Erach bharucha textbook of environmental studies ebook


 

module syllabus for environmental studies for undergraduate courses of all branches of . Ltd. Bikaner. b). Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Textbook Design – Narendra Kulkarni (Mudra), Sushma Durve. The Importance Of Environmental Studies Cannot Be Disputed Since The Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Erach Bharucha. Envinromental medical-site.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File. Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses Erach.

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Erach Bharucha Textbook Of Environmental Studies Ebook

Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses By Erach Bharucha Book serious about your studies, you should never consider eBooks/Books in PDF. In this post, we are providing University Grants Commission (UGC) Environmental Studies textbook written by Erach Bharucha for all. Erach Bharucha Text Book Of Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses The Scope Environmental Studies By Suresh K Dhameja Pdf Ebooks.

After schools, it is now the turn of universities across the country to go green. With the University Grants Commission UGC finally coming out with a textbook for implementation of a "compulsory" course on Environmental Studies -- as per Supreme Court ruling -- in colleges across the country, conservation may finally manage to get its due space in higher education. In line with the Supreme Court ruling that directed the UGC to formulate a basic course on environment meant for every college student, the Commission had decided on the formulation of a six months core module course in environmental studies that could be taught by Universities across the country. It is now up to the Universities to ensure its implementation by getting it passed through their Academic Council or other bodies. Although the UGC maintains that the success of the course would eventually depend on the "initiative and drive of teachers and students", The Expert committee includes Prof. Manoharachary of Osmania University, S. Mehta from the Ministry of Environment and Forests and N.

To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details.

More filters. Sort order. Jan 14, Aasiya rated it it was ok. Vague, uninformative and shabbily written. Oct 21, Tejas Nair rated it liked it Recommends it for: Concerns mostly the hazards of Indian environment and speaks volume about the biodiversity.

Case studies are included but they are either lame or incomplete or do not get to a point. Well, engineering degree students should read it to score in their EVS examination.

Pretty handy for info look-up. View 2 comments. Aakanksha rated it really liked it Aug 19, Krishna Rao rated it really liked it Jul 10, Kanika rated it it was ok Dec 05, Ekta rated it liked it Jan 20, Daya rated it it was amazing Sep 22, Priyanshi Agarwal rated it really liked it Apr 30, Jaysuri rated it it was ok Dec 16, Vishnu rated it liked it Sep 02, Karuna Ramkumar rated it it was ok Oct 21, Sambuddha Biswas rated it really liked it Feb 03, Shubham Kumar rated it it was amazing May 09, Jonathon Rasel rated it really liked it May 27, P Singh rated it it was amazing Jun 12, Sumit Thakur rated it liked it Apr 25, DeBarshi Ghosh rated it it was amazing Sep 20, Lists 18 environmental activists who have been killed by businessmen for..

UGC Environmental Studies Textbook by Erach Bharucha – PDF Free Download

Dr Erach Bharucha is. Description: Textbook environmental studies erach bharucha pdf. Mmbers of the Expert Committee on Environmental Studies 1.

Erach Bharucha Director, Bharati Vidyapeeth.. Textbook of Environmental Studies for. MidwayUSA is a privately held American retailer of various hunting and outdoor-related products.. Free PDF ebooks user's guide, manuals, sheets about Erach bharucha textbook of environmental studies pdf download ready for download. Environmental Studies. Fish are today being over-harvested until the The prevention of degradation and pollu- catch has become a fraction of the original tion of the environment.

These are minerals that have been formed in the lithosphere over millions of years and con- When the population of a species of plant stitute a closed system. These non-renewable or animal is reduced by human activities, resources, once used, remain on earth in a dif- until it cannot reproduce fast enough to ferent form and, unless recycled, become waste maintain a viable number, the species be- material.

Non-renewable resources include fossil fuels Many species are probably becoming extinct such as oil and coal, which if extracted at the without us even knowing, and other linked present rate, will soon be totally used up. The species are affected by their loss. Scientists estimate species. What is however not generally rec- that India should ideally have 33 percent of its ognized is that thousands of extinctions of land under forests.

Today we have only about small plants and animals are occurring every 12 percent. Thus we need not only to protect year due to loss of their habitat. Over har- existing forests but also to increase our forest vesting and poaching threaten the existence cover. People who live in or near forests know the value of forest resources first hand because their lives and livelihoods depend directly on these re- Activity 3: Utilisation of resources sources. However, the rest of us also derive great benefits from the forests which we are rarely The use of a resource begins with its collec- aware of.

The water we use depends on the tion, its processing into a useable product, existence of forests on the watersheds around and transport through a delivery system, river valleys.

Our homes, furniture and paper are to the consumer who uses it. It also involves made from wood from the forest. We use many disposal of the waste products produced at medicines that are based on forest produce. And each step. Each step in resource use can af- we depend on the oxygen that plants give out fect the environment for better or worse.

Forests once extended over large tracts of our Think of a resource you use and track it country. People have used forests in our coun- through these steps. As agriculture spread the forests were left in patches which were con- Eg. The cotton in the clothes you are wear- trolled mostly by tribal people. They hunted ani- ing. At each step note: Deforestation became a major What other resources are needed at this concern in British times when a large amount step to move the resource you chose to of timber was extracted for building their ships.

This led the British to develop scientific forestry in India. They however alienated local people What waste products are generated at by creating Reserved and Protected Forests that step? This led to a loss of stake in the conservation of the for- How are they likely to be disposed off?

Another period of overutilisation and forest deg- radation occurred in the early period following independence as people felt that now that the British had gone they had a right to using our forests in any way we pleased.

The following. Watershed protection: Reduce the rate of surface run-off of water. Prevent flash floods and soil erosion. Produces prolonged gradual run-off and thus prevent effects of drought. Atmospheric regulation: Absorption of solar heat during evapo-transpiration. Maintaining carbon dioxide levels for plant growth. Maintaining the local climatic conditions.

Erosion control: Holding soil by preventing rain from directly washing soil away. Land bank: Maintenance of soil nutrients and structure. Local use - Consumption of forest produce by local people who collect it for subsistence Consumptive use Food - gathering plants, fishing, hunting from the forest. In the past when wildlife was plentiful, people could hunt and kill animals for food.

Now that populations of most wildlife species have diminished, continued hunting would lead to extinction. Fodder - for cattle. Fuel wood and charcoal for cooking, heating.

Envinromental Studies_ebook - Environmental Studies For...

Poles - building homes especially in rural and wilderness areas. Timber household articles and construction. Fiber - weaving of baskets, ropes, nets, string, etc. Sericulture for silk. Apiculture - bees for honey, forest bees also pollinate crops. Medicinal plants - traditionally used medicines, investigating them as potential source for new modern drugs. Market use - Productive use Most of the above products used for consumptive purposes are also sold as a source of income for supporting the livelihoods of forest dwelling people.

Minor forest produce - non-wood products: Fuelwood, fruit, gum, fiber, etc. Major timber extraction - construction, industrial uses, paper pulp, etc. Timber extraction is done in India by the Forest Department, but illegal logging continues in many of the forests of India and the world.

The fact that forest degradation and Joint Forest Management deforestation was creating a serious loss of the important functions of the forest began to over- The need to include local communities in ride its utilisation as a source of revenue from Forest Management has become a growing timber.

Local people will only support greening an area if they can see some eco- nomic benefit from conservation. An infor- Deforestation: Where civilizations have looked mal arrangement between local communi- after forests by using forest resources cautiously, ties and the Forest Department began in they have prospered, where forests were de- , in Midnapore District of West Bengal.

Today logging and mining are serious ment which identifies and respects the local causes of loss of forests in our country and all communitys rights and benefits that they over the world. Dams built for hydroelectric need from forest resources. Under JFM power or irrigation have submerged forests and schemes, Forest Protection Committees from have displaced tribal people whose lives are local community members are formed.

They closely knit to the forest. This has become a se- participate in restoring green cover and pro- rious cause of concern in India.

UGC formulates new course on environmental studies

One of Indias serious environmental problems is forest degradation due to timber extraction and our dependence on fuelwood. A large num- ranges from 25 per cent in Kerala to per ber of poor rural people are still highly depen- cent in Andhra Pradesh, 50 per cent in Gujarat, dent on wood to cook their meals and heat their Maharashtra, Orissa and Tripura. In many States homes.

We have not been able to plant enough 25 per cent of the revenue is used for village trees to support the need for timber and development. In many States non-timber forest fuelwood. Another resolution Some States have stopped grazing completely; in provided a formal structure for com- some have rotational grazing schemes which munity participation though the formation of have helped in forest regeneration.

Village Forest Committees. Based on these ex- periences, new JFM guidelines were issued in This stipulates that at least 25 per cent of Timber extraction, mining and dams are in- the income from the area must go to the com- variably parts of the needs of a developing coun- munity. From the initiation of the program, un- try.

If timber is overharvested the ecological func- til , there were 63, JFM Committees tions of the forest are lost. Unfortunately for- managing over , sq. Forests also cover the steep embankments of river valleys, which are ideally The States have tried a variety of approaches to suited to develop hydel and irrigation projects.

The share for village forest committees Thus there is a constant conflict of interests be-. The total annual fresh- partments. What needs to be understood is that water withdrawals today are estimated at long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed cubic kilometers, twice as much as just 50 years for short-term economic gains that unfortu- ago World Commission on Dams, Stud- nately lead to deforestation.

These forests where ies indicate that a person needs a minimum of development projects are planned, can displace 20 to 40 liters of water per day for drinking and thousands of tribal people who lose their homes sanitation. More than one billion people world- when these plans are executed. This leads to wide have no access to clean water, and to many high levels of suffering for which there is rarely more, supplies are unreliable. Local conflicts are already spreading to states. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the waters b Water resources of the Krishna.

The water cycle, through evaporation and pre- India is expected to face critical levels of water cipitation, maintains hydrological systems which stress by At the global level 31 countries form rivers and lakes and support in a variety of are already short of water and by there aquatic ecosystems. Wetlands are intermediate will be 48 countries facing serious water short- forms between terrestrial and aquatic ecosys- ages.

The UN has estimated that by the year tems and contain species of plants and animals , 4 billion people will be seriously affected that are highly moisture dependent. All aquatic by water shortages. This will lead to multiple ecosystems are used by a large number of people conflicts between countries over the sharing of for their daily needs such as drinking water, water.

Around 20 major cities in India face washing, cooking, watering animals, and irri- chronic or interrupted water shortages. There gating fields. The world depends on a limited are countries that share the waters of 13 quantity of fresh water. Only a fraction of this can be actually Nile and Egypt, which is downstream and highly used.

However this varies in differ- such areas will become critical to world peace. Overutilization and pollution of surface and One of the greatest challenges facing the world groundwater: With the growth of human in this century is the need to rethink the overall population there is an increasing need for larger management of water resources. The world amounts of water to fulfill a variety of basic population has passed the 6 billion mark. Based needs. Today in many areas this requirement on the proportion of young people in develop- cannot be met.

Overutilization of water occurs ing countries, this will continue to increase sig- at various levels.

Most people use more water nificantly during the next few decades. This than they really need. Most of us waste water. Changes in climate at ing of clothes. Many agriculturists use more a global level caused by increasing air pollution water than necessary to grow crops. There are have now begun to affect our climate.

In some many ways in which farmers can use less water regions global warming and the El Nino winds without reducing yields such as the use of drip have created unprecedented storms. In other irrigation systems.

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Everywhere the greenhouse effect due to atmospheric Agriculture also pollutes surface water and un- pollution is leading to increasingly erratic and derground water stores by the excessive use of unpredictable climatic effects.

This has seriously chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Methods such affected regional hydrological conditions. Floods have been a serious environmen- agricultural pollution of surface and ground tal hazard for centuries. However, the havoc water. Wetlands in flood plains are natures In the longer term, as people become more con- flood control systems into which overfilled riv- scious of using green products made by ers could spill and act like a temporary sponge ecosensitive industries, the polluters products holding the water, and preventing fast flowing may not be used.

The polluting industry that water from damaging surrounding land. Public and destroy homes in the Ganges and its tribu- awareness may increasingly put pressures on taries and the Bramhaputra. Rivers change their industry to produce only eco-friendly products course during floods and tons of valuable soil is which are already gaining in popularity. As the forests are degraded, rain- water no longer percolates slowly into the sub- As people begin to learn about the serious health soil but runs off down the mountainside bear- hazards caused by pesticides in their food, pub- ing large amounts of topsoil.

This blocks rivers lic awareness can begin putting pressures on temporarily but gives way as the pressure farmers to reduce the use of chemicals that are mounts allowing enormous quantities of water injurious to health. Water pollution - Nepal Drought: In most arid regions of the world the The Narayani River of Nepal has been pol- rains are unpredictable.

This leads to periods luted by factories located on its bank. This when there is a serious scarcity of water to drink, has endangered fish, dolphins, crocodiles and use in farms, or provide for urban and industrial other flora and fauna of the region. Drought prone areas are thus faced with. Agriculturists have water table drops and vegetation suffers. This no income in these bad years, and as they have soil and water management and afforestation no steady income, they have a constant fear of are long-term measures that reduce the impact droughts.

India has Drought Prone Areas De- of droughts.

Under these schemes, people are given wages in bad Water for Agriculture and Power Genera- years to build roads, minor irrigation works and tion: Indias increasing demand for water for plantation programs. It is an unpredict- dams. Irrigated areas increased from 40 million able climatic condition and occurs due to the ha. It varies in million ha. Dams support 30 to frequency in different parts of our country.

While it is not feasible to prevent the failure of Although dams ensure a year round supply of the monsoon, good environmental manage- water for domestic use, provide extra water for ment can reduce its ill effects. The scarcity of agriculture, industry, hydropower generation, water during drought years affects homes, ag- they have several serious environmental prob- riculture and industry.

It also leads to food short- lems. They alter river flows, change natures ages and malnutrition which especially affects flood control mechanisms such as wetlands and children. However this must be done as a preventive measure so that if the Irrigation to support cash crops like sugarcane monsoons fail its impact on local peoples lives produces an unequal distribution of water. Large is minimised. Thus during a year when the rains are poor, there is Sustainable water management: Save wa- no water even for drinking in the drought area.

A number of measures need to be taken drought is deforestation. Once hill slopes are for the better management of the worlds wa- denuded of forest cover the rainwater rushes ter resources. These include measures such as: Forest cover permits water to be held in the area permitting it to Building several small reservoirs instead of seep into the ground.

This charges the under- few mega projects. This can be used in drought years if the stores have Develop small catchment dams and protect been filled during a good monsoon. If water wetlands. Dams problems Treating and recycling municipal waste water for agricultural use. Fragmentation and physical transformation of rivers. Preventing leakages from dams and canals. Serious impacts on riverine ecosystems.

Preventing loss in Municipal pipes. Social consequences of large dams due to Effective rain water harvesting in urban displacement of people. Water logging and salinisation of surround- Water conservation measures in agriculture ing lands. Dislodging animal populations, damaging Pricing water at its real value makes people their habitat and cutting off their migration use it more responsibly and efficiently and routes. Fishing and travel by boat disrupted.

In deforested areas where land has been degraded, soil management by bunding The emission of green house gases from along the hill slopes and making nala plugs, reservoirs due to rotting vegetation and can help retain moisture and make it pos- carbon inflows from the catchment is a re- sible to re-vegetate degraded areas.

Managing a river system is best done by leaving Large dams have had serious impacts on the its course as undisturbed as possible. Dams and lives, livelihoods, cultures and spiritual existence canals lead to major floods in the monsoon and of indigenous and tribal peoples. They have suf- the drainage of wetlands seriously affects areas fered disproportionately from the negative im- that get flooded when there is high rainfall. Recent examples show the worlds total electric power supply and is how failure to provide a transparent process that used in over countries.

The worlds two includes effective participation of local people most populous countries China and India has prevented affected people from playing an. The loss of tradi- tional, local controls over equitable distribution How much water is needed by one person? Several international agencies and experts have proposed that 50 liters per person per day covers basic human water requirements In India, a national assessment of dam for drinking, sanitation, bathing and food projects cleared in the s and 90s shows preparation.

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance of definite chemical composition and identifiable physical properties. An ore is a mineral or com- bination of minerals from which a useful sub- CASE STUDY stance, such as a metal, can be extracted and used to manufacture a useful product. Sardar Sarovar Project Minerals are formed over a period of millions of The World Banks withdrawal from the years in the earths crust. Iron, aluminum, zinc, Sardar Sarovar Project in India in was manganese and copper are important raw ma- a result of the demands of local people terials for industrial use.

Important non-metal threatened with the loss of their livelihoods resources include coal, salt, clay, cement and and homes in the submergence area. Stone used for building material, such as granite, marble, limestone, constitute another This dam in Gujarat on the Narmada has dis- category of minerals.

Minerals with special prop- placed thousands of tribal folk, whose lives erties that humans value for their aesthetic and and livelihoods were linked to the river, the ornamental value are gems such as diamonds, forests and their agricultural lands. While emeralds, rubies. The luster of gold, silver and they and the fishermen at the estuary, have platinum is used for ornaments. Minerals in the lost their homeland, rich farmers down- form of oil, gas and coal were formed when stream will get water for agriculture.

The ancient plants and animals were converted into question is why should the local tribals be underground fossil fuels. Why should the less Minerals and their ores need to be extracted fortunate be made to bear the costs of de- from the earths interior so that they can be velopment for better off farmers?

It is a ques- used. This process is known as mining. Mining tion of social and economic equity as well as operations generally progress through four the enormous environmental losses, includ- stages: Searching for minerals. Assessing the size, shape, lo- cation, and economic value of the deposit. Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan 4 Exploitation: Extracting the minerals from The Forest Department has leased land for the mines.

The local people In the past, mineral deposits were discovered have fought against the mining lobby, and by prospectors in areas where mineral deposits have filed a Public Interest Litigation in the in the form of veins were exposed on the sur- Supreme Court in Rajendra Singh, sec- face.

Today, however, prospecting and explo- retary of TBS, points out that as many as 70 ration is done by teams of geologists, mining mines operate in close proximity to the for- engineers, geophysicists, and geochemists who est.

Mod- ern prospecting methods include the use of so- phisticated instruments like GIS to survey and study the geology of the area. The method of mining has to be determined Large explosions have occured in coal mines, depending on whether the ore or mineral de- killing many miners. More miners have suffered posit is nearer the surface or deep within the from disasters due to the use of explosives in earth.

The topography of the region and the metal mines. Mining poses several long-term occupational Mines are of two types surface open cut or hazards to the miners.

Dust produced during strip mines or deep or shaft mines. Coal, met- mining operations is injurious to health and als and non-metalliferous minerals are all mined causes a lung disease known as black lung, or differently depending on the above criteria. The pneumoconiosis. Fumes generated by incom- method chosen for mining will ultimately de- plete dynamite explosions are extremely poison- pend on how maximum yield may be obtained ous.

Methane gas, emanating from coal strata, under existing conditions at a minimum cost, is hazardous to health although not poisonous with the least danger to the mining personnel. Radiation is a hazard in uranium Most minerals need to be processed before they mines.

Thus technology is dependent on both the presence of resources and the en- ergy necessary to make them usable. Environmental problems: Mining operations are considered one of the main sources of envi- ronmental degradation. The extraction of all Mine safety: Mining is a hazardous occupa- these products from the lithosphere has a vari- tion, and the safety of mine workers is an im- ety of side effects. Depletion of available land portant environmental consideration of the in- due to mining, waste from industries, conver- dustry.

Surface mining is less hazardous than sion of land to industry and pollution of land, underground mining. Metal mining is less haz- water and air by industrial wastes, are environ- ardous than coal mining. In all underground mental side effects of the use of these non-re- mines, rock and roof falls, flooding, and inad- newable resources.

Public awareness of this. The Green Revolution of the 60s re- actions to stem the damage to the natural envi- duced starvation in the country. However many ronment have led to numerous international of the technologies we have used to achieve agreements and laws directed toward the pre- this are now being questioned. Our fertile soils are being exploited faster than they can recuperate.

Al- though India is self-sufficient in food produc- Our fish resources, both marine and inland, tion, it is only because of modern patterns of show evidence of exhaustion.

Some communities such as tribal people still face serious food prob- The FAO defines sustainable agriculture as that lems leading to malnutrition especially which conserves land, water and plant and ani- among women and children. Most of our large farms grow demands will be met in future even with a slow- single crops monoculture. If this crop is hit by ing of population growth. Today the world is a pest, the entire crop can be devastated, leav- seeing a changing trend in dietary habits.

As ing the farmer with no income during the year. As people varieties and grows several different crops, the change from eating grain to meat, the worlds chance of complete failure is lowered consider- demand for feed for livestock based on agricul- ably. Many studies have shown that one can ture increases as well.

This uses more land per use alternatives to inorganic fertilizers and pes- unit of food produced and the result is that the ticides. This is known as Integrated Crop Man- worlds poor do not get enough to eat. Women play an extremely vital role in food pro- duction as well as cooking the meal and feed- World food problems: In many developing ing children. Food produc- issues related to nutritional aspects. Women and tion in 64 of the developing countries is girls frequently receive less food than the men.

These disparities need to be corrected. These countries are unable to produce more food, or do not have the financial means to im- In India there is a shortage of cultivable produc- port it.

India is one of the countries that have tive land. Thus farm sizes are too small to sup- been able to produce enough food by cultivat- port a family on farm produce alone. With each ing a large proportion of its arable land through generation, farms are being subdivided further.

Dump- degraded each year. Loss of nutrients and over- ing of underpriced foodstuffs produced in the use of agricultural chemicals are major factors developed world, onto markets in undeveloped in land degradation.

Water scarcity is an impor- countries undermines prices and forces farmers tant aspect of poor agricultural outputs. Salin- there to adopt unsustainable practices to com- ization and water logging has affected a large pete.

Loss of genetic diversity in crop plants is another Fisheries: Fish is an important protein food in issue that is leading to a fall in agricultural pro- many parts of the world. This includes marine duce. Rice, wheat and corn are the staple foods and fresh water fish. While the supply of food of two thirds of the worlds people. As wild rela- from fisheries increased phenomenally between tives of crop plants in the worlds grasslands, and , in several parts of the world wetlands and other natural habitats are being fish catch has since dropped due to overfishing.

Canada had to virtually close down cod fishing in the s due to depletion of fish reserves. Food Security: It is estimated that 18 million people worldwide, most of whom are children, Modern fishing technologies using mechanized die each year due to starvation or malnutrition, trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to and many others suffer a variety of dietary defi- overexploitation, which is not sustainable.

It is ciencies. The worst hit are the small tra- food. If the worlds carrying capacity to produce ditional fishermen who are no match for orga- food cannot meet the needs of a growing popu- nized trawlers. Thus food security is closely linked with population control through the family welfare program. It is also Loss of Genetic diversity: There are 50, linked to the availability of water for farming.

Many of us waste a large worlds food.

Modern agricultural practices have amount of food carelessly. This eventually places resulted in a serious loss of genetic variability of great stress on our environmental resources.

Indias distinctive traditional varieties of rice alone are said to have numbered between A major concern is the support needed for small 30 and 50 thousand. Most of these have been farmers so that they remain farmers rather than lost to the farmer during the last few decades shifting to urban centers as unskilled industrial as multinational seed companies push a few workers. International trade policies in regard commercial types.

A cereal that has multiple managing watersheds at the micro level are a varieties growing in different locations does not key to agricultural production to meet future permit the rapid spread of a disease. Most importantly food supply is closely linked to the effectiveness of population con- The most effective method to introduce desir- trol programs worldwide. The world needs bet- able traits into crops is by using characteristics ter and sustainable methods of food produc- found in the wild relatives of crop plants.

As the tion which is an important aspect of landuse wilderness shrinks, these varieties are rapidly management. Once they are lost, their desirable characteristics cannot be introduced when found necessary in future. Ensuring long-term Alternate food sources: Food can be food security may depend on conserving wild innovatively produced if we break out of the relatives of crop plants in National Parks and current agricultural patterns.

This includes work- Wildlife Sanctuaries. This takes time, as people of the worlds total, will be lost by the year The most economical way to prevent this is by expanding the network and coverage of our Protected Areas. Collections in germplasm, seed CASE STUDY banks and tissue culture facilities, are other pos- sible ways to prevent extinction but are ex- Israel began using drip irrigation systems as tremely expensive.

Over a year period, need a second green revolution to meet our Israels food production doubled without an future demands of food based on a new ethic increase in the use of water for agriculture. This must not only provide food water from their own homes. Calcutta re- for all, but also work out more equitable distri- leases its waste water into surrounding la- bution of both food and water, reduce agricul- goons in which fish are reared and the wa- tural dependence on the use of fertilizers and ter is used for growing vegetables.

Pollution of water Medicines, both traditional and modern, can be sources, land degradation and desertification harvested sustainably from forests.

Adopting soil conser- Madagaskars Rosy Periwinkle used for child- vation measures, using appropriate farming hood leukemias and Taxol from Western Yew. The tensively in modern medicine. Without care, suns rays power commercial exploitation can lead to early extinc- the growth of tion of such plants. This crop grown in the Western Ghats now ide that we breathe out. Energy from the sun has no market and is thus rarely grown. Only evaporates water from oceans, rivers and lakes, local people use this nutritious crop themselves.

Todays fossil It is thus not as extensively cultivated as in the fuels were once the forests that grew in prehis- past. Popularising this crop could add to food toric times due to the energy of the sun. Several crops can be grown in urban settings, including veg- Chemical energy, contained in chemical com- etables and fruit which can be grown on waste pounds is released when they are broken down household water and fertilizers from by animals in the presence of oxygen.

In India, vermicomposting pits. Electrical used seafood products such as seaweed as long energy produced in several ways, powers trans- as this is done at sustainable levels. Educating port, artificial lighting, agriculture and industry. Nuclear energy is held in the nucleus of an atom and is Integrated Pest Management includes preserv- now harnessed to develop electrical energy. Modern agriculture uses chemical fertilizers, which require large amounts of en- e Energy resources ergy dur- ing their manufac- Energy is defined by physicists as the ca- ture.

In- pacity to do work. Energy is found on our dustry planet in a variety of forms, some of which uses en- are immediately useful to do work, while oth- ergy to ers require a process of transformation. Energy-demanding roads and The sun is the primary energy source in our lives. All energy use creates that the average American uses 24 times the heat and contributes to atmospheric tempera- energy used by an Indian. Many forms of energy release carbon di- oxide and lead to global warming.

Nuclear en- ergy plants have caused enormous losses to the Between and , the worlds energy environment due to the leakage of nuclear ma- needs increased four fold. The worlds demand terial. The inability to effectively manage and for electricity has doubled over the last 22 years! A global average per capita that works out to be 1. Electricity is at present the fastest grow- have no access to electricity at all. While more ing form of end-use energy worldwide. By people will require electrical energy, those who the Asia-Pacific region is expected to surpass do have access to it continue to increase their North America in energy consumption and by individual requirements.

It is broadly accepted that long-term trends in en- For almost years, coal was the primary en- ergy use should be towards a cleaner global ergy source fuelling the industrial revolution in energy system that is less carbon intensive and the 19th century. An electrical light that is burn- ing unnecessarily is a contributor to environmen- In India, biomass mainly wood and dung ac- tal degradation. While coal continues to remain the domi- nant fuel for electricity generation, nuclear Growing energy needs: Energy has always power has been increasingly used since the been closely linked to mans economic growth s and s and the use of natural gas and development.

Present strategies for devel- has increased rapidly in the 80s and 90s. This index however, does not take into account the long-term ill ef- fects on society of excessive energy utilisation. There are three main types Warming the seas also leads to the death of of energy; those classified as non-renewable; sensitive organisms such as coral.

Indias oil to all effect, limitless. However, this classifica- reserves which are being used at present lie off tion is inaccurate because several of the renew- the coast of Mumbai and in Assam. Most of our able sources, if not used sustainably, can be natural gas is linked to oil and, because there is depleted more quickly than they can be re- no distribution system, it is just burnt off. This newed. The pro- cesses of oil and natural gas drilling, process- ing, transport and utilisation have serious envi- Non renewable energy ronmental consequences, such as leaks in which air and water are polluted and accidental fires To produce electricity from non-renewable re- that may go on burning for days or weeks be- sources the material must be ignited.

The fuel is fore the fire can be controlled. During refining placed in a well contained area and set on fire. Oil moves through pipes, to turn the blades of a slicks are caused at sea from offshore oil wells, turbine. This converts magnetism into electric- cleaning of oil tankers and due to shipwrecks. These consist Valdez sank of the mineral based hydrocarbon fuels coal, oil in and and natural gas, that were formed from ancient birds, sea ot- prehistoric forests.

These are called fossil fuels ters, seals, because they are formed after plant life is fos- fish and silized. At the present rate of extraction there is other ma- enough coal for a long time to come.

Oil and rine life gas resources however are likely to be used up along the within the next 50 years. When these fuels are coast of burnt, they produce waste products that are Alaska was released into the atmosphere as gases such as seriously af- carbon dioxide, oxides of sulphur, nitrogen, and fected.

These have led to lung problems in an enor- Oil powered vehicles emit carbon dioxide, sul- mous number of people all over the world, and phur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide have also affected buildings like the Taj Mahal and particulate matter which is a major cause and killed many forests and lakes due to acid of air pollution especially in cities with heavy traf- rain.

Many of these gases also act like a green fic density. Leaded petrol, leads to neuro dam- house letting sunlight in and trapping the heat age and reduces attention spans.