D P Goyal. Macmillan Publishers India Limited, - Management information systems - pages many points are missing in the book and are not up to the medical-site.info sdlc and many modles like mis traingle etxc Author, D P Goyal. The 4th edition of this book has been updated to meet the new requirements of the students, professors, and practitioners. This is an enhanced version Management Information Systems: Managerial Perspectives, 4th Edition. By D.P. Goyal. Management Information Systems: Managerial Perspectives, 4th Edition. Front Cover. D.P. Goyal Thanks,it very useful information from this book,I love it.
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Management Information Systems:Managerial Perspectives. Front Cover. D P Goyal. Macmillan Publishers India Limited, - Management information. Results 1 - 16 of 27 Information Intelligence, Systems, Technology and Management: 5th International Conference, ICISTM , Gurgaon, India, March Management Information System (MIS): Concept and Applications [D.P. by D.P. Goyal (Author) Author interviews, book reviews, editors' picks, and more.
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Management Information Systems: Managerial Perspectives, 4th Edition D. Goyal January 1, The 4th edition of this book has been updated to meet the new requirements of the students, professors, and practitioners.
This is an enhanced version of the earlier editions. In addition, to have better engagement and learning outcomes for the reader, certain new pedagogical features have also been added.
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The following are some of the key challenges that we will address in this book: CIO Wisdom: Best Practices from Silicon Valley. Another approach for describing information systems is that proposed by Harsh and colleagues. They define information as one of four types and all these types are important component of a management information system.
Furthermore, the various types build upon and interact with each other. A common starting level is Descriptive information. This information portrays the what is condition of a business, and it describes the state of the business at a specified point in time. Descriptive information is very important to the business manager, because without it, many problems would not be identified.
Descriptive information includes a variety of types of information including financial results, production records, test results, product marketing, and maintenance records. Descriptive information can also be used as inputs to secure other needed types of information. For example, what is information is needed for supplying restraints in analyzing farm adjustment alternatives. It can also be used to identify problems Page 10 other than the what is condition.
Descriptive information is necessary but not completely sufficient in identifying and addressing farm management problems. The second type of information is diagnostic information, this information portrays this what is wrong condition, where what is wrong is measured as the disparity between what is and what ought to be.
This assessment of how things are versus how they should be a fact-value conflict is probably our most common management problem.
Diagnostic information has two major uses. It can first be used to define problems that develop in the business. Are production levels too low? Is the rate earned on investment too low?
These types of question cannot be answered with descriptive information alone such as with financial and production records. A manager may often be well supplied with facts about his business, yet be unable to recognize this type of problem. The manager must provide norms or standards which, when compared with the facts for a particular business, will reveal an area of concern.
Once a problem has been identified, a manager may choose an appropriate course of action for dealing with the problem including doing nothing. Corrective measures may be taken so as to better achieve the managers goals.
Several pitfalls are involved for managers in obtaining diagnostic information. Adequate, reliable, descriptive information must be available along with appropriate norms or standards for particular business situations. Information is inadequate for problem solving if it does not fully describe both what is and what ought to be. As description is concerned with what is and diagnostics with what is wrong, prediction is concerned with what if? Predictive information is generated from an analysis of possible future events and is exceedingly valuable with desirable outcomes.
With predictive information, one either defines problems or avoids problems in advance. Prediction also assists in analysis.
When a problem is recognized, a manager will analyze the situation and specify at least one alternative including doing nothing to deal with it. Predictive information is needed by managers to reduce the risk and uncertainty concerning technology, prices, climate, institutions, and human relationships affecting the business.
Such information is vital in formulating production plans and examining related financial impacts. Predictive information takes many forms. What are the expected prices next year?
What yields are anticipated? How much capital will be required to upgrade production technologies? What would be the difference in expected returns in switching from a livestock farm to a cropping farm? Management has long used various budgeting techniques, simulation models, and other tools to evaluate expected changes in the business. Page 11 Without detracting from the importance of problem identification and analysis in management, the crux of management tasks is decision making.
For every problem a manager faces, there is a right course of action. However, the rightness of a decision can seldom, if ever, be measured in absolute terms.
The choice is conditionally right, depending upon a farm managers knowledge, assumptions, and conditions he wishes to impose on the decision. Prescriptive information is directed toward answering the what should be done question. Provision of this information requires the utilization of the predictive information.
Predictive information by itself is not adequate for decision making. An evaluation of the predicted outcomes together with the goals and values of the manger provides that basis for making a decision.
For example, suppose that a manager is considering a new changing marketing alternative. The new alternative being considered has higher predicted returns but also has higher risks and requires more management monitoring. The decision as to whether to change plans depends upon the managers evaluation of the worth of additional income versus the commitment of Page 12 additional time and higher risk.
Thus, the goals and values of a farm manager will ultimately enter into any decision. A management information system MIS is a system or process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively.
MIS and the information it generates are generally considered essential components of prudent and reasonable business decisions. MIS is viewed and used at many levels by management. It should be supportive of the institution's longer term strategic goals and objectives. To the other extreme it is also those everyday financial accounting systems that are used to ensure basic control is maintained over financial recordkeeping activities.
Financial accounting systems and subsystems are just one type of institutional MIS. Financial accounting systems are an important functional element or part of the total MIS structure. However, they are more narrowly focused on the internal balancing of an institution's books to the general ledger and other financial accounting subsystems.
For example, accrual adjustments, reconciling and correcting entries used to reconcile the financial systems to the general ledger are not always immediately entered into other MIS systems. Accordingly, although MIS and accounting reconcilement totals for related listings and activities should be similar, they may not necessarily balance.
Deliver complex material throughout the institution. Provide an objective system for recording and aggregating information. Reduce expenses related to labor-intensive manual activities. Support the organization's strategic goals and direction. Because MIS supplies decision makers with facts, it supports and enhances the overall decision making process. MIS also enhances job performance throughout an institution.
At the most senior levels, it provides the data and information to help the board and management make strategic decisions. At other levels, MIS provides the means through which the institution's activities are monitored and information is distributed to management, employees, and customers.
Page 13 Effective MIS should ensure the appropriate presentation formats and time frames required by operations and senior management are met. MIS can be maintained and developed by either manual or automated systems or a combination of both. It should always be sufficient to meet an institution's unique business goals and objectives. The effective deliveries of an institution's products and services are supported by the MIS. These systems should be accessible and useable at all appropriate levels of the organization.
MIS is a critical component of the institution's overall risk management strategy. MIS supports management's ability to perform such reviews. MIS should be used to recognize, monitor, measure, limit, and manage risks. Risk management involves four main elements: Policies or practices. Operational processes. Staff and management. Feedback devices. Frequently, operational processes and feedback devices are intertwined and cannot easily be viewed separately. The most efficient and useable MIS should be both operational and informational.
As such, management can use MIS to measure performance, manage resources, and help an institution comply with regulatory requirements. One example of this would be the managing and reporting of loans to insiders.
MIS can also be used by management to provide feedback on the effectiveness of risk controls. Controls are developed to support the proper management of risk through the institution's policies or practices, operational processes, and the assignment of duties and responsibilities to staff and managers.
Technology advances have increased both the availability and volume of information management and the directors have available for both planning and decision making. Correspondingly, technology also increases the potential for inaccurate reporting and flawed decision making.
Because data can be extracted from many financial and transaction systems, appropriate control procedures must be set up to ensure that information is correct and relevant. In addition, since MIS often originates from multiple equipment platforms including mainframes, minicomputers, and microcomputers, controls must ensure that systems on smaller computers have processing controls that are as well defined and as effective as those commonly found on the traditionally larger mainframe systems.
Page 14 MIS for Farm Management The importance of management information systems to improve decision making has long been understood by farm management economists. Financial and production records have long been used by these economists as an instrument to measure and evaluate the success of a farm business. However, when computer technology became more widely available in the late s and early s, there was an increased enthusiasm for information systems to enhance management decision processes.
At an IBM hosted conference, Ackerman, a respected farm management economist, stated that: The advances that have taken place in calculating equipment and methods make it possible to determine the relationship between ultimate yields, time of harvest and climatic conditions during the growing season.
Relationship between the perspective and actual yields and changing prices can be established. With such information at hand the farmer should be in a position to make a decision on his prediction with a high degree of certainty at mid-season regarding his yield and income at harvest time.
This statement, made in , reflects the optimism that prevailed with respect to information systems. Even though there was much enthusiasm related to these early systems they basically concentrated on accounting activities and production records. These early systems relieved on large mainframe computers with the data being sent to a central processing center and the reports send back to the cooperating businesses. To put these early efforts into a management information system framework, the one proposed by Alder is useful.
See Figure. They would be defined as data oriented systems with limited data analysis capabilities beyond calculating typical ratios e. By the mid s it became clear that the accounting systems were fairly effective in supplying descriptive and diagnostic information but they lacked the capacity to provide predictive and prescriptive information. Thus, a new approach was needed a method of doing forward planning or a management information system that was more models oriented.
Simulation models for improving management skills and testing system interaction were developed. This model was based on systems modeling methods that could be used to analyze different production Page 15 strategies of the farm business.
To be used by managers, however, they often demanded that the model developer work closely with them in using the model. They used a workshop setting to run large linearprogramming models on mainframe computers optimization models to help crop producers find more efficient and effective ways to operate their business.
As mainframe timeshare computers emerged in the mid's, I became possible to remotely access the computer with a terminal and execute software.