Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad bin Qāsim ath-Thaqafī was an Umayyad general who conquered the Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. At last Hajjaj's choice fell upon his youthful nephew, Muhammad bin Qasim. was before this city that Muhammad bin Qasim appeared after a long and. MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM: LIFE AND MESSAGE Indians and Arabs are having very strong relationship, date back to ancient times. Main targets of Arabs.
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Muhammad Bin Qasim. IdentifierMuhammadBinQasim2. Identifier-arkark:// t1mg92t0g. Ocrlanguage not currently OCRable. Ppi Mar Muhammad Bin Qasim By Naseem Hijazi Part 2 ~ Latest PDF Books. Muhammad Bin Qasim Part 1 By Naseem Hijazi | Free Pdf Books.
As a result, an Islamic region of Sind was established and today also it is one of the main Islamic centres. Initially, after the death of Muhammad bin Qasim, the Khalifah were shaken and the Islamic propagation was declined. The alliances made by Muhammad Bin Qasim proved to be fruitful in later invasion of Islamic rulers. The views on Islam were changed as Arabs were not cruel.
No extra taxes were imposed on Hindus for believing in Hinduism which won their hearts and they embraced the Arabs with the open arms.
Political and Social impact on India: The poor management of the Hindu rulers and their weak army strengths were in front of the world which developed the interest of Arabs to occupy the entire India. The Arabs opened the way of communication with the other Islamic regions and thus the direct trade and business with the Islamic countries started should be added or not.
The Sind area which was considered to be tribal before Arab invasion became economically strong and civilized. The law and order of the Arabs changed the social status of the region. The Arabs were great politicians. They believed in winning the mind of people rather than acquiring land. The social reforms took place during this time as the peaceful administration was set whereas other parts of India were highly disturbed.
The disunity of Hindu Rajas proved to be the bigger spring bolt to bring the change in the area. Economical and cultural developments: The Arabs adopted the policy of toleration and allowed Hindus to follow their religion. The Arabs adopted the rich rituals of Brahmins and gained knowledge in the areas of Astrology, Medicine and Arthashastra. Many of the Sanskrit words were added in Arab dictionaries. The small areas were converted in cities. The Arabs did town planning according to the crop of that particular area and set up business accordingly.
This improved the economical conditions of the Sind Region. For trade horses and camels were brought from other areas which later on became a mean of carrying goods from Sind to other countries. This increased the population of the region. The Arabs started treating Sind as their own land and tried to develop the area in all the spheres.
The good buildings and planning of cities left a significant impact on the Indian culture which was reflected later on. The Arabs were great poets. They believed in the development of new languages which gave birth to Sindhi language a mixture of Arab and Sanskrit language. The poetry written in Sindhi is famous till date. It given birth too many famous poets. The great Quran was translated in Arabian language. Secondly, after these wars Arabs returned to Sind.
Thirdly, exactly, presence of Arabs starts some crucial circumstances. Meantime, Hajjaj ibn Yusuf was the governor of Basra. He took this seriously and sent a message to Dahir, the king of Sind to release the people and send hem in full safety.
But Dahir refused, saying he is helpless. Hajjaj informed the khalipha, Walid.
He sent two forces in two times. But these attempts were defeated by the army o Sind. But Hajjaj, excellent military general, realized the power of king of Sind and began to make large-scale preparations. He selected his nephew Muhammad bin Qasim for this important campaign because Muhammad bin Qasim and the army with him were given strong training and practice for over one year in the desert of southern Iran. Hajjaj collected the details of secret of Sind army and strength of weapons and people.
Apart from e studied geographical atmosphere of Sind. And he handed over strategy and tactics. Not content it this Hajjaj made arrangements to convey his messages and orders to Muhammad bin Qasim from Basra to any point in Sind within a week.
Orders were that Muhammad bin Qasim should not attack any city or fort or engage his forces in any large-scale battle with the enemy without getting orders from Basra. Even instructions concerning the day and time of attack and weapons to be used in a particular place or battle were sent by Hajjaj.
Muhammad bin Qasim Muhammad bin Qasim was orphaned. His father, Qasim bin Yusuf died when Muhammad bin Qasim was young. His mother was his guardian.
The responsibilities of his upbringings fell upon his mother. Hajjaj bin Yusuf was his paternal uncle and his teacher of warfare and governing. At age of sixteen he was asked to serve under the great general, Qutayba bin Muslim.
Under his command Muhammad bin Qasim displayed a talent for skilful fighting and military planning. He was only seventeen years old. Muhammad bin Qasim proved Hajjaj right when he, without many problems, managed to win all his military campaigns. He used both his mind and military skills in capturing places like Daibul, Raor, Uch and Multan.
History does not boast of many other commanders who managed such a great victory at such a young age. Hajjaj came to India with horsemen, a camel corps of equal strength and baggage train of camels marched against Debul by way of Shiras and through Makran.
Even though Debul was well protected by strong stone fortifications, but ultimately the fort was captured and the Muslim flag was hoisted for the first time on the soil of the Indian subcontinent. Several months passed without decisive encounter owing to the difficulties confronting the Arabs.
Dahir died in this battle and Muhammad captured Brahmanabad. Arabs built the city Mansura. They occupied Rur and Multan and other important territories. Muhammad became the ruler of Sind. Causes of success In the history, we can see a lot of reasons of success of Muslim army. This was one of major reasons of victory in Sind.
The generalship of Muhammad bin Qasim was agreed by his army and they depended in abilities of Muhammad bin Qasim. He archived his objectives more by negotiation and the grant of liberal terms than by sanguine warfare. Jihad was main reason of this success. Because Muslims always wish victory of Islam over all other ideologies.
It is duty of Muslims that to release the humankind from slavery of brutal regiments and propagate Islam. Meantime Dahir who was the ruler of Sind married to his sister and other immoral activities which alienated him from his others.
Muhammad bin Qasim offered them full religious freedom and treated the local population generously and even the spiritual leaders of local religions were given salaries from the government fund. The Buddhists population of Sind decided to extend full cooperation to Mohammad bin Qasim and even acclaimed him as liberator from Brahmin tyranny. The Buddhists ruler of Nerun Hyderabad had secret correspondence with Muhammad bin Qasim, similarly, Bajhra and kaka kolak, Buddhist rajas of Sewstan, allied themselves with Muhammad bin Qasim.
Governance of Muhammad bin Qasim In history, it was a miraculous that almost entire Pakistan was conquered by a younger skilful general. Muhammad bin Qasim aged below 20, ruled these territories his pluralist view point.
Because majority of Hindu people would have treated in tolerance and religious freedom. Therefore, Muhammad bin Qasim considered the local religious leaders by giving the salaries and treated affectionately.
Apart from the main reason of the hearty relationship between was, Muhammad bin Qasim escaped them from Brahmin tyranny as a liberator. On the purpose of protection of those regions Muhammad bin Qasim prepared a Muslim officer called an Amil with a troop of cavalry. He permitted all to practice their religion freely. His concept about Hindus was that they were also included in Ahlul kitab.
He negotiated with leading scholars in Arabia about Hindu status of sub Indian continent for including in the term of Ahlul kitab. He allowed local people to hold offices in local administrations.