Research Methods: The Basics is an accessible, user-friendly introduction to the different book is an essential text for anyone coming to research for the first. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . The applications of research. Types of research. The research journey . The research process. The chapters in the book in relation to the.
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What is this book about? This book provides an introduction to the reader to a whole range of research methods. It aims to introduce a toolkit of methods, explain. PDF | The book is essential for student, scholars, Researchers, teachers and professionals in all fields of study where research is required for academic. This well-organized book deals with the variety of research methods used in management and social sciences, with particular emphasis on the.
Ethnography Step by Step. Fielding, N. Linking Data. Filstead, W. Chicago: Markham. Research Methods in the Social Sciences 5th ed. New York: St. Martin's Press. Gecas, V. Contexts of socialization. Turner Eds. New York: Basic Books. Glaser, B. Goetz, J. Ethnography and Qualitative Design in Educational Research. New York: Academic Press. Hammersley, M. The researcher exposed. Burgess Ed. Jackson, P. Life in Classrooms. Janesick, V.
The dance of qualitative research design. Lincoln Eds. Jick, T.
Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Jorgensen, D. Participant Observation. Kaplan, A. The Conduct of Inquiry. Scranton, PA: Chandler Publishing. Kirby, S. Toronto: Garamond Press.
Knafl, K. Triangulation in qualitative research: Issues of conception, clarity, and purpose.
Morse Ed. Rockville, MD: Aspen.
Leedy, P. Practical Research: Planning and Design 5th ed. New York: Macmillan. Lofland, J. Analyzing Social Settings 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishers. Mead, G. Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Philosophy of the Act. Miles, M. Qualitative Data Analysis.
Qualitative Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook 2nd ed. Mills, C. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press. Mitchell, E. Multiple triangulation: A methodology for nursing science. Advances in Nursing Science 8 3 , Parks, R. Principles of Human Behavior. Chicago: Zalaz. Schwartz, H.
Qualitative Sociology: A Method to the Madness. New York: Free Press. Sohier, R. Multiple triangulation and contemporary nursing research. Western Journal of Nursing Research 10 6 , Spindler, G. Doing the Ethnography of Schooling. Spradley, J.
The Ethnographic Interview. Strauss, A. Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press. Qualitative Research Methods. Thomas, W. The Child in America. New York: Knopf. Turner, V. Myerhoff, Number Our Days. New York: Simon and Schuster. Van Maanen, J. Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography. Webb, E. Chicago: Rand McNally. Nonreactive Measures in the Social Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Weitzman, E. Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis. It includes discussion of the relationships among ideas and theory, concepts—and what I have long believed is the most difficult facet of research—namely, operationalization. This chapter further offers a strategy for conducting literature reviews and explains the importance of carefully designing and planning research in advance. Let's begin with some thoughts about ideas, concepts, and theory. There are no such laws found in the social sciences.
This does not, however, mean that social life operates in a totally chaotic or completely irrational manner. Rather, social life operates within fairly regular patterns and, when carefully examined, these patterns make considerable sense.
One primary purpose of social scientific research is to make sense from these various patterns. This is accomplished by creating, examining and testing, and refining theory. What then is theory?
Theory can be defined as a general and, more or less, comprehensive set of statements or propositions that describe different aspects of some phenomenon Babbie, ; Hagan, ; Senese, In an applied context, theories can be understood as interrelated ideas about various patterns, concepts, processes, relationships, or events. Theory might also represent attempts to develop explanations about reality or Ways to classify and organize events, describe events, or even to predict future occurrences of events Hagan, Concepts, then, are symbolic or abstract elements representing objects, properties, or features of objects, processes, or phenomenon.
Concepts may communicate ideas or introduce particular perspectives, or they may be a means for casting a broad generalization. In terms of ideas, concepts are important because they are the foundation of communication and thought. Concepts provide a means for people to let others know what they are thinking, and allow information to be shared. An important part of developing social scientific theory is first to define relevant concepts that will be used in a given research project.
As will be discussed later in this chapter, one of the most important reasons researchers turn to previous studies and relevant literature about a topic to be studied is to identify relevant concepts and their definitions. Whenever a concept is used, it is important that the researcher makes clear what meaning is being attached to that term; in other words, what ideas are being attached. For example, a researcher may undertake a research project that intends to examine alcoholism.
But what exactly does this researcher mean by the concept alcoholism? Without further specification, some readers may interpret this concept to mean someone who drinks until blacking out. Others might understand the term to convey an image of someone who drinks to a point where he or she cannot hold a job.
Still other people might interpret alcoholism as referring to people who cannot maintain regular relationships with other people. In effect, without specification concepts may represent a number of diverse meanings. Later this will be discussed as operationalization. Sometimes this idea originates because of a particular problem or situation one actually experiences.
For example, a nurse might observe a coworker coming to work under the influence of alcohol and begin to think about how alcohol would influence nursing care. From this thought, the idea for researching impaired nurses could arise.
A counselor at a delinquency detention center might notice that many of her clients have been battered or abused prior to their run-ins with the law.
From this observation, she might wonder how abuse might be linked with delinquency and how she could investigate this linkage. Or an elementary school teacher might notice that the most disruptive children in the class eat large amounts of sugary junk food during lunch. In some situations, ideas move from information you hear but may not actually experience yourself.
For instance, you're sitting at home listening to the news, and you hear a report about three youths from wealthy families who have been caught burglarizing houses.
You wonder: Why on earth did they do something like that? What motivates people who don't need money to steal from others? Or, you read in the newspaper that a man living around the corner from you has been arrested for growing marijuana in his garage. You think back to the times you passed this man's house and smiled a greeting at him. And, you wonder: Why didn't I realize what he was up to? Who was he going to sell the marijuana to anyhow? From these broad curiosities, you might begin to think about how these questions could be explored or answered and how you might research these phenomena.
There were some areas where more elaboration There were some areas where more elaboration and more examples were needed.
For example, the section covering measurement validities included all the important concepts, but needed more guidance for student comprehension. Also, the beginning chapters on 'common sense' reasoning and pseudoscience seemed a little too brief.
Accuracy rating: 5 Overall, this textbook appeared to be free from glaring errors.
There were a couple of instances of concern, but were not errors, per se. For example, the cut-off for Cronbach's alpha was stated definitively at. This is important for continued, consistent use of the book.
The authors have revised this book, and those revisions are clearly summarized in the text. Importantly, the APA section of the textbook appears to be up-to-date. The authors have revised this book, and those revisions are clearly summarized in the text.
Importantly, the APA section of the textbook appears to be up-to-date. Also, the use of QR codes throughout the text is a nice touch that students may appreciate. Clarity rating: 4 Connected to comprehensiveness, there are some important content areas that I felt were lacking in elaboration and examples e.
Overall, however, the topics seemed to be presented in a straightforward, accessible manner. The textbook includes links to informative videos and walk-throughs where appropriate, which seem to be potentially beneficial for student comprehension.
The textbook includes tools designed to aid learning, namely "Key Takeaways" and "Exercises" sections at the end of most modules, but not all. Lastly, many modules of the textbook were text-heavy and visually unappealing. While this is superficial, the inclusion of additional graphics, example boxes, or figures in these text-heavy modules might be beneficial.
Consistency The textbook appeared to be internally consistent with its approach and use of terminology.