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Next a case study is presented where such an approach was implemented. This employed a mass communication strategy using broadcast TV reports on a popular science show. This was combined with linked multiple media to allow follow-up by interested viewers. The project involved collaboration between media, science, corporations, sustainability actors and consumer watchdogs.
The aim was to raise the level of engagement with sustainable consumption issues. This was monitored and analysis was conducted from media, marketing, and consumer research perspectives.
Initial consumer research results are reported. We conclude by discussing some of the implications. Following this route, empirical work on 5 The term was chosen to denote a sustainable lifestyle which aims to balance economic, ecological, and social goals.
Sustainable consumption was intentionally framed as well-being within a balanced lifestyle; resembling what is now termed lifestyle of health and sustainability LOHAS , see www. Spash and Sabine Bietz attitudes by social psychologists led to the development of various attitudinal scales by which specific behaviour might be explained on the basis of pro-environmental attitudes.
An early and still popular pro-environmental scale is the New Ecological Paradigm NEP designed by Dunlap and Van Liere using 12 statements, with which respondents agree or disagree on a Likert-type 4-point scale, to capture key aspects of environmentalism. This has been applied to monitor changing environmental awareness and in the prediction of economic behaviour eg.
The NEP and pro- environmental attitudes have been linked to value orientations biospheric, social altruistic and egoistic by Stern This value-belief-norm model of human behaviour generalises Schwartz norm activation theory by postulating that adverse consequences to valued objects activate personal norms, such as a sense of obligation to take pro-environmental actions.
Thus, for example, people who value other species highly will be concerned about environmental conditions that threaten such species biospheric value orientation while those who care about other people will be concerned for their health and well-being as a result of changing environmental quality social-altruism.
The aim of such work is to explain the motives and beliefs underlying specific actions. In terms of consumption behaviour the engagement of individuals in the framing of the environment as an aspect of the market place becomes important.
If the environment, or aspects of it, can be regarded as just a commodity then economists can limit their policies to market based instruments, i. A German Experiment monetary incentives to achieve desired behaviours. Evidence on the problems associated with this outlook has then arisen from employing motivational measures in hypothetical markets.
For example, pro-environmental attitudes have been hypothesised to be determinants of WTP leading to protest bidding by environmentalists because they are more likely to hold deontological or rights-based beliefs which reject economic consequentialist and utilitarian positions Spash, Such trade-off rejection is consistent with holding lexicographic preferences Spash, , and confronts the consumerist approach to valuing the environment with a belief system which rejects notions of commensurability Aldred, This creates problems for economists trying to extend commoditisation to the environment because individuals may not just refuse to engage but may also give monetary values unrelated to trade prices Spash, Psychological motivations then become key to understanding behaviour and designing policy instruments.
Thus, simple economic approaches using taxes or subsidies as incentives to change behaviour can have unexpected consequences and crowd out moral and norm based motives to action Frey and Jegen, Clearly then, in developing effective intervention strategies, knowledge about underlying psychological variables is indispensable.
Research has addressed the role of stable dispositions as well as specific environmental cognitions and emotions Kals and Maes The explanatory power of generalized personality traits and broad beliefs eg. Bamberg However, specific environmental cognitions—morals, ecological awareness, control beliefs and justice appraisals—exert strong stabilising effects on sustainable behaviour Montada and Kals Spash and Sabine Bietz of responsibility, the attribution of ecological responsibility to oneself, as well as to external agents eg.
Moral reasoning and normative messages over what constitutes a right or wrong action is a proven motivational basis for overcoming various factors eg. This provides at least two entry points for intervention programmes. First, they can aim at creating risk awareness via providing information and knowledge. While useful, this approach neglects the impact of various categories of emotions.
This omission can be explained by the prevalence of rational choice- based action theories such the Theory of Reasoned Action Ajzen and Fishbein, , the Theory of Planned Behaviour Ajzen, , and the Theory of Trying Bagozzi and Warshaw, A core element in these models is the proposition that individuals are motivated to act on the basis of beliefs about consequences, cost and benefits, and importance.
The basic theoretical characterisation, with respect to individual psychology, is of humans as restricted, resourceful, expecting, evaluating, and maximizing Coleman and Fararo The model has been informed and influenced by mainstream economic theory.
Gintis provides an overview of experimental results in this regard. A German Experiment a characterisation of humans and so are absent. Only within the past decade or so have a significant number of studies in consumer research appeared in the literature that involve emotions for an overview see Laros and Steenkamp The emotional foundations of sustainable environmental behaviour can be observed in negative and positive ways.
Positive emotions may be expressed as affinity or simply love of Nature. Whereas certain emotions can be traced back to moral cognitions, feelings of love toward Nature appear to be based upon experience which might be made in relationship with significant others McShane, ; Montada and Kals In contrast, ecological fear and experienced ecological burdens appear less important.
As Kals and Maes , state: This moral dimension is reflected not only cognitively, but also experienced emotionally. Indeed, the emotional dimension of sustainable behaviours can be taken into account in intervention programmes where the experience of positive emotions plays a key role. The characteristics of environmental problems are particularly challenging in terms of designing interventions to change behaviour, i.
Spash and Sabine Bietz benefits and consequences; benefits to geographically and temporally remote third parties; intangibles that are difficult to portray; the need for long term engagement due to large amounts of complex information; the need to change basic values; and the need to get outside opinion leaders on board.
Following the work of Andreasen , approaches to induce behavioural change in consumers can be regarded as forming five strategies: Ringold, Wolburg, The approach can be very costly which restricts application to individuals or small groups.
The underlying psychological model is also narrow and the connotations of enforced behaviour may be politically contentious. While promising, the approach requires situations in which social issues are well understood and norms accepted. Effectiveness will be determined by the pressures to conform.
The behaviour to be influenced needs to be socially important eg. Appeals to group norms may be less effective the more individualism is emphasised in society. A German Experiment 5 Social marketing: Kotler, Roberto and Lee, ; Smith Andreasen , provides empirical evidence supporting the potential of social marketing to influence consumers, particularly in the context of human health.
Positive emotional appeals enable a target audience to move from non-interest and ignorance to contemplation of behavioural change Monahan, In contrast, appeals to fear prove counterproductive—provoking defence mechanisms and inattention Hale and Dillard, Designing and Conducting an Empirical Application in Germany Project Balance was set up as both a trendsetting initiative to stimulate sustainability communication amongst the public, and an academic research project to assess factors of success and failure.
Spash and Sabine Bietz i.
This then resembles more an upward spiral of exploration: Figure 1 sketches the design of the project. For example, Kroeber-Riel and Weinberg estimate that less than five percent of actively sent corporate communication directed to consumers is received. Gunter, Furnham and Lineton ; Siddarth and Chattopadhyay Project Balance aimed for public engagement and discourse on sustainable consumption and production using a range of push and pull-media.
The approach involved two-steps: In consumer behaviour research, high-involvement behaviours such as the ones discussed in this chapter are conceptualized as being developed through definable stages.
Several models of behavioural change have been proposed Maibach and Cotton, Project Balance selected the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change Prochaska and DiClemente, , which has undergone considerable field testing mainly in the public health domain eg. Mohr et al. The model describes five stages: Stage 1: Pre-contemplation, in which consumers do not think of the behaviour as being appropriate for them.
This can be due to pure ignorance, presumed irrelevance, or, more difficult to change, principles and norms. Stage 2: Contemplation, in which consumers think about and evaluate recommended behaviours, and also look for more information. Stage 3: Preparation, in which consumers have decided to act and prepare, eg.
Stage 4: Action, in which consumers initiate a new behaviour. Stage 5: Confirmation, in which consumers are committed to the behaviour and have no desire or intention to return to the earlier behaviour. Spash and Sabine Bietz Ideally, intervention strategies target consumers as classified by the five groups. Communication tasks appropriate to each are then to create awareness and interest, change values, motivate behavioural change, create action, and maintain change Andreasen, General media may achieve early stage transformation while the latter stages are more likely to be reached with tailored messages and media such as print, internet and podcasts.
While the five stages provide a conceptual framework, in practice Stages 2 and 3 are closely intertwined and separating individuals is difficult. Moreover, consumers may be in different stages with respect to different consumption domains, eg.
Bearing these limitations in mind, a questionnaire was administered to aid classification by stage. This allowed a crude classification according to the five stages, but proved sufficient to evaluate the impact of project communication stimuli.
Project Balance focused on the initial stages, namely the generation of interest, attention and attitude formation amongst people who have no or low interest 8 Questionnaires, in German only, available from the lead author.
Among other relations it shows the strong correlation between awareness level and level of education, it also provides data on the average knowledge of the concept of sustainability and other green issues. A German Experiment in sustainability issues. In order to achieve maximum target group exposure, the sustainability messages had to be placed in media channels that the target audience would normally choose. Channels were carefully selected regarding core viewer characteristics, reach, frequency, impact, and cost.
During the project, cross media spin-offs—a website, a print magazine, and a podcast show—were developed and target group exposure was increased. Additionally, the show appeared three times per week on a news channel N-TV.
Altogether, 34 Balance Reports were aired and each reached about two to three million viewers per week. The Balance Reports fell into two categories. First, there were those which presented companies committed to sustainable production or services; here, specific branded sustainable products or services were showcased 10 For more detail and statistics, see the final report on Project Balance, available from the lead author. As regards the other media employed: Spash and Sabine Bietz eg.
Second were a variety of reports on sustainability that were not company-specific but showcased sustainable products or product-use in general, such as fair trade coffee, hybrid cars, organic meat, gas-saving driving, sustainable lumber, detergent, or the sustainable cultivation of apples.
Usually such data are too expensive for academic researchers to access. The show was aired weekly during prime time and repeated several times during the week on different channels.
A German Experiment presented by him. The host was motivated by personal beliefs about the necessity of a more sustainable lifestyle and so add to the information presented in the TV reports. In practice, this is highly relevant since the freedom of the press forbids external intrusion in the production of a programme.
The content and design of TV reports are the full responsibility of the broadcasters. After recent heated public debate and legal conflicts at national and European level on surreptitious TV advertising, product placement, and issue placement, journalists and programme makers have become very sensitive to undue influence in their work. Research into the effectiveness of health communication has shown that the more effective campaigns use multiple media and repetition of a single message either in the form of retransmission of the original message or in slight variations on the basic theme eg.
Coffman ; Dorfman et al. Also, the use of the news media as a means of increasing visibility has been shown to be successful Backer et al. The aim was also to redirect TV viewers to the more informative website, the magazine, or—especially for the young age group—to podcast shows on sustainability issues. There was close interaction between these research groups, in particular between media and consumer components. Figure 1 sketches the project modules and their core research methods.
Various data was collected from public participants prior to the start of Balance Report TV broadcasting. The focus groups were pre-selected to represent the typical Welt der Wunder viewer, i. This sample was screened to select only those who had not previously watched the Balance Reports.
The internet users came from the Welt der Wunder website, could participate in an online game, and were then exposed to Balance Reports. The stage separation questionnaire, mentioned above, was administered to the focus group sample prior to any Balance Report exposure. Focus groups were performed between February and November For the focus group discussion, a standardized questionnaire was designed to measure emotional appeal, attractiveness, acceptability, and relevance of the Balance Reports, and to collect socio-demographic data.
A German Experiment Consumer research carried out reception analysis and content analysis. Reception analysis used both direct eg. Data were retrieved mainly from focus group discussions, expert group discussions, individual interviews, case studies with companies on their sustainable marketing strategies , and market response analysis.
Content analysis addressed the perceived contents of the messages in the TV reports. Moreover, in web-based questionnaires, viewers were profiled via available GfK data and standardized instruments measuring their propensity to environmental and socially conscious consumption. The criteria of analysis were: Special attention was given to the measurement of emotions. While lately there has been a significant increase in research into affective processes in consumer behaviour Richins, , information about the nature of emotions and their measurement are still scarce.
In the consumer research module of Project Balance, the measurement of emotions was performed with the German version Krohne et al. Furthermore, split-second data from both media research switch-on switch-off and the computer assisted qualitative data analysis via ATLAS.
Creating Awareness and Interest Following the rough classification approach described above, about half of the focus group study subjects were classified as being in the stage of pre-contemplation. This is below average for Germany. Also, interest in organic and fair trade goods as well as in respective media programming was below average. The aim was to communicate that there is an alternative to conventional products and that the latter bear problems of sustainability knowledge as well as that the proposed behaviour is not antithetical to values of the majority of society, or may even be fashionable.
The behaviour is then to be associated with potential for improved well-being by presenting benefits in a frame that creates positive emotions and attitudes.
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