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You are trying to convey the big image. Cage moved further into the visual realm, discovering a new vocation in fine art print-making, while his scores became more graphically simple. And many composers rejected graphic scores along with other youthful excesses such as taking drugs or wearing flowered shirts. Phonographic design Yet the visual excitement remains seductive for later generations of composers and performers, some of whom are prepared to interpret the work with far more enthusiasm and creativity than their counterparts of the previous generation.
If you look at a Modernist postwar score by Boulez or Ligeti, say, you get a much clearer idea of what it sounds like. Graphic scores turn this around. And when I look at Morton Feldman pieces from that time I get the sort of pleasure I get from looking at a painting — I can get a feel of the piece.
Bussotti is the one who made the tail wag the dog.
This fact is not lost on Hollywood producers and music supervisors, who still prefer to commission a film score that can be completed in days rather than months. Film and pop scores are rarely published and sometimes discarded, much to the chagrin of film music record companies attempting to re-record classic film soundtracks. In the s, Kenneth Payne, a music educator and composer, developed Tonescript, a graphical system of colours, squiggles and shapes that would help listeners understand pieces from the Classical repertoire.
A descriptive score that relates to an electronic piece has to make up some new rules. But this is not a score in the Classical sense.
As in most kinds of tape-based work, any need for a conventional score has been eclipsed by the recording. Recent music by Tom Phillips brings some of the issues of graphic notation full circle.
In several different respects, new technology has overshadowed traditional methods. Score-writing programs such as Sibelius and Finale are popular with publishers, professional composers and students alike: the output looks much like professional engraving — a revelation to some older composers.
And in many areas of commercial, functional and creative music, the definitive original work is not the score, but the recording: a tape or a sound file saved to disk. The printed output of a computer editing system such as ProTools makes an immediate graphic impression of signal amplitude against time — on screen, the dynamics of a recording whether Stravinsky or Prince have a clear outline that helps the mastering engineer find his way through a long piece.
Geoff Smith, an academically trained composer and an authority on John Cage sees written scores as no more than a means to an end — that can be discarded once the music has been committed to tape. In the recording studio, written music may have no more significance than a track sheet or cue sheet used by non-musicians. Graphic scores have increasing importance in education. A class of kids of mixed abilities soon agree what a red line or a green squiggle means, and by the end of the lesson they have made a piece out of it.
Children love to sort out the rules and then follow them conscientiously. The functional use of graphic scores as an aid to understanding in education or entertainment or as a way of communication between people without formal musical training DJs and engineers, for example is still in its infancy.
Graphic scores have an aesthetic immediacy that music can never have — the instant visuality of a well-drawn manuscript liberates the composition from the tyranny of time.
In the digital domain, music has acquired some visual attributes. But the seductive complexity of work by Cardew and Bussotti continues to fascinate both musicians and non-musicians, and recent work by Phillips and Skempton shows the resilience of such ideas.
Each score is a chest of treasures that can be unlocked by performers and interpreters not yet born, a code or puzzle to be solved in time. John L. Walters, composer, Unknown Public editor and co-founder.
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