This is the second edition of Biodiversity: An Introduction. Our goal in books, where possible with an emphasis on those that are more readily accessible. PDF | On Dec 26, , Krupa Unadkat and others published Biodiversity book. Printed in Croatia. A free online edition of this book is available at www. medical-site.info at which biodiversity can be measured: ecosystems or organisms.
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UNIT 4: Biodiversity. INTRODUCTION – DEFINITION: GENETIC, SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY. Genetic diversity. Species diversity. download printed books and selected PDF files. Thank you for . The source of the book is the National Forum on BioDiversity, held in Washington,. D.C., on. importance of biodiversity for our survival and well- being on this planet. How Many catalogued the titles of all the books stocked there. Patterns.
Regarding the operational, or practical, aspects, several studies and meta-analyses have furthered knowledge on the role of biodiversity in ecosystem functioning and the supply of ecosystem services Balvanera et al. However, the complexity of ecosystem functioning still poses uncertainties about the role of individual species and other components of biodiversity in the supply of ecosystem services, specifically when coupled with social-ecological systems.
Two main areas of research have helped contribute to current knowledge on biodiversity— ecosystem service linkages and are addressed here in some detail: i trait-based approaches, and ii the identification of ecosystem service providers or service providing units.
For the sake of convenience we suggest to use in OpenNESS the definition given by the CBD which is: " Biological diversity " means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
It should be kept in mind, however, that this definition leaves room for many different interpretations as to the adequate measurement variables for biodiversity and its components.
Are, e. Also, especially in a conservation context, often cultural aspects underlie the uses of biodiversity, e.
Here issues of values and related conservation strategies have a major influence on assessing the relevant measures of biodiversity — and in consequence also on their specific relation to ecosystem services see Jax and Heink for details.
As they may be of importance to specific application fields, however, the scope of these various aspects should nevertheless be an object of conceptual and empirical research in the different context of use.
Ecosystem services: We propose to largely follow the definition given in the TEEB study and define Ecosystem Services as: the contributions that ecosystems whether natural or semi-natural make to human well-being. Their fundamental characteristic is that they provide the link to underlying ecosystem functions, processes and structures. For the sake of convenience we suggest to use in OpenNESS the definition given by the CBD which is: "Biological diversity" means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
Trait-based approaches Given their effects on underlying ecosystem services, several studies have used information on functional traits to quantify ecosystem service delivery Kremen, ; De Bello et al. These approaches may also aid in the understanding of mechanisms of multi-functionality and trade-offs.
Although knowledge on associations and trade-offs between plant traits is well established, the study of the consequences of these on ecosystem functioning and the resulting services is less well developed Lavorel and Grigulis, De Bello et al. Their review groups well-documented trait-service associations into clusters of ecologically-related services, such as clusters of traits of plants and soil organisms associated with nutrient cycling, herbivory, and fodder and fibre production.
They propose that this approach will allow for the assessment of combined biotic effects on the simultaneous delivery of multiple services.
Trait-service clusters would potentially serve to manage trade-offs of services associated with traits within a trophic level. For example, the same traits in plant communities that improve fodder production are likely to reduce soil carbon sequestration and might impede services associated with aesthetic and cultural values De Bello et al.
The approach can also be extended to multiple trophic levels Lavorel and Grigulis, , as well as facilitating the monitoring of clusters of services at different spatial scales.
Until recently, most of the trait-based research has focused on plant trait effects on primary production Lavorel, There is a need to extend it to a wider range of ecosystems, services and organisms. An initial endeavour to do so by Luck et al. They offer the concept of a Service Providing Unit SPU to define a population in terms of the services it generates at a particular scale instead of geographic boundaries or genetic lines.
For example, the entire population of a given tree species might provide the global service of carbon sequestration, whilst regional populations of the same tree species might provide a water filtration service that benefits local communities Luck et al. Kremen extended the SPU concept and proposed identifying key Ecosystem Service Providers ESP and suggested defining ESPs in terms of their functional traits and how the dynamics of functional groups of species may impact service provision.
This was extended by Kremen et al. This produced a more nested approach to the understanding of service functions and processes and offered a detailed categorisation of outputs and their relationship to human well-being. By using examples from existing literature, they provided a classification specifying the type of ecosystems concerned, the ecological unit providing the service or SPU, its attributes and a response measure to describe the relationship between the components of biodiversity and the level of service provision.
Kontogianni et al.
The resulting interconnections between biodiversity and ecosystem services have then been analysed using network analysis to explore the possibility of reducing the complexity by revealing different typologies of relationships.
The BESAFE systematic review revealed that species level traits benefit a number of ecosystem services, with species abundance being particularly important for pest regulation, pollination and recreation, and species richness for timber production and freshwater fishing.
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