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A sofer "scribe" is a highly respected member of any observant Jewish community. Middle East This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message People of various religious Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, Muslims and ethnic backgrounds Syriac, Coptic, Persian, Arab etc. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world had book production centers and book markets. Yaqubi d. The medieval Muslim world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities known as check reading , in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript.
In the check reading method, only "authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate. In woodblock printing , a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page. This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty before AD , as a method of printing on textiles and later paper , and was widely used throughout East Asia.
The method called woodcut when used in art arrived in Europe in the early 14th century. Books known as block-books , as well as playing-cards and religious pictures , began to be produced by this method. Creating an entire book was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page; and the wood blocks tended to crack, if stored for long. The monks or people who wrote them were paid highly.
Movable type and incunabula Main articles: Movable type and Incunable Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, printed in Korea, in The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware c. Around , in what is commonly regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould.
This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. These machines could print 1, sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2, letters per hour.
They could set more than 6, letters per hour and an entire line of type at once. There have been numerous improvements in the printing press.
As well, the conditions for freedom of the press have been improved through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws. See also intellectual property , public domain , copyright.
In midth century, European book production had risen to over , titles per year. Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion. The advent of electronic publishing and the internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is made available online through a digital library , on CD-ROM , in the form of e-books or other online media.
An on-line book is an e-book that is available online through the internet. Though many books are produced digitally, most digital versions are not available to the public, and there is no decline in the rate of paper publishing.
This effort is spearheaded by Project Gutenberg combined with Distributed Proofreaders. There have also been new developments in the process of publishing books. Technologies such as POD or " print on demand ", which make it possible to print as few as one book at a time, have made self-publishing and vanity publishing much easier and more affordable.
On-demand publishing has allowed publishers, by avoiding the high costs of warehousing, to keep low-selling books in print rather than declaring them out of print. Modern manufacturing See also: Publishing The spine of the book is an important aspect in book design , especially in the cover design.
When the books are stacked up or stored in a shelf, the details on the spine is the only visible surface that contains the information about the book. In stores, it is the details on the spine that attract downloaders' attention first.
The methods used for the printing and binding of books continued fundamentally unchanged from the 15th century into the early 20th century. While there was more mechanization , a book printer in had much in common with Gutenberg.
Gutenberg's invention was the use of movable metal types, assembled into words, lines, and pages and then printed by letterpress to create multiple copies. Modern paper books are printed on papers designed specifically for printed books.
Traditionally, book papers are off-white or low-white papers easier to read , are opaque to minimise the show-through of text from one side of the page to the other and are usually made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case-bound books. Different paper qualities are used depending on the type of book: Machine finished coated papers , woodfree uncoated papers , coated fine papers and special fine papers are common paper grades. Today, the majority of books are printed by offset lithography.
Books tend to be manufactured nowadays in a few standard sizes. The sizes of books are usually specified as "trim size": the size of the page after the sheet has been folded and trimmed. The standard sizes result from sheet sizes therefore machine sizes which became popular or years ago, and have come to dominate the industry. British conventions in this regard prevail throughout the English-speaking world, except for the USA.
The European book manufacturing industry works to a completely different set of standards. Processes Layout Parts of a modern case bound book Modern bound books are organized according to a particular format called the book's layout.
Although there is great variation in layout, modern books tend to adhere to as set of rules with regard to what the parts of the layout are and what their content usually includes. A basic layout will include a front cover, a back cover and the book's content which is called its body copy or content pages.
The front cover often bears the book's title and subtitle, if any and the name of its author or editor s. The inside front cover page is usually left blank in both hardcover and paperback books.
The next section, if present, is the book's front matter, which includes all textual material after the front cover but not part of the book's content such as a foreword, a dedication, a table of contents and publisher data such as the book's edition or printing number and place of publication.
Between the body copy and the back cover goes the end matter which would include any indices, sets of tables, diagrams, glossaries or lists of cited works though an edited book with several authors usually places cited works at the end of each authored chapter.
The inside back cover page, like that inside the front cover, is usually blank. Also here often appear plot summaries, barcodes and excerpted reviews of the book. As the production line circulates, a complete "book" is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another A web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of signatures sections ready to go into the gathering line.
Note that the pages of a book are printed two at a time, not as one complete book. Excess numbers are printed to make up for any spoilage due to make-readies or test pages to assure final print quality.
A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to get the printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed. As soon as the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets will be discarded, and the press will start making books.
Similar make readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage of paper. Binding After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the bindery.
In the middle of last century there were still many trade binders — stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in binding alone.
At that time, because of the dominance of letterpress printing, typesetting and printing took place in one location, and binding in a different factory.
When type was all metal, a typical book's worth of type would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition the better: so printing would be carried out in the same location as the typesetting. Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved. Now, because of increasing computerization of preparing a book for the printer, the typesetting part of the job has flowed upstream, where it is done either by separately contracting companies working for the publisher, by the publishers themselves, or even by the authors.
Mergers in the book manufacturing industry mean that it is now unusual to find a bindery which is not also involved in book printing and vice versa. If the book is a hardback its path through the bindery will involve more points of activity than if it is a paperback. Unsewn binding, is now increasingly common.
The signatures of a book can also be held together by "Smyth sewing" using needles, "McCain sewing", using drilled holes often used in schoolbook binding, or "notch binding", where gashes about an inch long are made at intervals through the fold in the spine of each signature. The rest of the binding process is similar in all instances.
Sewn and notch bound books can be bound as either hardbacks or paperbacks. Finishing Book pages "Making cases" happens off-line and prior to the book's arrival at the binding line. In the most basic case-making, two pieces of cardboard are placed onto a glued piece of cloth with a space between them into which is glued a thinner board cut to the width of the spine of the book. After case-making the stack of cases will go to the foil stamping area for adding decorations and type.
Digital printing Recent developments in book manufacturing include the development of digital printing. Book pages are printed, in much the same way as an office copier works, using toner rather than ink. Each book is printed in one pass, not as separate signatures.
Digital printing has permitted the manufacture of much smaller quantities than offset, in part because of the absence of make readies and of spoilage. One might think of a web press as printing quantities over , quantities from to being printed on sheet-fed presses, and digital presses doing quantities below These numbers are of course only approximate and will vary from supplier to supplier, and from book to book depending on its characteristics.
Digital printing has opened up the possibility of print-on-demand, where no books are printed until after an order is received from a customer. E-book Main article: e-book A screen of a Kindle e-reader. In the s, due to the rise in availability of affordable handheld computing devices, the opportunity to share texts through electronic means became an appealing option for media publishers.
The term e-book is a contraction of "electronic book"; it refers to a book-length publication in digital form. E-book readers attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book by using this technology, since the displays on e-book readers are much less reflective.
Design Main article: Book design Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components of a book into a coherent whole.
In the words of Jan Tschichold, book design "though largely forgotten today, methods and rules upon which it is impossible to improve have been developed over centuries.
To produce perfect books these rules have to be brought back to life and applied. Many different creators can contribute to book design, including graphic designers , artists and editors.
Sizes Real-size facsimile of Codex Gigas A page from the world's largest book. Each page is three and a half feet wide, five feet tall and a little over five inches thick The size of a modern book is based on the printing area of a common flatbed press.
The pages of type were arranged and clamped in a frame, so that when printed on a sheet of paper the full size of the press, the pages would be right side up and in order when the sheet was folded, and the folded edges trimmed. Small books can be called booklets.
Sizes larger than quarto are: Folio: up to 15" c. Elephant Folio: up to 23" c. Atlas Folio: up to 25" c. Double Elephant Folio: up to 50" c.
The world's largest book is made of stone and is in Kuthodaw Pagoda Burma. Types Novels in a bookstore A common separation by content are fiction and non-fiction books. This simple separation can be found in most collections , libraries , and bookstores. Fiction Many of the books published today are fiction, meaning that they are in-part or completely untrue. There is no character development, they are exactly the same as from the start. In addition, the characters are also flat, too idealistic and have no flavor.
Dialogues between characters are often meaningless and does not fit well with the flow of the story, makes you wonder whether it was a case of the author filling the pag How this book became best seller is beyond me.
Dialogues between characters are often meaningless and does not fit well with the flow of the story, makes you wonder whether it was a case of the author filling the pages. But the worst part is the high number of typos in this book. Where was the editor?! It makes you think, if this book is best seller, what kind of youths with their stupid view of the ideal world make no mistake, this book is a reflection of the wants of the average Indonesian youth and their lack of literary appreciation will bring this country out of its backside?
There are some good themes about friendship, dreams, and attempts to glorify nationalism. But the bottom line is, if this is the literary marvel Indonesia has to offer today, then the our modern culture is in a sad, sad state. At first, the story flows fresh and natural but then its turned become over dramatic.
There are too many quotes and wasted conversations in the mid The basic ideas are about friendship, courage, and nationalism. There are too many quotes and wasted conversations in the middle of the story.
The ending is disappointing. For me, its more like a comedy book than a proper fiction.