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This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability an idea that was already taking hold to nuts and bolts. Nuts were rare; metal screws, when made at all, were usually for use in wood. Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were usually fastened in non-threaded ways such as clinching or upsetting against a washer.
Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts consistently to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size. This was a major advance in workshop technology.
Graphic representation of formulae for the pitches of threads of screw bolts Joseph Whitworth 's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first unofficial national standard by companies around the country in It came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth , and was widely adopted in other countries. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart.
These were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering.
American Unified Coarse was originally based on almost the same imperial fractions. National standards body[ edit ] By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade increasingly difficult and strained.
For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times : "Architects and engineers generally specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible.
In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work.
The national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, and enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. International standards[ edit ] The first modern International Organization Intergovernmental Organization the International Telegraph Union now International Telecommunication Union was created in  to set international standards in order to connect national telegraph networks, as a merger of two predescessor organizations that had similar objectives, but in more limited territories   By the mid to late 19th century, efforts were being made to standardize electrical measurement.
Lord Kelvin was an important figure in this process, introducing accurate methods and apparatus for measuring electricity.
In , he introduced a series of effective instruments, including the quadrant electrometer, which cover the entire field of electrostatic measurement. He invented the current balance , also known as the Kelvin balance or Ampere balance SiC , for the precise specification of the ampere , the standard unit of electric current.
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Institute of Industrial Engineers www. Industrial Innovations - Solutions-Based Lubrication Effective engineering principles, reliable components and quality equipment construction ensure that lubricants are utilized to their full potential Manufacturers include Crosby, Anderson Greenwood Advanced Manufacturing Office Department of Energy energy.