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These were mostly located in Mesopotamia where the Sumerians were practicing multiplication and division. There are also artifacts demonstrating their own methodology for solving equations like the quadratic equation. After the Sumerians some of the most famous ancient works on mathematics come from Egypt in the form of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. The more famous Rhind Papyrus has been dated to approximately BCE but it is thought to be a copy of an even older scroll.
This papyrus was essentially an early textbook for Egyptian students. The social status of mathematical study was improving by the seventeenth century, with the University of Aberdeen creating a Mathematics Chair in , followed by the Chair in Geometry being set up in University of Oxford in and the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics being established by the University of Cambridge in However, it was uncommon for mathematics to be taught outside of the universities.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution led to an enormous increase in urban populations. Basic numeracy skills, such as the ability to tell the time, count money and carry out simple arithmetic , became essential in this new urban lifestyle.
Within the new public education systems, mathematics became a central part of the curriculum from an early age. By the twentieth century, mathematics was part of the core curriculum in all developed countries.
During the twentieth century, mathematics education was established as an independent field of research. Schaaf published a classified index , sorting them into their various subjects. The second congress was in Exeter in , and after that it has been held every four years In the 20th century, the cultural impact of the " electronic age " McLuhan was also taken up by educational theory and the teaching of mathematics.
While previous approach focused on "working with specialized 'problems' in arithmetic ", the emerging structural approach to knowledge had "small children meditating about number theory and ' sets '. At different times and in different cultures and countries, mathematics education has attempted to achieve a variety of different objectives. These objectives have included: The teaching and learning of basic numeracy skills to all pupils  The teaching of practical mathematics arithmetic , elementary algebra , plane and solid geometry , trigonometry to most pupils, to equip them to follow a trade or craft The teaching of abstract mathematical concepts such as set and function at an early age The teaching of selected areas of mathematics such as Euclidean geometry  as an example of an axiomatic system  and a model of deductive reasoning The teaching of selected areas of mathematics such as calculus as an example of the intellectual achievements of the modern world The teaching of advanced mathematics to those pupils who wish to follow a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics STEM fields.
The teaching of heuristics  and other problem-solving strategies to solve non-routine problems. Methods[ edit ] The method or methods used in any particular context are largely determined by the objectives that the relevant educational system is trying to achieve.
Methods of teaching mathematics include the following: Classical education: the teaching of mathematics within the quadrivium , part of the classical education curriculum of the Middle Ages , which was typically based on Euclid's Elements taught as a paradigm of deductive reasoning.
In "Number Bingo," players roll 3 dice, then perform basic mathematical operations on those numbers to get a new number, which they cover on the board trying to cover 4 squares in a row.
Computer-based math an approach based around use of mathematical software as the primary tool of computation. Computer-based mathematics education involving the use of computers to teach mathematics. Mobile applications have also been developed to help students learn mathematics. Starts with arithmetic and is followed by Euclidean geometry and elementary algebra taught concurrently. Requires the instructor to be well informed about elementary mathematics , since didactic and curriculum decisions are often dictated by the logic of the subject rather than pedagogical considerations.
Other methods emerge by emphasizing some aspects of this approach. Exercises : the reinforcement of mathematical skills by completing large numbers of exercises of a similar type, such as adding vulgar fractions or solving quadratic equations. Historical method: teaching the development of mathematics within an historical, social and cultural context.
Provides more human interest than the conventional approach. Adopted in the US as a response to the challenge of early Soviet technical superiority in space, it began to be challenged in the late s. The New Math method was the topic of one of Tom Lehrer 's most popular parody songs, with his introductory remarks to the song: " The problems can range from simple word problems to problems from international mathematics competitions such as the International Mathematical Olympiad.
Problem solving is used as a means to build new mathematical knowledge, typically by building on students' prior understandings. Recreational mathematics : Mathematical problems that are fun can motivate students to learn mathematics and can increase enjoyment of mathematics.
All Documents from Understanding Psychology 10th Edition antphy study guide ross psychology exam 2 lab quiz ex. Top Questions from Understanding Psychology 10th Edition What are the conditions in which a flashbulb memory may be formed? Beck's therapy, which teaches people new and more adaptive ways of thinking and acting, and is based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions is called: In classical conditioning, this is an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response.
The idea that psychotherapy is value neutral is Which of the following is a way for a process to become automatic? Recent Questions from Understanding Psychology 10th Edition Anti anxiety drug According to Abraham Maslow, self-actualization is the ultimate psychological need. Functional imaging techniques are used to. Each of the following is a functional imaging technique except. A brain imaging technique that uses radioactive energy to map brain activity is. A brain imaging technique that measures the movement of blood molecules in the brain is.
An imaging technique that has been useful in helping researchers discover the biological origins of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is.
The cable of nerves that connects the brain to the rest of the body is called the. The spinal cord is made up of soft, jellylike bundles of long. The spinal cord contains major neural pathway s.
The spinal cord contains each of the following except. When you pull your hand away rapidly after burning it on a hot pan, the sequence of neural activation is.
Allan gingerly puts his fingertips on the hot handle of the skillet in which he's cooking supper, but he instantly pulls his hand away. His reaction is due to the functioning of the. The medulla would not be involved in the withdrawal reaction to a hot surface. The spinal cord allows for rapid communication between sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons that allow such a reflex to occur. Learning Objectives Identify the peripheral nervous system and contrast the functions of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Explain the differences between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The nervous system links the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. The Peripheral Nervous System Skill: The peripheral nervous system is composed of neurons. Neurons that carry messages from the sense organs to the spinal cord or the brain are called neurons.
A young woman returns from a day at the beach to find she has developed severe sunburn. Which neurons are sending messages from her burned skin to her brain informing her of the pain from the burn? Afferent, or sensory, neurons take messages to the central nervous system from the sensory organs. Efferent, or motor, neurons take messages from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Neurons that send messages from the spinal cord to the foot do so through neurons. Which neurons are sending messages from his brain to the muscles in his legs causing him to jump? The peripheral nervous system consists of the and the nervous systems. The somatic and autonomic nervous systems are two major divisions of the nervous system. All the things that we can sense sights, sounds, smells, temperature, taste, and pressure have their origins in the nervous system.
Every deliberate action you make, from pedaling a bike to scratching a toe, involves neurons in the nervous system.
The nervous system is composed of all the neurons that carry messages between your central nervous system and all of the internal organs of your body. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for quick action in an emergency is the division.
The autonomic nervous system consists of. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are part of the nervous system. You're walking all alone down a dark street when suddenly you hear a scream and then footsteps coming closer and closer. Your heart begins to pound, you're scared stiff, and you feel like running. Which part of the nervous system causes your body's reaction? The somatic nervous system generally controls voluntary functions, while the autonomic nervous system controls the automatic functions that are taking place when you are ready to run from a threat like this.
The autonomic nervous system includes the sympathetic branch, which helps to speed our body up in a crisis or emergency. It's midnight and you are alone in your room studying.
You hear a loud crash outside your room and your whole body reacts instantly. Your pupils dilate, your heart rate increases, your blood pressure rises, adrenaline surges through your body, and your senses sharpen as you begin anxiously looking for whatever caused the crash. These reactions are produced by the. The autonomic nervous system includes the parasympathetic branch, which helps to slow our body back down after a crisis has ended.
You hear a loud crash outside your room. Your body instantly reacts to this potential threat as you feel your heart pounding and your senses sharpening.
Then you see your lumbering English sheep dog walking around the hallway corner and realize that the crash was undoubtedly from something he knocked over. Recovering from your alarm, your body now relaxes and you return to normal. The body system helping you to return to normal is the. The heavy footsteps on the stairs get closer and closer. Slowly, the door to the bedroom creaks open.
As a strange man with a knife in his hand lunges in, you let out an ear-piercing scream. Which of the following most accurately describes your nervous system at this point? Your parasympathetic nervous system is more active than your sympathetic nervous system.
The parasympathetic nervous system is what decreases and slows our various physiological functions when a crisis or emergency has been resolved. Neither your sympathetic nor your parasympathetic nervous systems are unusually active. Both your sympathetic and your parasympathetic nervous systems are extremely active. Your sympathetic nervous system is more active than your parasympathetic nervous system.
The sympathetic nervous system is what stimulates and activates various physiological functions when we are faced with a crisis or emergency. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms and relaxes the body is the division.
Learning Objective Describe the endocrine glands and the way their hormones affect behavior. Regarding the two communication systems that integrate and coordinate behavior, the nervous system and the endocrine system,. The endocrine system is largely under the control of the hypothalamus, which is part of the nervous system.
While this may be correct, it is not the most accurate answer option given. The Endocrine System Skill: The system which coordinates and integrates behavior by secreting chemicals into the bloodstream is called the system.
Chemical substances released by the endocrine glands to help regulate bodily functions are. The messages in the nervous system are carried through nerves; the messages in the endocrine system are carried through.
Hormones are released directly into the bloodstream, and that is how the impact behaviors. Hormones are released by glands, but they are carried through the bloodstream. Endocrine glands are glands that secrete. The glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream are called glands. Which of the following statements about the endocrine system is false? It plays an important role in the body's response to stressful situations.
Its messages stimulate only a limited number of cells at a time. It communicates its messages at a slower speed than the nervous system.
It relays information through chemical messengers called hormones. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland.
The gland that produces the largest number of different hormones and has the widest range of effects on the body's functions is the gland. Which of the following does not belong biologically with the other four? The thalamus is a structure in the brain. The other answers are all endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland is sometimes referred to as the master gland, and it controls the other glands in the body, including the pineal and adrenal glands. The influences blood pressure, thirst, milk production, sexual behavior, and body growth. The hormone melatonin is produced by the gland. The hormone released by the pineal gland that reduces body temperature and prepares you for sleep is.
HGH b. The hormone that regulates the body's metabolic rate, affecting people's weight and energy levels, is.
The endocrine gland located below the voice box that produces the hormone for regulating the body's rate of metabolism is the gland. Gloria's friends have recently noticed a startling change in her behavior.
She eats everything in sight but gains little, if any, weight. She speeds around the room as if she were taking amphetamines. She seems constantly tense and agitated, and has trouble sleeping. She has become impulsive and lately she seems to be upset by even the slightest stress.
The source of Gloria's problems is probably an gland. An overactive thyroid hyperthyroidism can lead to such symptoms as irritability, insomnia, and difficulty sleeping. An underactive thyroid hypothyroidism ordinarily leads to fatigue and excessive sleepiness. Andrew's friends have noticed that lately he sleeps constantly but is always tired and complains of feeling too hot or too cold.
Although Andrew had formerly been very athletic, lately his muscle tone has been greatly reduced. The source of Andrew's problem is probably an gland. The four tiny glands that secrete the hormone that controls and balances tissue fluids and levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood are the.
The two hormones which keep the blood-sugar level properly balanced are. Insulin and glucagon are secreted by the. The organ lying between the stomach and small intestine that secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate blood-sugar levels is the.
Hypoglycemia results from secretion problems in the. Oversecretion of insulin by the pancreas results in. Undersecretion of insulin by the pancreas results in.
The endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that release hormones important for dealing with stress are the. The adrenal glands are important in your body's reaction to.
Each adrenal gland has part s. The outer covering of the two adrenal glands that releases hormones important for dealing with stress is the adrenal. The inner core of the two adrenal glands that releases hormones important for dealing with stress is the adrenal.
The hormone that activates the sympathetic nervous system causing the heart to beat faster, digestion to stop, the pupils of the eyes to enlarge, and more sugar to flow into the bloodstream is.
The hormone that causes the anterior pituitary gland to release hormones that prolong responses to stress, thus causing you to remain aroused for some time after extreme emotional excitement is. Masculine sex hormones are called. Feminine sex hormones are called. The testes and the ovaries are. Thyroxin b. Progesterone c. Testosterone d.
Violence is greatest among males between the ages of. Learning Objectives Distinguish among genetics, behavior genetics, and evolutionary psychology. Differentiate between genes, chromosomes, DNA, and the human genome. Describe what is meant by dominant and recessive genes, polygenic inheritance, and genotype vs. Compare and contrast strain studies, selection studies, family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies as sources of information about the effects of heredity.
Identify the key ethical issues that arise as society gains more control over genetics. Describe how evolutionary psychologists view the influence of natural selection on human social behavior.
The study of the relationship between heredity and behavior is. Genes, Evolution, and Behavior Skill: The subfield of psychology concerned with the roots of behaviors and mental processes is. The study of how plants, animals, and people pass traits from one generation to the next is called.
The most basic elements of heredity that control the transmission of traits are. Pairs of tiny threadlike bodies that carry genes are. Human beings have pairs of chromosomes in every normal cell. The main ingredient found in chromosomes and genes is. RNA b. The complex molecule that forms the code for all genetic information is. RNA Incorrect: DNA Correct: The basic unit of heredity, the gene, is composed mostly of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
The only known molecule that can replicate or reproduce itself is. RNA d. A member of a gene pair that can control the appearance of a certain trait only if it is paired with another, similar type gene is a gene. Jessica's mother has blue eyes, with two recessive genes for blue eyes. Her father has brown eyes, with two dominant genes for brown eyes. What are the chances that Jessica has blue eyes? In order for Jessica to have a 50 percent chance of having blue eyes, her father would need to have at least one recessive gene for blue eyes.
Her father has brown eyes, with a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. In order for Jessica to have no chance of having blue eyes, her father would need to have two dominant genes for brown eyes.
Jessica's mother has brown eyes, with a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. Her father also has brown eyes, with a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. In order for Jessica to have no chance of having blue eyes, her father or mother would need to have two dominant genes for brown eyes.
What are the chances that Jessica has brown eyes? A process that controls our most important traits in which many genes interact to produce a certain specific trait is called. In many important psychological characteristics, a number of genes make a small contribution to the trait in question.
This process is known as. When multiple genes contribute to a trait or characteristic, it is called polygenetic inheritance. Genetic dominance refers to one gene being expressed over another gene. The best answer is polygenetic inheritance. The sum total of all genes within a human cell is. The term that refers to the full complement of an organism's genetic material is.
Experts believe that the average variation in the human genetic code for any two people is percent. The human genome contains about genes. Humans share about percent of their genes with chimpanzees. An organism's entire unique genetic makeup is called its.
The outward expression of a trait is known as its. Intensive inbreeding of animals over many generations in order to create a group of animals that are genetically very similar to one another and different from other groups of animals is called study.
Strain studies involve. Studies that estimate the heritability of a trait by breeding animals with other animals that have the same trait are called studies. Studies of heritability in humans that assume that if genes influence a certain trait, close relatives should be more similar with that trait than distant relatives are called studies. Strain studies are only conducted on animals, not on human beings.
Family studies examine the commonality of certain genetic traits in relatives who share various levels of their genetic code. Each of the following is true of family study research designs in behavior genetics except they. Family studies do examine the role of genetics in various traits and characteristics but they do not rule out the influence of environment on those phenomena. Which of the following have the most similar genetic composition?
Fraternal twins are similar genetically than are other brothers and sisters. Twins that develop from two separate fertilized egg cells and are therefore different in genetic make-up are twins.
Siamese c. Twins that develop from a single fertilized ovum are twins. Siamese d. Scientists studying behavior genetics in humans commonly use which of the following types of studies for their research on people?
Twin, family, and selection studies, but not strain studies. Twin and family studies, but not selection or strain studies. Twin, family, selection, and strain studies. Twin studies, but not family, selection, or strain studies. Which of the following types of studies is least effective in ruling out environmental effects in the development of traits? Family studies are designed to examine the influence of genetics, but do not rule out the effects of environmental influences.
Twin studies do allow us to rule out the influence of environment to some extent, but not completely. An extremely useful research method for studying human behavior genetics is a. Todd's identical twin brother suffers from schizophrenia.
The odds are about one out of that he, too, will develop this mental illness. Todd's fraternal twin brother suffers from schizophrenia. The odds are percent that he, too, will develop this mental illness. Research studies carried out on children adopted at birth by parents not related to them to determine the relative influence of heredity and environment on human behavior are called studies.
One process by which physicians can test a fetus, in the womb, for possible genetic abnormalities defects is called. A procedure in which cells are collected from the membranes surrounding the fetus, then are tested for genetic abnormalities, is called.
A procedure in which some of the cells that the fetus casts off into the fluid surrounding it in the womb are collected and tested for chromosomal or genetic defects is. Prenatal screening techniques such as amniocentesis detect genetic problems in percent of pregnancies. The mechanism proposed by Darwin in his theory of evolution stating that organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics to their offspring, is called.
The scientist who proposed the mechanism of natural selection to explain the process of evolution was. Pasteur b. Watson c. Darwin d. From an evolutionary perspective, for mate selection in humans, it is most advantageous for.
According to evolutionary psychology, males may gain advantage by finding as many partners as possible because of their ability to replenish sperm in a short amount of time. Females gain advantage by finding one male mate to stay with for the long term, according to evolutionary psychology. Each of the following is a current criticism of evolutionary psychology except.
This is a valid criticism of evolutionary psychology, as some of its findings tend to support social policies that are, for example, quite sexist. A lack of scientific foundations to support the claims made by evolutionary psychology is not a valid criticism that has been made.
There are as many as billion neurons in the brain of an average human being. True b. The tiny fibers branching out from the cell body of a neuron are called axons. An axon is very thick and usually much shorter than dendrites. The axon of a neuron is often surrounded by a fatty covering called the myelin sheath.
Electrically charged particles that are present inside and outside the neuron are called graded potentials. Neural impulses vary in strength according to the strength of the incoming signal to the neuron. The neuron cannot fire during the absolute refractory period. The neuron cannot fire during the relative refractory period. The tiny gap between the synaptic knob and the next neuron is called the synapse.
A neural impulse causes the synaptic vesicles to release chemicals called neurotransmitters. Schizophrenia seems to be associated with an overabundance of dopamine. The nervous system is usually divided into two major parts: The central nervous system carries messages to and from the brain. The oldest and most primitive of the brain's structures are the cerebral hemispheres.
Breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure are controlled by the medulla. The reticular formation is located only in the hindbrain. Phineas Gage suffered personality changes as a result of damage to his temporal lobes.
The two cerebral hemispheres are not really equivalent in their functions. The ribbon-like band that connects the two hemispheres of the brain is called the corpus callosum. The hemisphere of the brain most dominant in verbal tasks is the right hemisphere. Even left-handers tend to have their language functions controlled by the left hemisphere of the brain.
Differences between hemispheres are greater in women than in men. Broca's area is important in listening and Wernicke's area is important in talking. The complex cable of nerves that connects the brain to the rest of the body is the spinal cord. The somatic nervous system contains two branches: The sympathetic division carries messages to the body which tell it to prepare for an emergency.
You cannot gain conscious control over functions normally controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Chemical substances called hormones are released into your bloodstream by the endocrine glands. The thyroid gland helps to regulate your body's metabolism. The two hormones secreted by the pancreas are insulin and adrenaline. The adrenal glands play an important role in the body's reactions to stress. Estrogen has been linked to aggressive behavior in both males and females.
The main ingredient of genes and chromosomes is glucagon. When a number of genes make small contributions to a trait, this is known as mixed dominance. The effects of genetics are not always immediate or fully apparent. Strain studies involve intensive inbreeding of close relatives among animals.
Family studies are usually based on families with identical twins. For ethical reasons, only strain and selection studies can be used to explore human genetics. Amniocentesis is a technique for detecting genetic defects in unborn children. Evolutionary psychologists are especially interested in social behaviors. Essay 1. Define neuron, axon, dendrite, cell body, and myelin sheath.
In your definitions, be sure to describe the specific functions of each item. Describe the process by which a neuron moves from a resting state to firing and then back to a resting state.