Jenkins at [email protected] (video)Winner of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies Katherine Singer Kovacs Book Award Choice. Jenkins repeatedly cautions that convergence—associated with the emer- media change to technological change, stripping aside the cultural. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide Format: ePub / PDF / Kindle Jenkins explains how the circulation of our leaders and participation.
Convergence Culture is i n many ways the culmination of the past eight years of m y life, an outgrowth of m y efforts to b u i l d u p M I T ' s Comparative M e d i a Studies program as a center for conversations about media change past, present, and future and of m y efforts to enlarge public dialogues about popular culture and contemporary life. A fuller account of h o w this book emerged from the concerns of Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture New York: Routledge, and was shaped by m y intellectual growth over the past decade can be found i n the introduction to m y anthology Fans, Gamers, and Bloggers: Exploring Participatory Culture New York: N e w York U n i v e r sity Press, Given that history, it is perhaps appropriate that m y first set of thanks goes to the students of the Comparative M e d i a Studies program.
Each and every one of them has h a d an impact on m y thinking, but I want especially to identify students whose w o r k significantly influenced the content of this book: Ivan A s k w i t h , R. Y o u are what gets me u p i n the morning and keeps me w o r k i n g late into the night. In particular, I want to thank A s w i n Punathambekar, w h o was the best possible research assistant on this project, not only digging up resources but challenging m y assumptions, and continuing to remain dedicated to the project long after he had left M I T to begin his doctoral w o r k at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
I also want to thank the members of the Comparative M e d i a Studies staff who supported these efforts i n countless ways: R. Bain, Jason Bentsman, Chris Pomiecko, Brian Theisen, and especially Susan Staple- vii Skenovano pro studijni ucely viii Acknowledgments ton, whose cheerful disposition and calm resourcefulness always prevented i m p e n d i n g disaster, and w h o supervised the proofing and fact checking of this project.
I also want to give a shout out to Philip S. Khoury, Kenan Sahin Dean, School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences at MIT, w h o has always been i n m y corner as we have struggled to make this program fly and w h o gave me time off to pursue this project. M y research has also been supported through the three chairs the dean has provided me: the A n n Fetter Friedlaender chair, the John E.
Burchard chair, and the Peter de Florez chair. This book emerged from many, many conversations w i t h Alex Chish o l m on long drives, early morning waits at airports, and meetings w i t h potential sponsors.
W h i l e Alex was not always patient w i t h my foolishness, he vetted and refined almost every concept in this book; he taught this humanist h o w to speak the language of business and, through this process, h o w to become a better analyst and critic of contemporary media trends.
I am also deeply indebted to Christopher Weaver, w h o co-taught our "Popular Culture i n the A g e of M e d i a Convergence" seminar w i t h me on multiple occasions, bringing our students and myself into direct contact w i t h leading figures i n the media industry and sharing frontline experiences that complemented and complicated my theoretical perspectives. I w o u l d also like to single out K u r t Squire, my faithful squire and sometimes writing collaborator, w h o has helped me to appreciate what games can teach us about the current state of our culture.
I was blessed to be able to have the readers and editors of Technology Revieiv as another sounding board for my ideas as they took shape. For several decades, the Communications F o r u m has brought leading media figures to campus, providing the right context for exploring ideas about where our media is going and how it is impacting public life.
Early conceptualizations of this book passed before two literary Skenovano pro studijni ucely Acknowledgments agents, Elyse Cheney and Carol M a n n , w h o hoped to make me into a commercial nonfiction writer.
They were sufficiently frank and discouraging enough to send me running back to the w o r l d of the university press, but i n the process, they taught me some new tricks that, I hope, have made this book much more readable.
Maybe someday. I also want to thank a host of friends and intellectual colleagues w h o offered me just-in-time advice and encouragement: H a r v e y A r d m a n , H a l Abelson, Robert C.
I should note that the separation between this list and the previous one was relatively arbitrary since many i n the first list are also friends and offered advice and encouragement. A n d last but hardly least, I want to thank H e n r y Jenkins IV, w h o has always made intellectual contributions to m y w o r k but w h o was central to the development of chapter 2 of this book, helping to connect me w i t h the leaders of the Survivor fan community; and Cynthia Jenkins, whose partnership i n all matters, personal and professional, fannish and scholarly, is valued more than I can or often do say.
Others depicted Bert as a Klansman, cavorting w i t h A d o l p h Hitler, dressed as the Unabomber, or having sex with Pamela Anderson.
It was all in good fun. In the wake of September 11, a Bangladesh-based publisher scanned the Web for Bin Laden images to print on anti-American signs, posters, and T-shirts.
Sesame Street is available in Pakistan in a localized format; the Arab w o r l d , thus, had no exposure to Bert and Ernie. The publisher may not have recognized Bert, but he must have thought the image was a good likeness of the alQaeda leader. Each of us constructs our own personal mythology from bits and fragments of information extracted from the media flow and transformed into resources through which we make sense of our everyday lives.
Because there is more information on any given topic than anyone can store in their head, there is an added incentive for us to talk among ourselves about the media we consume. This conversation creates buzz that is increasingly valued by the media industry.
None of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills. Collective intelligence can be seen as an alternative source of media power. We are learning how to use that power through our day-to-day interactions within convergence culture. It also occurs when people take media in their own hands.
Our lives, relationships, memories, fantasies, desires also flow across media channels. Intoxicated students at a local high school use their cell phones spontaneously to produce their own soft-core porn movie involving topless cheerleaders making out in the locker room.
Within hours, the movie is circulating across the school, being downloaded by students and teachers alike and watched between classes on personal media devices.
When people take media into their own hands, the results can be wonderfully creative; they can also be bad news for all involved. The American media environment is now being shaped by two seemingly contradictory trends: on the one hand, new media technologies have lowered production and distribution costs, expanded the range of available delivery channels, and enabled consumers archive, annotate, appropriate, and recirculate media content in powerful new ways.
At the same time, there has been an alarming concentration of the ownership of mainstream commercial media, with a small handful of multinational media conglomerates dominating all sectors of the entertainment industry. No one seems capable of describing both sets of changes at the same time, let alone show how they impact each other.
Some fear that media is out of control, others that it is too controlled. Some see a world without gatekeepers, others a world where gatekeepers have unprecedented power. Again the truth lies somewhere in between.