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Hari Ram Gupta. Digital master created according to Benchmark for Faithful Digital Reproductions of Monographs and Serials, Version 1. Add tags for "Marathas and Panipat.". Battle Of Panipat (): | | | Third Battle of Panipat | | | | World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the. Panipat By Vishwas Patil Pdf In Marathi Free Download >> DOWNLOAD.

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The book Third Battle of Panipat is an authentic account of the battle fought between the Marathas and the allied armies of principle Muslim chiefs of India and. medical-site.info Marathi books online. PDF Marathi ebooks for download download free marathi books Free Marathi. The battle took place at a village called Panipat near Delhi (India)in 18th century. Though Padmakar medical-site.info flag.

Review — Panipat. The word invokes such strong memories among Maharashtrians that even after years my hands tremble while typing these words. The decline of the Mughal Empire after a long war fought over 27 years with Marathas left Marathas strongly in saddle to rule India south of Narmada river. This brought them in direct conflict with Ahmed Shah Abdali. Abdali invaded India and with his allies Rohillas under Najib Khan formed a coalition against Marathas. Najib Khan was shrewd and cunning enough to understand the political implications of this confrontation and helped Abdali to obtain support of Shuja-ud-Daula, Nawab of Awadh. Maratha force entered Delhi in August This was followed by constant skirmishes and battles between the two forces. After Marathas stormed Kunjpura, 60 miles to the North of Delhi, Abdali taking a calculated risk crossed Yamuna secretly. Marathas set up defence at Panipat but they were surrounded by enemy from all sides and their supply lines were cut.

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Fine art. Continued rebellions by the Marathas in the south, and the de facto separation of a number of states including Hyderabad and Bengal , weakened the state further.

Within a few years of Aurangzeb's death, the Marathas had reversed all his territorial gains in the Deccan and had conquered almost all Mughal territory in central and northern India.

Mughals had thus become just the titular heads of Delhi. At the same time Punjab saw frequent invasions by Ahmad Shah Abdali, the great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da"--"we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah ".

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In the Maratha Empire 's Gen. Raghunathrao marched onwards, attacked and conquered Lahore and Peshawar and drove out Timur Shah Durrani. Lahore , Multan , Kashmir and other subahs on the south and eastern side of Peshawar were under the Maratha rule for the most part.

In Punjab and Kashmir the Marathas were now major players. This was the high-water mark of the Maratha expansion, where the boundaries of their empire extended in the north to the Indus and the Himalayas, and in the south nearly to the extremity of the peninsula. This territory was ruled through the Peshwa , who talked of placing his son Vishwasrao on the Mughal throne. In desperation they appealed to Ahmad Shah Abdali, the ruler of Afghanistan, to halt the threat. Vast numbers of elephants, flags of all descriptions, the finest horses, magnificently caparisoned By the end of Abdali with his Afghan tribes and his Rohilla ally Najib Khan had reached Lahore as well as Delhi and defeated the smaller enemy garrisons.

Ahmed Shah, at this point, withdrew his army to Anupshahr, on the frontier of the Rohilla country, where he successfully convinced the Nawab of Oudh Shuja-ud-Daula to join his alliance against the Marathas—in spite of the Marathas time and again helping and showing sympathy towards Shuja-ud-daula.

However, Shuja was very much ill-treated in the Abdali camp.

Suraj Mal , the Jat ruler of Bharatpur, also had joined Bhausaheb but left midway. This combined army of over , regular troops captured the Mughal capital, Delhi, from an Afghan garrison in December Bhau ordered the sacking of the already depopulated city.

The Jats did not support the Marathas. Their withdrawal from the ensuing battle was to play a crucial role in its result. Initial skirmishes Engraving of a Maratha soldier by James Forbes.

With both sides poised for battle, there followed much maneuvering, with skirmishes between the two armies fought at Karnal and Kunjpura. Kunjpura , on the banks of the Yamuna River 60 miles to the north of Delhi, was stormed by the Marathas and the whole Afghan garrison was killed or enslaved. Some of Abadali's best generals were killed. Ahmad Shah was encamped on the left bank of the Yamuna River, which was swollen by rains, and was powerless to aid the garrison.

The massacre of the Kunjpura garrison, within sight of the Durrani camp, exasperated him to such an extent that he ordered crossing of the river at all costs. Taking a calculated risk, Abdali plunged into the river, followed by his bodyguards and troops.

Between 23 and 25 October they were able to cross at Baghpat a small town about 24 miles up the river , as a man from the village, in exchange for money, showed Abdali a way through Yamuna, from where the river could be crossed, [13] unopposed by the Marathas who were still preoccupied with the sacking of Kunjpura.

After the Marathas failed to prevent Abdali's forces from crossing the Yamuna River, they set up defensive works in the ground near Panipat , thereby blocking his access back to Afghanistan, just as his forces blocked theirs to the south.

However, on the afternoon of 26 October Ahmad Shah's advance guard reached Sambalka, about halfway between Sonepat and Panipat, where they encountered the vanguard of the Marathas. A fierce skirmish ensued, in which the Afghans lost men killed and wounded but drove the Marathas back to their main body, which kept retreating slowly for several days.

This led to the partial encirclement of the Maratha army.

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They were surprised by an Afghan force near Meerut, and in the ensuing fight Bundele was killed. This completed the encirclement, as Ahmad Shah had cut off the Maratha army's supply lines. Initially the Marathas moved in almost pieces of modern long-range, French-made artillery. With a range of several kilometres, these guns were some of the best of the time. The Marathas' plan was to lure the Afghan army to confront them while they had close artillery support.

In one of these Najib lost 3, of his Rohillas and was very nearly killed but ran away. Facing a potential stalemate, Abdali decided to seek terms, which Bhau was willing to consider. However, Najib Khan delayed any chance of an agreement with an appeal on religious grounds and sowed doubt about whether the Marathas would honour any agreement.

At that time Atai Khan Baluch, son of the Wazir of Abdali, came from Afghanistan with 10, cavalry and cut off the supplies to the Marathas. Abdali had also ordered Wazir Shaha Wali Khan Afridi and others to keep a watch in the thorny jungles surrounding Panipat.

Thus, all supplies lines were cut. While Sadashivrao Bhau was still eager to make terms, a message was received from the Peshawa insisting on going to war and promising that reinforcements were under way. Unable to continue without supplies or wait for reinforcements any longer, Bhau decided to break the siege. His plan was to pulverise the enemy formations with cannon fire and not to employ his cavalry until the Afghans were thoroughly softened up.

With the Afghans broken, he would move camp in a defensive formation towards Delhi, where they were assured supplies. Formations The Maratha lines began a little to the north of Kala Amb.

Marathas and Panipat.

They had thus blocked the northward path of Abdali's troops and at the same time were blocked from heading south—in the direction of Delhi, where they could get badly needed supplies—by those same troops.

Bhau, with the Peshwa's son and the household troops, was in the centre. The left wing consisted of the gardis under Ibrahim Khan. Holkar and Sindhia were on the extreme right.

The cavalry was instructed to wait behind the artillery and bayonet-wielding musketeers, ready to be thrown in when control of the battlefield had been fully established. Behind this line was another ring of 30, young Maratha soldiers who were not battle-tested, and then the roughly 30, civilians entrained. History Additional Physical Format: Print version: Gupta, Hari Ram.

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