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PDF | On Jul 14, , Swathi Rai and others published INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS BY SISTER NIVEDITA. PDF | On Apr 7, , Mohan Gautam and others published Education System in Modern India. PDF | 25+ minutes read | Keywords: No doubt, Education has attained a key position Quality education: Indian education system, particularly public sector, has.

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Indian Education System Pdf

As a result of Islamic invasion and Islamic education, there was disturbance and dislocation in the Indian educational system of. Pathshalas, Maths, Temples and . The educational system in India has seen major transformations from the the distance education system and the open learning system came into being. The present paper examines education system in India, its structure, its functioning . Files/Articles/ Indian_Education medical-site.info z.

A Brief Biography. Research in education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Chem, L. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches 2nd ed.

Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student. Later, boards were established in some of the states. All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board.

It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India.

This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution.

Education in India

But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step.

The announcements are; a To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP. The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory.

As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject —that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the Government of India GoI was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in so that education now comes in the so-called concurrent list.

That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically.

(PDF) Education System in India: A Critique | Karunakaran Thirunavukkarasu - medical-site.info

The Central Advisory Board of Education CABE , set up in , continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes. These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states' departments of education. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.

The National Policy on Education, and the Programme of Action POA envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children below 14 years before the 21st Century. The expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0.

The school system in India has four levels: lower primary age 6 to 10 , upper primary 11 and 12 , high 13 to 15 and higher secondary 17 and Students have to learn a common curriculum largely except for regional changes in mother tongue till the end of high school.

There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level.

Students throughout the country have to learn three languages namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below. There are mainly three streams in school education in India. Two of these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board of Secondary Education CBSE and was originally meant for children of central government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to any place in the country.

One subject Social Studies, consisting of History, Geography and Civics is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in English, in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also if seats are available. In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules.

They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes. The District Education Revitalisation Programme DERP was launched in with an aim to universalise primary education in India by reforming and vitalising the existing primary education system.

Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low. Secondary school girls in Delhi. School children in Hnahthial. See also: Gender inequality in India Secondary education covers children aged 14 to 18, a group comprising 8.

The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams.

It further states that upon successful completion of Higher Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such as Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration. Secondary education in India is examination-oriented and not course-based: students register for and take classes primarily to prepare for one of the centrally-administered examinations.

Senior school or high school is split into 2 parts grades and grades with a standardized nationwide examination at the end of grade 10 and grade 12 usually informally referred to as "board exams".

Grade 10 examination results can be used for admission into grades at a secondary school, pre-university program, or a vocational or technical school. Passing a grade 12 board examination leads to the granting of a secondary school completion diploma, which may be used for admission into vocational schools or universities in the country or the world.

Most reputable universities in India require students to pass college-administered admissions tests in addition to passing a final secondary school examination for entry into a college or university. School grades are usually not sufficient for college admissions in India.

Most schools in India do not offer subject and scheduling flexibility due to budgeting constraints for e. Mezirow, J.

Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. Jossey-Bass, Inc. Moustakas, C.

Phenomenological research methods. Nagda, B. Transformative for democracy and social justice. Race Ethnicity and Education, 6 2 , National Council of Educational Research and Training.

Teacher education for curriculum renewal. National Focus Group, position paper, 2. The pedagogy of counselling: A critical examination. Polkinghorne, D. Two conflicting calls for methodological reform. Prasad, S. Mathetics for peace: A challenge to teacher education.

Fairfax, CA: Edutracks, 6 2 , Scorza, D. It should be education: Critical pedagogy normalized as academic excellence.

Transformative practices in counselor education: Creating transparent connections. American Counseling Association. Smith, M. Paulo Freire and informal education.

The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. Transformative learning. Management Consultancy International.

Development of Education during British Period in India

Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Taylor, D.

The literature review: A few tips on conducting it. Health Sciences Writing Centre. Teaching Center, n.

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