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Physical activity for everyone - recommendations. The six-minute walk test predicts peak oxygen uptake and survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Six minute walking distance in healthy elderly subjects.
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Researcher says that he cannot. During collaborative work P. However, it was when they were not able to do so, that P. Part 7: Eu to tentando achar a palavra perdi Part 6: Part 8: Not only is it interesting due to the cross-linguistic reference, but also due to the possible link it has with games, which was ranked third in the profile questionnaire as an out-of-class form to be in contact with English. Moreover, the L1 reliance for hypothesis testing might be an indicative that quite a few learners were in fact L2 beginners, this is noteworthy since no proficiency test was implemented.
In a nutshell, hypothesis testing Swain, , which was prompted by peer interaction was also present a number of times in the study. Finally, the third claim of the Output Hypothesis establishes that metalinguistic awareness might be raised through metatalk Swain, After examining the strategy framework, some strategies were linked to metatalk — which is likely to lead to metalinguistic awareness — such as: By this token, the analysis of the transcripts rendered a few episodes when learners discussed language as opposed to meaning.
Some examples, with the specific language aspect in discussion in bold, are listed next: I still am in my house. Eu encontrei ELE. Eu nem sabia que mudava no meio da frase. Part 3: Eu ia falar assim Once again, the interactions among the participants of this study provided some support for the last claim of the Output Hypothesis. Of particular pedagogical interest is the fact that learners were discussing language aspects, similarly to Swain , during the time allotted for planning a meaning focused task.
Nonetheless, taking a cognitive approach, this means learners are not only focusing on meaning but also on form.
They made use of metacognitive, cognitive and social-affective strategies. The substantial use of asking for help and cooperation for collaborative planning was expected. Also, worth of notice is the fact that more language related episodes were found during the collaborative planning, which is similar to Xhafaj On the other hand, individual planning fostered the use of L1 compensatory strategy.
Moreover, the aforementioned results seem to corroborate the Output Hypothesis Swain, , , , since episodes of: Next, the results for the final research question are discussed.
There were two reasons for this movement: The answers to these questions, in turn, permitted the information to be crossed and the evaluation whether further support could be found among the different answers.
Second, these questions aimed at giving more reliant answers to the question concerning the different planning conditions. According to Xhafaj , having specific perception questions in this type of questionnaire allows learners to assess the specified asked points separately. Another sensitive issue that arises from the qualitative data is the impact the perception of the collaborative strategic planning condition has on the individual performance. The first moment of data collection, when volunteers were split in two separate rooms with 8 learners being part of the individual planning group I.
There were 6 planners from the I. In justifying his choice for the neutral answer, P. Not surprisingly, the answers from the C. P seemed to mirror the I. A more varied picture emerged from the answers volunteers gave to the sufficiency of planning time given. Seven students from the I. On the contrary, the C. Out of the 5 learners who were neutral, one participant reported that she felt under pressure, already hinting that while 12 minutes seemed appropriate to plan the task individually, the same time allotted to the collaborative planners seemed to impact negatively on their perception.
All in all, it seems that collaborative planning has a perceptually negative offshoot in the sense that due to its conversational nature it demands more time than individual planning. Two questions that rendered a similar pattern of answers from the two planning groups were: Some individual planners 3 out of 8 pointed that lexical and syntactic issues emerged during planning and generated frustration, while a few collaborative planners 2 out of 9 raised the timing issue impacting on their planning performance.
In summary, considering the percentages the two different planning conditions did not seem to play a significant role for the perception of how difficult the task was nor did they seem to have an effect on the perception volunteers had about their planning performance.
In relation to the use of their own mobile phones, learners were asked whether they enjoyed the fact both tasks required them to use their phone. The positive results were justified by some students saying that it was different, not similar to what they normally do at school and in the words of P.
Finally, after experiencing a planning condition in moment 1, participants were asked whether they would have preferred planning under the opposite condition investigated in this study.
Out of 8 I. They, mainly, justified this choice based on the fact that classmates could help with unknown lexis and better syntax. There was 1 individual planner who answered that maybe he would have preferred planning collaboratively as it would have been more fun. In respect to the C. In analysing the justifications, a pattern was found to sustain this choice anchored on the fact that either: This seems to corroborate the positive aspect collaborative tasks entail. In a nutshell, 12 out of 17 learners answered in moment 2 that they preferred or would have preferred planning collaboratively.
Among the C. While there is a slight difference in the answers, there seems to be a trend where learners who planned collaboratively perceived the task in a more positive way. After the second moment of data collection, all participants had experienced the two different planning conditions, and they were asked how much they enjoyed that planning condition, that is, the opposite planning condition they worked under at moment 1.
The students who chose the neutral option declared that the difficulty level had increased due to the lack of help from peers. This finding is particularly interesting when compared to moment 1, when there were no neutral views about the collaborative planning condition from the same group of participants.
In a similar trend, the group that planned collaboratively at moment 2 also displayed a more favourable perception of this planning condition as now 7 participants were very happy and 1 neutral. This was also the group that according to the field notes and the transcript analysis did not plan collaboratively because they were playing during planning time.
The same question was asked in both moments, as seen previously. Lastly, at the second moment learners were asked whether they would enjoy similar tasks to be part of their ESL classes. A striking number of 16 out of the 17 participants answered yes, to justify this choice they mentioned: Two answers are here highlighted, P.
Summing up, the tasks used in this study were perceived as a fruitful learning tool due to varied strategies they entailed, by the same token to Xhajaj there was also strong support for similar tasks to be adopted in the syllabus. Considering the aforementioned responses to the questionnaires, the answer to research question 4 is presented next. Although they enjoy both, the perception on collaborative planning is more positive among the participants of this study than individual planning.
The first presents a summary of the main findings. The second looks at the limitations and suggestions for future research paths. Finally, the third refers to the pedagogical implications, in light of the aforementioned results and discussion of the present study. Drawing from information processing theory, more specifically the Output Hypothesis Swain, , it was assumed that collaborative work done in groups, as a pre-task, would lead to better performance in terms of fluency, accuracy and outcome.
In order to achieve the main objective of the present piece of research two oral tasks that were adapted from previous studies Mehnert, ; Xhajaf et al. While the main objective of the study focused on the product, the secondary objective dealt with the process. The statistical analyses of the quantitative data, in a nutshell, signalled that there was a trend favouring the collaborative planning condition.
Furthermore, the qualitative data have corroborated the beneficial role strategic planning has in allowing attention to shift to different aspects of the message. Ebook como Recrutar pelo Whatsapp It has also pointed towards the collaborative planning as the favourite planning condition of the majority of the volunteers in this study. Next, an outline of the main findings are presented: Finding 1 signals that there was a consistent trend in favour of collaborative planning for both quantitative analyses, namely, between and within groups, especially for the variables outcome and accuracy.
Following a similar pattern, the values for standard deviation mostly narrowed when learners were planning collaboratively. Moreover, the reduction in standard deviation after collaborative planning signals that the group as a whole performed in a more uniform fashion. While this may seem obvious to some, finding 2 indicates that grouping learners together may not lead them automatically to work collaboratively Paiva, Some factors, which were already advanced for this finding, that might hinder collaborative planning are: Concerning finding 3, among the different strategies used, the L1 compensatory strategy was mainly used by learners who planned individually.
This was an unexpected finding. On the other hand, the use of this strategy was perceived as a learning opportunity, considering that participants could notice L2 language gaps Swain, Finding 4 highlights the fact that the data in the present study corroborated the Output Hypothesis Swain, , , , considering that there were episodes of: Although the discussion around the impact collaborative and individual strategic planning have on both the process and the product is far from being quenched, the results of this study show a trend in favour of the collaborative planning condition.
The oral messages produced after collaborative planning were noticeably more accurate and achieved a better outcome when compared to the production after individual planning. Next, the limitations of the present piece of research as well as the suggestions for future research are presented. Moreover, while CA is a public institution, it does not represent the norm in state schools in Brazil, especially in terms of infrastructure and pedagogical resources, namely highly skilled teachers and state-of-the-art technology.
All participants in this study came from the same second year class. Although some different levels of L2 proficiency were expected, too wide gaps of proficiency levels in the L2 might have hindered learners in the purpose of working collaboratively.
Lynch and Maclean point out that when some participants perceive their peer to possess a much lower proficiency level in the L2 they tend not to accept their contributions.
Having that in mind, it would be useful for future studies to apply a proficiency test prior to grouping the students aiming at having more balanced groups concerning proficiency in the L2. First, complexity, which is a regular variable in L2 speech studies, was not analysed following the low number of subordinate sentences found in the pilot study. Due to time constraints, no other complexity measures were analysed.
Second, fluency was only analysed taking into account speech rate unpruned. The inclusion of other fluency measures e. Third, accuracy was assessed having very proficient and native speakers judging the appropriateness of each utterance. In general this resulted in substantial number of errors being found, though some of them had not been the object of the school syllabus up to the point of data collection.