GUNS,. GERMS AND STEEL THE FATES OF HUMAN SOCIETIES. Jared Diamond. W. W. Norton & Company New York. London. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA. Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm . Societies Choose To Fail Or Succeed Jared Diamond [PDF] [EPUB] which Diamond first defines collapse: "a drastic decrease in human.

Author:TASHINA PAVLICEK
Language:English, Spanish, French
Country:Mali
Genre:Fiction & Literature
Pages:170
Published (Last):28.09.2016
ISBN:913-9-29842-531-3
Distribution:Free* [*Register to download]
Uploaded by: SHAVON

65747 downloads 133034 Views 26.42MB PDF Size Report


Jared Diamond Pdf

Jared Diamond is a professor of geography at the University of California, Los. Angeles. He began his scientific career in physiology and expanded into. GUNS,. GERMS AND. STEEL. THE FATES OF HUMAN SOCIETIES. Jared Diamond. W. W. Norton & Company. New York London. , Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary. Jared Diamond. COLLAPSE: HOW SOCIETIES CHOOSE TO FAIL OR SUCCEED. Viking Books, ISBN 5.

Conclusions[ edit ] In the last chapter, he discusses environmental problems facing modern societies and addresses objections that are often given to dismiss the importance of environmental problems section "One-liner objections" [4]. In the "Further readings" section, he gives suggestions to people who ask "What can I do as an individual? The reason is simple: maximum population, wealth, resource consumption , and waste production mean maximum environmental impact, approaching the limit where impact outstrips resources. Which of the values that formerly served a society well can continue to be maintained under new changed circumstances? Which of these treasured values must instead be jettisoned and replaced with different approaches? Air pollution caused by industrial plants in China. Collapse is divided into four parts. Part One describes the environment of the US state of Montana , focusing on the lives of several individuals to put a human face on the interplay between society and the environment. Part Two describes past societies that have collapsed. Diamond uses a "framework" when considering the collapse of a society, consisting of five "sets of factors" that may affect what happens to a society: environmental damage, climate change, hostile neighbors, loss of trading partners , and the society's responses to its environmental problems. A recurrent problem in collapsing societies is a structure that creates "a conflict between the short-term interests of those in power, and the long-term interests of the society as a whole. Hvalsey Church climate change, environmental damage, loss of trading partners, hostile neighbors, irrational reluctance to eat fish, chiefs looking after their short-term interests.

And, unfortunately, that is the direction in which climate changes. Which is why far more Native Americans, Australians, and South Africans died from infectious diseases than from knives and guns. Speaking of which, Jared Diamond points out four primary reasons why the Europeans conquered the Americans and the Africans and not the other way around: 1.

Opportunities for domestication of plants and animals. Europe and Asia had by far the best prospects in this area, as opposed to, say, Australia, whose chances to become a superpower were always going to be slim to none.

We can place Africa and America somewhere in the middle.

Jared Diamond

However, the fact that Europeans and Asians could eat far better food and in far larger quantities these continents were inhabited with a far larger number of domesticable animal and plant species meant that they were able to reproduce in larger numbers when compared to the inhabitants of Africa or the Americas. Agricultural and technological expansion.

Intercontinental diffusion. Since Eurasia is one large easily traversable landmass, it was always easy for ideas and technologies to spread from China to Portugal — even in the absence of direct contact.

The northern parts of the African continent profited from this communication as well. However, such communication was all but impossible in the Americas which are connected by an almost inhabitable area notorious for its susceptibility to floods, landslides, and earthquakes. Population size. Geography and Progress 2.

231929732-Jared-Diamond-Guns-Germs-Steel.pdf

The Anna Karenina Principle 3. Centralized Power vs. However, the fact that Europeans and Asians could eat far better food and in far larger quantities these continents were inhabited with a far larger number of domesticable animal and plant species meant that they were able to reproduce in larger numbers when compared to the inhabitants of Africa or the Americas.

Agricultural and technological expansion. Intercontinental diffusion. Since Eurasia is one large easily traversable landmass, it was always easy for ideas and technologies to spread from China to Portugal — even in the absence of direct contact. The northern parts of the African continent profited from this communication as well.

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed - Wikipedia

However, such communication was all but impossible in the Americas which are connected by an almost inhabitable area notorious for its susceptibility to floods, landslides, and earthquakes. Population size. Geography and Progress 2. The Anna Karenina Principle 3. Centralized Power vs.

231929732-Jared-Diamond-Guns-Germs-Steel.pdf

In a nutshell, the fact that Eurasia is one large landmass and that its primary geographic axis is east-west meant better diffusion of technology and culture and more efficient communication between the people living on these continents as opposed to the ones living in the Americas and Africa whose geographic axis is north-south.

The Anna Karenina Principle According to the Anna Karenina principle — inspired by the memorable first sentence of the Leo Tolstoy classic — in order for an endeavor to be successful, all factors must be met; in other words, if any one of these factors remains unmet than the endeavor is doomed to fail.

Jared Diamond uses this principle to explain why there are only 14 out of possible candidates domesticated species. Fragmentation Interestingly enough, the only reason why Europe crossed the Atlantic first — and not China the Pacific — to colonize the Americas was the social structure of the continents.

China, in other words, had the technology, but about half a century before Columbus set sail, a local political dispute resulted in a national ban on transoceanic expeditions.

This was possible because one man had the power to do that.

Similar articles


Copyright © 2019 medical-site.info.
DMCA |Contact Us