buku yang berjudul “Etika Ekonomi dan Bisnis: Perspektif Agama-agama di Indonesia”. Buku ini merupakan penerbitan ketiga hasil kerjasama antara. Download as PDF · Download Pengantar Download as Postscript. Print Pengantar etika bisnis / K. Bertens Send to Email Pengantar etika bisnis / K. Bertens. Etika Bisnis book. Read 5 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Buku teks ini menjadi pengantar yang komprehensif dan mudah dimengerti.

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To ask other readers questions about Pengantar Etika Bisnis, please sign up. Recent Questions saya ingin membaca buku ini dengan gratis flag Like · see . View pengantar-etika-bisnis-k-bertenspdf from SAKA AKS at Avicenna k bertens ebook rangkuman buku pengantar etika bisnis k bertens harga buku. Ajar untuk matakuliah ETIKA PROFESI telah dapat diluncurkan. Buku Ajar ini Oleh karena itu, sebagai pendukung Buku Ajar ini, mahasiswa diharapkan.

GCG muncul karena maraknya skandal perusahaan yang menimpa perusahaan - perusahaan besar, baik yang ada di Indonesia maupun yang ada di Amerika Serikat. GCG muncul karena memang diperlukan. Di Indonesia, Maraknya pemberian kredit dalam jumlah besar tanpa kajian secara cermat dan objektif terhadap studi kelayakan bisnis perusahaan yang meminjam dana dan kesalahan cara mengelola dana tersebut menyebabkan banyak bank collaps serta tata kelola pemerintahan yang buruk pula. Di Amerika Serikat, tata kelola perusahaan yang buruk dan manipulasi merupakan sumber dari kebangkrutan perusahaan. Undang-undang ini berisi penataan kembali akuntansi perusahaan publik, tata kelola perusahaan, dan perlindungan terhadap kreditor. Cadbury Committee of United Kingdom Seperangkat peraturan yang mengatur hubungan antara pemegang saham, pengurus pengelola perusahaan, pihak kreditur, pemerintah, karyawan, serta para pemegang kepentingan internal dan eksternal lainnya yang berkaitan dengan hak-hak dan kewajiban mereka; atau dengan kata lain suatu sistem yang mengarahkan dan mengendalikan perusahaan. Forum for Corporate Governance in Indonesia. Pertanggungjawaban 5. Akuntabilitaas 4. Akuntabilitas accountability 4. Akuntabilitas accountability 3. Dimensi moral d. Sukrisno Agoes Tata kelola perusahaan yang baik sebagai suatu sistem yang mengatur hubungan. Prinsip-prinsip tersebut adalah: Dimensi ekonomi b.

Bahkan untuk dua mata kuliah yang disebut terakhir, dalam tingkat tertentu topik-topik intinya tidak relevan dengan studi ekonomi Islam. Sejak saat itulah saya bertekad untuk melakukan perubahan dan pengembangan kurikulum. Setidaknya melakukan revisi dan memberi titik tekan baru terhadap mata kuliah tersebut.

Untuk teologi, nama mata kuliah dan isinya dirubah menjadi Teologi Ekonomi. Padahal sebelumnya di bahas dalam satu semester.

Selebihnya, topik-topik intinya berkaitan dengan makna kerja, eksistensi harta, pertanggungjawaban bisnis dan sebagainya. Untuk matakuliah Akhlak Tasawuf, nama matakuliahnya tetap namun topik intinya dirubah dan diarahkan kepada hal yang berkaitan dengan spiritualitas. Topik-topik dengan sejarah asal-usul tasawuf, tokohtokoh sufi dan ajarannya hanya disampaikan secara ringkas dan sederhana. Sebenarnya isu-isu spiritual dalam bisnis bukanlah hal baru.

Bahkan jauh sebelumnya John Naisbit dan Patricia Aburdence telah berteriak - salah satu trend- religion no spiritualitas yes. Saya bertekad untuk menulis buku daras tentang spiritualitas bisnis.

Sayapun sudah melangkah dengan merancang out linenya. Namun sampai detik ini, saya masih berhenti pada bagian pertama; pembahasan mengenai makna spiritualitas dan bisnis.

Sampai pengantar buku ini ditulis, buku utuh spiritualitas bisnis itu tetap saja belum selesai. Seakan saya diperintah untuk menerbitkan artikel-artikel saya khususnya yang berkenaan dengan ekonomi, etika dan bisnis Islam. Saya mencoba mengumpulkannya. Saya juga meminta bantuan beberapa orang teman untuk membuat klasifikasi atau bagian-bagian.

Tulisan itu akhirnya berhasil dikumpulkan. Seorang yunior saya, Syukri Albani Nasution bahkan telah membuat sistematika buku itu. Namun saya mengerti, sebagai dosen muda yang energik dan juga kesibukannya dalam studi S3, rencana penerbitan buku inipun terhenti. Singkat cerita, sampai saya menyelesaikan tuga saya dijurusan, buku tersebut belum juga terwujud.

Setelah dilantik menjadi Dekan Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam, saya bertekad tidak berhenti diperencanaan. Buku utuh tentang spiritualitas bisnis tak jadi saya tulis.

Buku kumpulan artikel inipun tak juga selesai. Saya berjanji pada diri saya, buku ini harus selesai.

Etika Bisnis by Laura P. Hartman

Hasilnya seperti apa yang berada di tangan pembaca saat ini. Sebagai buku yang asalnya adalah artikel-artikel saya di Waspada, lebih kurang 10 tahun lamanya, tentulah memiliki banyak kelemahan.

Setidaknya kelemahan buku yang bahannya artikel itu ada 4 point. Pertama, pembahasannya tidak mendalam. Sebatas gagasan, percikan pemikiran dan sering disebut sebagai kajian awal.

Kedua,umumnya tidak didasarkan pada riset-riset yang mendalam. Ketiga, sebagian besar tidak dilengkapi dengan rujukan. Rujukan hanya digunakan untuk hal yang dipandang serius.

Misalnya berkaitan tentang data dan teori. Jadi pemikiran yang dikemukakan belum pula teruji. Keempat, artikel biasanya sangat terkait dengan konteks. Artikel merupakan respon penulis terhadap isu-isu yang berkembang. Kendati demikian, artikel juga memiliki kekuatan.

Pertama, Artikel itu biasanya merupakan gagasan orisinil penulisnya. Artikel sesungguhnya merupakan ruang bebas bagi penulis untuk berekspresi. Pemikiran di dalam artikel biasanya lebih genuine atau otentik. Kedua, bahasa yang digunakan relatif mudah dicerna. Orang awam sekalipun, yang tidak pernah mengecap pendidikan tinggi mampu mencerna isi sebuah artikel. Ketiga, karena dimaksudkan sebagai respon terhadap fenomena sosial atau trend yang sedang berkembang, maka artikel itu biasanya lebih membumi.

Saya menyadari sepenuhnya kelemahan yang dimiliki sebuah artikel. Untuk itulah, saya berupaya untuk menutupi sedikit kelemahan itu.

Salah satu cara yang saya tempuh adalah dengan merevisi hal-hal yang penulis anggap penting. Menulis buku yang lebih serius tentang spiritualitas bisnis tetaplah menjadi cita-cita saya. Setidaknya bisa terbit pada tahun mendatang.

Di dalam pengantar ini, saya ingin mengucapkan terimakasih yang sebesar-besarnya kepada Harian Waspada yang telah memberi ruang kepada penulis untuk menyampaikan gagasan dan pemikiran tentang Islam. Hubungan saya dengan wasapada sudah memasuki dua digit. Artikel-artikel yang ada di dalam buku ini adalah saksi hubungan yang panjang itu. Ucapan terimakasih saya buat keluarga tercinta. Saya tidak menolak komentar mereka yang melihatnya ayahnya seperti orang asing ketika sedang berhadapan dengan laptop.

Ucapan terimakasih kepada teman-teman di Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam atas pergulatan pemikiran yang selama ini berlangsung. Sama ada dalam forum-forum resmi ataupun dalam suasana santai. Gagasangagasan segar ataupun kritik yang kita lontarkan tanpa kita sadari sebenarnya akan membuat kita semakin kritis, analitis dan tidak tertutup kemungkinan kita mendapatkan sesuatu yang baru.

Untuk selanjutnya kita dalami dan kembangkan. Saya sangat senang sekali, jika terbitnya buku ini dapat mendorong teman-teman untuk menerbitkan karyanya. SU, Prof. Hasan Asari, MA, saya ucapkan terimakasih yang sedalam-dalamnya atas program penerbitan buku.

Program ini hemat saya luar biasa dan dampaknya jelas bagi lahirnya karya-karya akademik para dosen. Karena program itu pulalah buku ini menjadi mungkin untuk diterbitkan. Akhirya, sebagai kumpulan artikel, tidak tertutup ada pengulangan. Ini juga merupakan satu kelemahan buku yang berasal dari artikel. Namun saya mencantumkannya di akhir untuk mengatakan, bahwa saya sedapat mungkin menghindari adanya pengulangan.

Syukur-syukur dapat merubah keadaan menjadi lebih baik. Medan, 13 April Belakangan ini kita sering mendengar istilah spiritual, spiritualitas, dan tasawuf.

Selanjutnya kata tersebut dikaitkan pula dengan bisnis. Jadilah istilah spiritualitas bisnis menjadi bagian trend dari abad modern. Beberapa buku yang terbit belakangan juga telah memperbincangkan spiritualitas bisnis.

Intinya, dunia bisnis tidak saja membutuhkan etika etika bisnis tetapi juga spiritualitas bisnis. Etika bisnis bisa saja bersumber dari sistem etika sekuler dan rasional, namun spiritualitas bisnis lebih bersifat ruhaniah. Dengan kata lain, spiritualitas bisnis adalah nama lain dari tasawuf untuk bisnis. Istilah tasawuf merupakan istilah khas Islam, yang telah muncul sejak lama. Bahkan beberapa penulis tasawuf menyebutkan istilah ini telah ada sejak masa awal Islam, bahkan jauh sebelumnya.

Lynn Wilcox dengan mengutip pernyataan Bayazid Bistami w. Benih-benih ini berkecambah semasa Nabi Nuh dan berbunga semasa Nabi Ibrahim.

Etika Bisnis

Anggur pun terbentuk pada masa Nabi Musa, dan buahnya matang pada masa Nabi Isa. Di masa Muhammad, semua itu dibuat menjadi anggur murni. Linn Wilcox menjelaskan bahwa data historis tentang tasawuf berasal lebih dari tahun lalu, sejak masa Nabi Muhammad saw. Adapun pendiri mazhab tasawuf adalah Uways al-Qarni. Ia tinggal di Yaman. Aspek praktis tasawuf meliputi tata cara hubungan manusia terhadap dirinya sendiri, dunia dan Tuhan. Dalam aspek ini, tasawuf memiliki persamaan dengan etika - di samping perbedaannya dengan akhlak etika.

Aspek praktis tasawuf ini disebut dengan sair wa suluk perjalanan dan perlintasan atau suluk saja. Dalam perjalanan tersebut ia memilik tahap maqam dan keadaan jiwa hal. Sebagaimana di dalam filasafat ontologis wujud dipahami qua wujud sebagai wujud itu sendiri. Bedanya, filsafat mendasarkan argumentasinya pada prinsif-prinsif rasional, sedangkan tasawuf mengandalkan pada pencerahan intuitif isyraq, kasyf atau pengalaman perasaan spiritual zauq.

Kata spiritual berasal dari bahasa Inggris dan maknanya mirip untuk tidak mengatakan sama dengan tasawuf. Di samping kedua kata tersebut terdapat satu kata lagi yang maknanya berdekatan dengan tasawuf yaitu gnostisism.

Berkaitan dengan terminologi yang kerap dipakai dalam ilmu tasawuf dapat dilihat dalam bukunya, Muhammad Fethullah Gulen, Tasawuf untuk Kita Semua, Jakarta, Republika, Kata gnostisism bermakna orang yang tahu tentang Tuhan.

Di dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, kata ini bermakna semangat, jiwa, sukma atau ruh. Kata spiritual di dalam bahasa Indonesia berarti berhubungan dengan atau bersifat kejiwaan ruhani-batin. Kendatipun tasawuf memiliki kedekatan makna bahkan persamaan dengan spiritual, namun keduanya tidak sama. Seperti apa yang disebut oleh Najib Burhani, banyak kelompok humanis dan atheis yang memiliki kematangan spiritual dan mengajarkan pengalamannya kepada orang lain.

Inilah yang disebut dengan lahirnya fenomena new age. Baik spiritualisme maupun tasawuf atau an islamic mysticism sama-sama memanfaatkan semacam potensi-potensi inner self diri lebih dalam , indera keenam, qalb, dan intuisi.

Spiritualitas tidak mesti memiliki hubungan dengan Tuhan. Bisa saja sekedar berfungsi sebagai pelarian psikologis, obsesi dan kebutuhan rohaniyah sesaat, sekedar memenuhi ambisi untuk mencari keuntungan sementara. Spiritual bukan lagi untuk penyadaran diri terhadap realitas manusia yang sesungguhnya dan membimbing diri untuk menikmati hidup ini sebagai tarian eksistensial. Ia juga dijajakan di pasar-pasar untuk memenuhi ambisi, obsesi dan selera sesaat konsumen.

Maka sampai di sini, spiritualitas menjadi termatrialisasi. Jika dihubungkan dengan etika, pertanyaannya adalah apa perbedaan tasawwuf dengan etika? Tasawuf praktis -sebagai tasawuf- tidak pernah melepaskan perhatian pada hubungan manusia dengan Tuhan. Pembahasan tentang hubungan manusia dengan manusia lain dan dengan alam tak pernah lepas dari konsentrasi tasawuf dalam menyuburkan hubungan manusia dengan Tuhan.

Selain itu, masih menurut Bagir, perbedaan yang lebih esensial, berbeda dengan akhlak, Tasawuf bersifat dinamis. Ini terkait dengan berbagai tahap dan keadaan kejiawaan yang harus dilakoni dalam tahap demi tahap dan tingkat demi tingkat oleh setiap salik penempuh suluk. Dengan kata lain, tidak seperti akhlak, tasawuf meliputi juga disiplin yang bersifat dinamis, bukan saja disiplin dalam makna ketaatan terhadap sesuatu aturan yang baku, tetapi juga ketaatan terhadap suatu metode khas untuk mencapainya.

Lalu apa yang dimaksud dengan spiritualitas bisnis? Secara hakiki, bisnis merupakan urusan khas manusia. Bisnis selalu berhubungan dengan apa yang paling bernilai atau yang paling berharga pada manusia. Hal yang bernilai dan berharga itu yang selalu ingin ditingkatkan kualitasnya tiada lain adalah hidup.

Agar tetap hidup, terlebih agar hidupnya semakin bermutu atau semakin sejahtera, manusia tentu akan menggerakkan segala daya dan kemampuan yang dimiliki. Terkadang ia harus memergunakan berbagai taktik dan strategi untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidupnya, minimal mempertahankan hidupnya. Pada tataran ini, bisnis lalu merupakan verba, bukan nomina. Bisnis merupakan upaya manusia untuk menjauhi penderitaan atau kemelaratan dan mendekatkan diri kepada kenyamanan atau kesejahteraan ekonomis.

Bisnis merupakan kata kerja, gerakan dari kemelaratan menuju kesejahteraan. Itulah hakikat bisnis. Muhammad Gunawan Yasni, Ekonomi Sufistik, Adil dan Membahagiakan,Bandung: Mizan, Apakah yang menggerakkan manusia sehingga ia bekerja untuk meningkatkan taraf hidupnya menjadi lebih baik?

First is a group of ethicists who base their ethical thought primarily on religious texts, such as Islamic legal scholars and jurists, theologians, and some mystical groups. Compared to theologians and mystics, however, Islamic legal scholars and jurists are more obliged to refer to religious texts.

Second is a group of ethicists who base their ethical thought mainly on philosophical-medical sources, such as physicians and philosophers. In this paper, we will focus on examining the ethical thought of these Islamic legal scholars-jurists and physicians-philosophers. They not only provide principles of legal reasoning, based on which one can derive legal opinions, but also generate ready for use legal stipulations.

Such legal principles and rulings are produced to guide Muslims to behave in certain way and to justify a course of action in the terms associated with Islamic jurisprudence. Inspired by John Kelsey, who employs the term sharia reasoning to denote the reasoning based on Islamic jurisprudence Kelsey, 3 , we will call the ethical thought generated by Islamic legal scholars-jurists as sharia-based ethics. Another Islamic scholarship tradition that engenders ethical thought is the philosophical-medical tradition.

Some philosophers-physicians may discuss metaethics, but most of their medical and philosophical works on ethics are written in the context of normative ethics. They are written to establish certain norms, ideals, or virtues that should be cultivated with the aim of creating a good, healthy person.

Since this ethical thought is grounded in the Greek philosophical tradition, whose notion of ethics is known as virtue ethics, we shall call the ethical thought developed by medieval Islamic philosophers-physicians Islamic virtue ethics, or simply virtue ethics. In the paragraphs that follow, we shall discuss the following questions: Where are Islamic legal principles derived from? What are the common Islamic legal principles? How do they operate and generate legal rulings in the biomedical context?

What are virtue ethics in the Islamic tradition and how do they operate in Islamic medical tradition? Legal reasoning and principles are crucial, especially when a judgment from the Qur an and the Hadith is metaphorical, ambiguous, or even absent.

Islamic jurists will then employ such legal-moral reasoning and principles to determine whether certain cases are considered obligatory, prohibited, recommended, reprehended, or permitted. In the case of the matters in which the judicial judgment of text revelation is absent, Islamic jurists seek an analogous case, a precedent, in which revelation has a clear verdict. Analogy in Islamic law, according to Nabil Shehaby , has two forms.

First, the analogy that is based on ma na reason shared by two cases. God or Prophet may prohibit or allow something for a ma na, a reason. If we find the same ma na in another case that is not treated in the legal sources, the judicial judgment covering the first can be extended and applied to the second Shehaby, For example, there is no explicit legal judgment made by revelation regarding using marijuana.

The text only says that khamr a kind of wine is prohibited because it renders intoxication. In other words, the reason ma na for the prohibition is intoxication.

The legal judgment of the khamr can be applied and extended to marijuana based on the ma na reason that both have a similar effect, i. Thus, if drinking a wine is prohibited, consuming marijuana is also forbidden because both of them cause intoxication.

This is employed when the case that is not treated in the 22 Islamic Bioethics 21 authoritative legal sources resembles other cases that are treated by either the Qur an or the Hadith. In this situation, the case under examination acquires the judicial judgment of the case that is the most similar to it Ibid.

It is plausible reasoning because it is founded upon an important principle derived from the directive of circumventing hardship stated in the Qur an: God intends facility for you, and He does not want to put you in hardship 2: This directive is also further reinforced by the tradition Hadith that states: The best of your law is that which brings ease to the people Sachedina in Guinn, Islamic jurists can choose one of those legal considerations based on their preference in issuing certain religious rulings.

Therefore, when the text does not 23 22 Etika Islam provide an explicit legal opinion on certain cases, the main consideration for issuing religious legal opinions is what is the good for the public. However, what are the things that are called as the good for the public?

Other Islamic scholars such as Shihab ad-din al Qarafi d. These objectives are in fact extracted by Islamic jurists through reflection on all sayings by the Lawgiver and the dynamics of human experiences in certain sociocultural contexts.

For Islamic legal scholars, the intent of the Lawgiver in commands and prohibitions is clear, that is: to promote good and to benefit human beings and to protect them from evil, from harm, and from subsequent suffering Ramadan, This term literally means companionship.

In the same vein, acts of worshipping such as fasting and prayers are prohibited except if the sacred text or the prophetic tradition indicates that they are commanded, recommended, permitted, or reprehended. From these moral-legal modes of reasoning, Islamic jurists then generate moral principles.

These moral principles in turn operate as guidance for Islamic jurists in issuing religious legal recommendations and opinions. Based on these principles, Islamic jurists are expected to respond to the situations that arise in medical practices or other cases in which the scriptural source is silent.

These principles function as a guide and basis for Muslims when they have to make certain legal-moral decisions, including medicalethical decisions. For example, in the case of organ donation, some legal principles are used before they come to a conclusive decision. Muslim legal scholars cite various principles for issuing a legal ruling on this issue.

Some refer to the principle of No harm, no harassment ; some invoke the principle of necessity makes lawful that which is prohibited ; and some of them use the principle of preventing or removing harm has priority over promoting good. Vardit Rispler- Chaim 31 records that Muslim scholars, compelled by the desire to prevent harm to the party awaiting a donation and to protect the public benefit, rendered organ donation permitted and permissible.

In addition, although some scholars use various legal principles, according to Abdulaziz Sachedina, the most widely cited principle in resolving the ethics of organ donation is the principle No harm.

For instance, if donating an organ would cause the donor s death, the donation would be forbidden regardless of the benefits to the recipient. Conversely, if a person were to donate an organ without causing harm or death to himself, and if that act could save the life of a patient dying of organ failure, the donation would be regarded as permissible by the sharia Sachedina, That is how sharia-based ethics works in 26 Islamic Bioethics 25 the realm of medicine.

The main purpose of this ethical approach is to determine whether a certain action is right or wrong, permissible or prohibited, or to specify other values of human actions. Virtue-Based Biomedical Ethics The Islamic ethicists who come from philosophical and medical backgrounds work quite differently from these Islamic legal scholars and jurists.

Their main concern is not to determine, evaluate, or justify whether a course of action is obligatory, recommended, permissible, reprehended, or prohibited. Rather, they are concerned with the bodily and spiritual health, the cultivation of human character, and the formation of a virtuous person.

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The preservation of bodily health is the main purpose of the art of medicine. So, if the health of human body is being lost, it is the task of medicine to restore it Sina, 9. Physicians in the Islamic medieval period generally maintain that the health of human body is signified by the balance of elements, temperaments, and humours within human body.

If there is an imbalance in humours, the human body will be infected by sickness, which is indicated by a disturbance of bodily functions Ibid. The imbalance in elements, temperaments, or humours is generally caused by a kind of deficiency or excess.

Buku-Etika-Bisnis-Sony-Keraft.pdf -

Insufficient food consumption, sleep, or bodily regimen leads to sickness, as well as too much food, sleep, or bodily exercise. The ideal is that one has everything in the right proportion, namely moderation in food consumption, sleeping activity, and physical exercise.

This moderation generates the balance of elements, temperaments, and humours, which in turn maintains the health of the human body. For example, food is transformed into humours i. If one has a bad diet, one of the humours i.

Having a good diet therefore is necessary to maintain the balance of the humours. In 27 26 Etika Islam this regard, the lack or excessiveness of food consumption is considered bad and moderation is good. The ethics of balance and moderation is not only applied in preserving bodily health. It is also used in achieving spiritual health and the cultivation of virtue in human character.

Ibn Miskawayh, one of the greatest Islamic ethicists, argues that the purpose of the medicine of souls is similar to that of the medicine of bodies, namely the preservation of spiritual health and the restoration of spiritual health when it is missing The difference between the two is only in the context of their subject matter.

The subject matter of the spiritual health is soul whereas the subject matter of the bodily health is body. According to Ibn Miskawayh, the spiritual health is signified by the absence of two extremes. One of the extremes of every mean is an excess while the other is a deficiency Ibid.

If the human soul falls in one of the two extremes, the soul becomes sick and its health needs to be restored. Conversely, if the human soul is in the middle between the two extremes, the soul is healthy because it possesses virtuous characters.

Ibn Miskawayh, following his Greek predecessors, defines virtue as a mean, an intermediation, or moderation. The mean lies between two vices, deficiency and excess Ibid. For him, four means, or four virtues, are considered cardinal in virtue ethics: 1 wisdom: a mean between impudence and stupidity; 2 temperance: a mean between two vices: profligacy and frigidity; 3 courage: a mean between cowardice and recklessness; and 4 justice: a mean between doing injustice and suffering injustice Ibid.

These four represent the principal virtues from which other means or virtues can be derived. From the virtue of wisdom, we can generate the virtues of intelligence, retention, rationality, quickness and soundness of understanding, clarity of mind, and capacity for learning easily.

From the virtue of temperance, we can derive the virtues of modesty, sedateness, self-control, liberality, integrity, sobriety, benignity, self- 28 Islamic Bioethics 27 discipline, good disposition, mildness, staidness, and piety.

From the virtue of courage, some virtues can also be generated: greatness of spirit, intrepidity, composure, fortitude, magnanimity, self-possession, manliness, and endurance. From the virtue of justice, some virtues can be further derived: friendship, concord, family fellowship, recompense, fair play, honest dealing, amiability, and piety Ibid. Some of the above virtues are related to the perfection of morality i. Islamic philosophers-ethicists, who are mostly influenced and inspired by Greek philosophers, believe that the moral virtues are not a natural disposition Fakhry, They are not intrinsically built into the human character nor divinely given.

They should be cultivated through a continuous practice of the virtues. In this regard, the will of the individual or human volition also plays an important role in the success of the cultivation of the self.

People will be virtuous if they willingly accustom themselves to exercising and practising virtues, and they will be vicious if they let themselves be occupied with the vices. In other words, the health of human soul i. If the perfection of human character can be achieved through directing the will and the disposition towards moral virtues, the perfection of human intellect can be acquired not only through nourishing human cognition with intellectual virtues but also through the conjunction of human cognition with the active intellect Ibid.

This kind of intellectual conjunction is believed to be the highest intellectual perfection that leads human beings to achieve their chief goal, which is happiness Levey, All other kinds of perfections, like technical and moral perfections, serve simply as preparations to this intellectual conjunction Fachry, This ethical tradition is generally concerned with establishing mores, etiquettes, and norms in order to form a virtuous person, whether as a physician, patient, caregiver, or human being in general.

When Islamic physicians discuss, their main topics will be how to be a good physician, how to be a good patient, and what is the ideal relation between physician and patient. Al-Ruhawi states that a virtuous physician is unlike a philosopher who may deal only with the improvement of the soul. The virtuous physician should deal with the improvement of both spirit and body. For him, spiritual and bodily improvement can be achieved only if a physician has faith in Allah when working with patients to get rid of illness.

Therefore, the physician first of all should have faith in God. Faith is regarded as the spiritual foundation for medical practice. Faith in God means that physicians 1 must believe that Allah performs all deeds intentionally: gives life and takes it, causes illness and cures; 2 devote themselves to God with volition and love; and 3 must believe that He sent his messengers to mankind Levey, Quoting Hippocrates, he said that the art of medicine involves three factors, the illness, the patient, and the physician Ibid.

Physicians should know what will happen to their patients, raise themselves for it a long time in advance, and prepare whatever is necessary for when the event occurs Ibid. They should also give their medical services for the benefit of all people without distinguishing them as to friend or foe, in agreement or disagreement Ibid. As for the patients, they should not conceal anything from their physician because their openness is a key step for diagnosis and 30 Islamic Bioethics 29 treatment.

The cooperation of the patients is considered very important in order to fulfill their best interest, to give the best medical benefits for them. When al-ruhawi is asked about patients demands and the proper care of the ill, he quotes Galen and says: It is essential that the physician not follow the will of the patient unless it benefits him in his improvement; he should not fear him in this nor any desire in this of his individual rights.

On the contrary, it is only God that he fears and entreats. Among other things, he requires them to be modest, virtuous, merciful, not slanderous, and speak no evil of men of repute in the community or be critical of their religious beliefs Hamarneh, They are required to be honest, and not divulge the secrets of their patients, nor make jokes and laugh at the improper place and time.

They should also avoid predicting whether the patient will live or die. In addition, they should speak well of their acquaintances, colleagues, and clients and not to be money grubbers. They should dress in clean clothes, be dignified, and groom his hear neatly. They ought not to lose their temper when patients keep asking many questions but should answer gently and patiently. They should treat alike the strong and the weak, the master and the slave, the rich and poor, and the wise and the illiterate Ibid.

If contemporary Islamic scholars would further elaborate and develop the ethics of the mean or of moderation, some contemporary bioethical problems could be resolved. For example, the principle of respect for autonomy at one extreme can be reconciled with the principle of beneficence at the other extreme by finding the right mean between the two.

With a virtuous character already implanted, one can easily measure the right proportion of benefit and of harm before making an ethical decision, in the case of organ donation for example. The former is called sharia-based biomedical ethics and the latter is called virtue-based biomedical ethics.

The contemporary discourse of Islamic biomedical ethics is heavily influenced by sharia-based ethics. The main concern of this ethical tradition is reach legal certainty: is this or that action or type of action stipulated to be an obligation, recommendation, permission, reprehension, or prohibition. Before arriving at legal certainty, however, we need to have a case, either an existing or a potential case; then a series of legal reasonings is conducted to issue rulings for the case at stake.

That tradition of ethics seems to be well suited to providing Islamic legal certainty in cases on the basis of casuistry. However, we cannot expect it to serve well in the formation of the self, which nothing to do with legal opinions.

Another Islamic biomedical ethics, which aims to cultivate a good character or to form a virtuous person, is grounded in the tradition of Islamic virtue ethics. Instead of dealing with right-wrong legal logic, virtue biomedical ethics pays much attention to selfformation.

It focuses on human physical, intellectual, and spiritual flourishing. Bodily health can be acquired by balancing elements, temperaments, and humours within human body. A sound mind can be achieved through conjunction with the highest intellect this can be translated as: closeness with God.

Spiritual health can be gained through exercising moral virtues. This medieval Islamic ethics is unfortunately less studied and recognised in the contemporary era.

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