Social World The Process and Practice of Research medical-site.info - Ebook download as PDF File Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd .. We need systematic methods for investigating our social world that enable us to chart . in the seventh edition: Examples of social research as it occurs in real-world settings. Investigating the social world: the process and practice of research /. Russell K. Schutt.—7th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Investigating the social world: the process and by Russell K Schutt. Investigating 9th edition, international student edition. Thousand 8th edition. London.
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Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research Eighth Edition. by . Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences (5th Edition). Alan Agresti. Investigating the social world: the process and practice of research / Russell K. Schutt Schutt, Russell K · View online 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press, pages, , English, Book; Illustrated, 19 Eighth ediiton. COUPON: Rent Investigating the Social World The Process and Practice of Research 8th edition () and save up to 80% on textbook rentals and.
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Austin Keith Yanner. The University of Kansas Guang-zhen Wang. Denver Virginia S. University of Northern Colorado Barbara Keating. Elizabethtown College Kelly Moore. I thank my wife for her love and support and our daughter for the joy she brings to our lives and the good she has done in the social world. They were expanded for the second edition by Tom Linneman and a team of graduate students he directed at the University of Washington—Mark Edwards.
Jeffrey Xavier. Heather Albertson. Several former faculty. Julia Schutt. Heather Johnson Northeastern University. Reef Youngreen and Phil Kretsedemas provided helpful feedback on. Kate Russell developed a new set of exercises for this edition. Chris Gillespie University of Massachusetts.
I also share a profound debt to the many social scientists and service professionals with whom I have collaborated in social science research projects. No scholarly book project can succeed without good library resources. Kathryn Stoeckert. I continue to be indebted to the many students I have had the opportunity to teach and mentor.
Anne Foxx. Diane Bates and Matthew Archibald helped revise material for instructors and Judith Richlin-Klonsky revised some examples in Chapter 9.
Megan Reynolds. My format changes in the exercises for the third edition were tested by my daughter. I also have benefited from the resources maintained by the excellent librarians at the University of Massachusetts. Bob Dentler and students in his —94 graduate research methods class. In many respects. Lorella Palazzo. Tracey Newman. With so many people connecting through Facebook and similar services.
Facebook had more than By the end of Do you know what impact online social networking has had? Has it helped you to keep in touch with your friends? To make new friends? Does it distract you from reading your textbooks and paying attention in class? Is it reducing your face-to-face interactions with other people?
If you saw the film. The Social Network. Keith Hampton. You will also learn about the challenges that researchers confront. Does social networking software help you stay in touch with your friends?
Take a few minutes to read each of the following questions and jot down your answers. I hope to convince you that the use of research methods to investigate questions about the social world results in knowledge that can be more important. What percentage of Americans are connected to the Internet? This is not a test. Do both cell phones and e-mail tend to hinder the development of strong social ties?
How does Internet use vary across social groups? But the second question and the others concern the social world—the experiences and orientations of people in addition. You will learn how investigations such as by Ling and Stald are helpful in answering questions about social ties and the impact of technology on these ties. Rich Ling and Gitte Stald asked whether different technologymediated forms of communication like cell phones and social networking differ in their effects on social ties.
Does wireless access Wi-Fi in public places like Starbucks decrease social interaction among customers? Oren Livio. How many close friends does an average American have? What makes social research different from the ordinary process of thinking about our experiences is a focus on broader questions that involve people outside our immediate experience.
In this chapter. As we do so. Kevin Lewis and others asked if some types of students were more likely to use Facebook than others. You have probably asked yourself some of these questions and you may have thought about answers to them.
To answer questions such as these. Studying research methods will help you learn what criteria to apply when evaluating these different answers and what methods to use when seeking to develop your own answers.
Chapter 1 Science. Does this variability lead you to be cautious about using your own experience as a basis for estimating the average level of Internet use Question 2?
How about estimating the number of intimate social ties Question 3? Were your opinions based primarily on what you have experienced or observed? How well do your experiences represent those of residents of the United States as a whole Question 3? Do you see how different people can come to such different conclusions about the effect of technology-based communication Questions 4.
Hampton and Gupta concluded that there were two types of Wi-Fi users: The Current Population Survey by the U. In Bureau of the Census of approximately How do these answers compare with the opinions you recorded earlier? Do you think your personal experiences led you to different estimates than what others might have given?
You have just learned that about two-thirds of U. Lewis et al. This percentage has increased rapidly since broadband first came into use in see Exhibit 1. Internet use differs dramatically between social groups. Based on surveys in Norway and Denmark. Table 1. As indicated in Exhibit 1. Are you convinced? This average had declined from 2.
Ling and Stald concluded that mobile phones increase social ties among close friends and family members. After observing Internet use in coffee shops with wireless access in two cities. In their study at one college.
Households Exhibit 1. In fact. Her two cats cautiously went to the door and looked outside for a while. When we think about the social world. When they arrived in the country. In the city. It is easy to make mistakes in each of these processes. My favorite example of the errors in reasoning that occur in the nonscientific. Reports available online at www. Percentage of Households Oct.
The letter was written by someone who had just moved with her two cats from the city to a house in the country. Such errors occur often in casual conversation and in everyday observation of the world around us. Different observers may perceive the same situation differently because they interpret it differently.
Observing One common mistake in learning about the social world is selective observation— choosing to look only at things that are in line with our preferences or beliefs.
When we are inclined to criticize individuals or institutions. For example. The optical illusion in Exhibit 1. In the process. We are always drawing conclusions about people and social processes from our own interactions with them and perceptions of them. Even when our senses are functioning fully. She was quick to conclude that she had no need to change her approach to the cats. She observed only two cats. Generalizing Overgeneralization occurs when we conclude that what we have observed or what we know to be true for some cases is true for all or most cases Exhibit 1.
Selective observation Choosing to look only at things that are in line with our preferences or beliefs. If you recognize these errors for what they are and make a conscious effort to avoid them. Our observations can also simply be inaccurate. These are the same errors that the methods of social science are designed to help us avoid.
She observed the cats at the outside door only once. But what about elderly people who serve as Internet pen pals for grade-school children? Doctors Inaccurate observation An who exchange views on medical developments? Therapists who deliver online observation based on faulty counseling? If we acknowledge only the instances that confirm our predisposiperceptions of empirical reality. She assumed that others feel guilty about keeping their cats indoors and that cats are motivated by feelings about opportunities to play.
Since we know that the atmosphere has become contaminated by all the atomic testing. Do you know what the majority of people think about jury duty? According to a Harris Poll.. We have the ability and inclination to interact with just a small fraction of the individuals who inhabit the social world. Do you ever find yourself making a quick overgeneralization like that? Reasoning When we prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions.
An Internet blogger posted a conclusion about the cause of the tsunami wave that devastated part of Indonesia in cited in Schwartz Illogical reasoning When we prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions. The social and natural world is.
Reevaluating Resistance to change. We know how tempting it is to make statements about the social world that conform to our own needs rather Resistance to change The reluctance to change our ideas in than to the observable facts. Another blogger soon responded with an explanation of plate tectonics: But too much devotion to tradition can stifle adaptation to changing circumstances. Boase et al. But subsequent research indicated that people who used e-mail more also kept in touch with others more in person and by phone Benkler Many social commentators assumed that the result of increasing communication by e-mail would be fewer social ties maintained through phone calls and personal contact.
We all learn to greet with some skepticism the claims by leaders of companies. The reporter lost interest when Wellman pointed out that other causes might be involved. If we do not have the courage to evaluate critically the ideas of those in positions of authority. Logic that seems impeccable to one person can seem twisted to another. As you are learning in this chapter. Social life can be richer and more meaningful if it is allowed to flow along the paths charted by those who have preceded us.
It is not always so easy to spot illogical reasoning. On the other hand. It can also be difficult to admit that we were wrong light of new information. Some skepticism about the potential for online learning once served as a healthy antidote to unrealistic expectations of widespread student enthusiasm Bray Barry Wellman Boase et al. Some degree of devotion to tradition is necessary for the predictable functioning of society.
Now take just a minute to reexamine the opinions about social ties and Internet use that you recorded earlier. Did you grasp at a simple explanation even though reality is far more complex?
Did your own ego and feelings about your similarities to or differences from others influence your beliefs? Could knowledge of research methods help improve your own understanding of the social world? Do you see some of the challenges social science faces?
Social science relies on scientific methods to investigate individuals. March It is important to realize that when we apply scientific methods to understanding ourselves. Johan Bolen from the University of Indiana reviewed 6-months-worth of tweets from Science relies on logical and systematic methods to answer questions. Social science The use of scientific methods to investigate individuals. Was it in part uncritical agreement with computer industry authorities that led so many to utopian visions for the future of the Internet?
The rapid increase in transportation speeds as scientific knowledge in the past two centuries has fueled transportation technologies. In this way. Twitter users who expressed happy moods tended to retweet or reply to others who were happy.
The objects of our research are people like us. Even as you learn to appreciate the value of social science methods. Public does: Pseudoscience claims are not always easy to identify. Military leaders may seek to strengthen unit cohesion. These policy guidance and program management needs can stimulate numerous research projects.
One hundred years ago. In physics or chemistry. Law enforcement agencies may seek to track the connections between criminal gangs and the effect of social cohesion on the crime rate. Those whom we study can evaluate us. Emile Durkheim linked social processes stemming from urbanization and industrialization to a higher rate of suicide. For most. Shermer Fifty years ago. Questions about changing social relations have stimulated much academic social science.
As Cooper and Victory a said in their foreword to a U. Are you surprised that more than half of Americans believe in astrology. Many government agencies.
Public officials may need information for planning zoning restrictions in residential neighborhoods. Are any of your even though they lack supporting beliefs based on pseudoscience? And we cannot ignore the need always to treat people ethically.
What motivates selection of this or any other particular research focus? But for some social scientists. We must never be so impressed with the use of scientific methods in investigations of the social world that we forget to evaluate carefully the quality of the resulting evidence. We must also be on guard against our natural tendency to be impressed with knowledge that is justified with what sounds like scientific evidence.
The growth of computer-mediated communication CMC introduces a new means of social contact with the potential to affect many aspects of personal communities. Descriptive questions Exhibit 1. Some social scientists who conduct research on social ties feel that by doing so they can help improve the quality of communities.
Social scientists may become interested in social ties as a result of watching the challenges their children face in middle school or after finding themselves without many friends after a career move.
Can you imagine some parents or their children. This article examines. It is time to move from speculation to evidence. Descriptive Research Defining and describing social phenomena of interest is a part of almost any research investigation. This section illustrates each type with projects from the large body of research about various aspects of social ties.
Types of Social Research Whatever the motives. Survey research Chapter 8 is often in which social phenomena are used for descriptive purposes. Exploratory Research Exploratory research seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question. In Chapter Measurement the topic of Chapter 4 and sampling Chapter 5 Descriptive research Research are central concerns in descriptive research. The survey they used. McPherson et al. They speculate that this decline may be due in part to increasing use of the Internet to maintain a larger number of social ties that are not so close.
What is the level of social ties in America? Exploratory research such as this frequently involves qualitative methods. Appendix G summarizes the design of the McPherson et al. How can elderly people use the Internet to manage their heart conditions better? Loader et al. What is the level of particular types of social ties in America? Some comparative research also has a descriptive defined and described.
You read about some of the study results at the beginning of the chapter: The researchers found that the average American had 2. There were 1. What types of social ties do Internet users have? This decline since occurred almost entirely among non-kin network members there was little change in the number of family ties. What social and cultural patterns characterize disadvantaged neighborhoods?
Harding This purpose is associated with the use of methods find out how people get along in the setting under question. British social scientists Sally Lindsay. Simon Smith. Explanatory Research Many consider explanation the premier goal of any science. Frances Bell. I focus on ways of identifying causal effects in Chapter 6.
Sally Lindsay and her colleagues read through transcripts of interviews and a guided group discussion with their participants.
The survey was conducted on the Internet. The Internet provided these new users with both more knowledge and greater social support in dealing with their health problems. Through the Internet. They then identified different themes and categorized text passages in terms of the themes and their interrelations.
In general. Nie and Lutz Erbring Explanatory research seeks to identify the causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some other phenomenon.
They decided to explore this question by introducing a small group of older men to computers and the Internet and then letting them discuss their experiences with using the Internet for the next 3 years. They drew a random sample of 4. Two researchers read each transcript and compared their classifications of themes. Explanatory research often involves experiments see Chapter 7 or surveys see Chapter 8.
These two researchers also discussed their interpretations of what they learned with their coauthors as well as with two of the elderly interviewees. What effect does Internet use have on social relations? Norman H. The first study report focused on survey respondents who had already been using the Internet when they were contacted for the study. Explanatory research Seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some other phenomenon.
These respondents were questioned about their Internet usage. Too often. It makes you feel a lot better.
Can Internet resources help elderly persons manage heart conditions? It takes a lot of the fear away. Does high-speed Internet access change community life? The more time people spent using the Internet. Their answers suggested adverse effects of Internet use on social relations. Sociologists Barry Wellman and Keith Hampton used this arrangement to evaluate the impact of Internet access on social relations. Sensitive personal topics. E-mail was used to set up face-to-face social events rather than as a substitute for them.
E-mail is a way to stay in touch.
Concern over the potential impact of alternative policies regarding the Internet provided an impetus for new evaluation research. The heavier Internet users reported an increase in time spent working both at home and at the office. Evaluation Research Evaluation research seeks to determine the effects of programs.
The Internet could be the ultimate isolating technology that further reduces our participation in communities even more than television did before it. This is a type of explanatory research. Hampton actually lived in Netville for 2 years. Nie and Erbring were troubled by the results. This focus raises some issues that are not relevant in other types of explanatory research.
They surveyed Netville residents who were connected to the Internet and compared them with residents who had not activated their computer connections. They also found that being wired into the computer network enabled residents to maintain more effectively their relations with friends and relatives elsewhere.
Nie and Erbring also found what some might view as positive effects: Chapter 11 introduces evaluation research. I introduce ethical principles and alternative research philosophies that should guide an entire research project.
The Bureau of the Census that record variation in social life in survey Strickling Data that are Stald research also used quantitative methods—they reported their findtreated as quantitative are either ings as percentages and other statistics that summarized the relationship between numbers or attributes that can be Internet usage and various aspects of social relations.
These data were numerical. In contrast. In Chapter 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Did you notice the difference between the types of data used in the studies about social ties? The primary data used in the descriptive social ties survey were counts of the number of people who had particular numbers of social ties and particular kinds of social ties.
You will learn more about these alternatives in Chapter 2. Quantitative methods Methods and other characteristics McPherson et al. Gupta observed Wi-Fi users in public spaces. Because they recorded their. Some researchers always adopt the same orientation in their research. Hampton and ordered in terms of magnitude. I introduce alternative orientations in this chapter that represent answers to two important questions that must be considered when you begin a research project: We consider a mixed-method strategy in more detail in Chapter 10 and we examine particular combinations of methods in most other chapters.
Basic Science or Applied Research You know that social scientists seek to describe and explain how society works. Social scientists attached by participants to events and to their lives. The term suggests that a researcher can get a clearer picture of the social reality being studied by viewing it from several different perspectives. Evaluation research like that conducted by Keith Hampton and Barry Wellman seeks to determine whether one program or policy has a more desirable impact than another.
Quantitative methods are most often used when are designed to capture social life the motives for research are explanation. Also used to mean The distinction between quantitative and qualitative data is not always sharp. The use of multiple methods to study one research question is called triangulation.