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In general, these are hybrid texts because they combine characteristics of different narrative forms, such as the print picturebook, animated movies, and electronic games. As an application or a piece of software, in technical terms, these narratives have the potential of exploring all the resources of digital media; however, the high cost of production results in that, in many cases, these books end up closed to a simple digitalized version of a print book rather than a truly interactive narrative.
In this paper, are being considered especially interactive picturebook apps that explore the potential of the digital medium innovatively and creatively, beyond what is possible in print media.
In the following sections, some examples will be presented. Literature is a traditional ally in learning how to decode. But what do picturebook apps offer beyond what is already available in print books?
First of all, the potential of apps resides in the fact that, in most cases, they allow readers to follow the written text with professionally recorded narration. Reading-aloud, at home or school, is fundamental for the acquisition of literary competence SIPE, but this practice is not widespread amongst Brazilian families and schools. Interactivity enhances the playful aspects of the narrative, present in the play of words and sounds, in visual games and in metafictive play, which includes the participation of the reader in the narrative.
Narratives such as Tiny Great True Stories LU, include also the audio recording feature, in which readers can record their own narration of the story. On the other hand, the recording feature allows parents, grandparents, teachers or other co-readers to record personalized narrations of the story, recreating this bond when they cannot be present to read to the child.
Regarding the development of decoding skills, this function allows beginner readers to have a register of their own reading-aloud skills. In addition, the possibility of observing this development and comparing different stages can be a valuable tool for teachers in terms of evaluation and assessment. Multiliteracies The concept of multiliteracies was proposed in by the so-called New London Group, a group of scholars from the United Stated, United Kingdom and Australia who gathered in , in New London, USA, to discuss new pedagogical frameworks to the teaching of literacy.
According Frederico, Aline. This last aspect will not be discussed in this paper, but it is important to have into consideration that great part of picturebook apps are bi or multilingual, in contrast to the small production of bilingual print titles for children.
In addition, many apps produced in other countries are available in Portuguese, allowing Brazilian readers to get in touch with stories and cultures from other places. These texts require not only the skill of reading and comprehending verbal and visual codes separately but also comprehending how the intermodal relations corroborate or contest their individual meanings in the creation of one new multimodal sign with a unique meaning SIPE, In digital narratives, the verbal, visual and design aspects are also present, but the definition of multimodal literacy needs to be expanded for the analysis of the picturebook app, and include also the reading and orchestration of moving images, aural signs and interactivity.
Nevertheless, differently from the teaching of reading and writing, which is now structured and established, how to deal with visual, aural and digital literacies using picturebook apps? First of all, multimodal literacy is interdisciplinary in essence and can present an opportunity for the integration, for instance, of language arts with music, visual arts and IT teaching, dealing with different aspects of these other forms of literacy through various disciplines.
In pedagogical terms, it means to look in detail at the signs that compose the text, identifying, classifying and naming these elements.
At this level, are also considered the relationship between different modes. This discussion includes the creation and distribution of texts, and the critical analysis of the representations present in this text, dealing with racial, gender, power and stereotype issues, for instance.
In this story, a boy talks about the problems of letting Pum Fart go. The use of movement, interaction and sounds in this app complement this system of meanings, expanding and enhancing the meanings created by the iconotext. At the end of every level of analysis, a list of questions that teachers can use to discuss the narrative, guiding readers to articulate their critical and comprehension skills, is presented.
These questions can be easily adapted to the analysis of other texts, print or digital. Figure 1: Scene of the picturebook app Quem soltou o pum? Perceptual analysis In the perceptual level, readers must be stimulated to explore what is immediately apparent in the narrative, identifying the elements present in each one of the modes used in the construction of the story.
It is possible to identify the neighbour as such because he is mentioned in the verbal text and is separated from the others by a wall. There are also objects around the boy and the dog: brooms, a squeegee, a rake, a broken bottle, boxes, a bucket. This information, however, is only present in the verbal text in the scene in question.
Which are in the verbal text? Which are in the visual?
What about the aural? Which present sound?
Structural analysis In the structural analysis of the story, it is necessary to go beyond the description of the different modes and their denotative meanings and question how these modes create these representations, how they interact in the construction of the multimodal narrative and what are their potential for connotative meanings.
Understanding the dynamics of interactivity in the construction of meaning in the narrative is also an important aspect of this analysis, which can be supported by the detailed description in the perceptual analysis. For more analytical tools to this level of analysis, check Serafini ; or the functional grammars of the different modes mentioned above. The verbal text does not mention that Pum Fart is a dog; this information is only present in the visual text.
Nevertheless, through the careful analysis of the written text, the reader can have some clues to question the meaning of Pum, as the word is capitalized, meaning it is a proper noun. If the text is being read aloud, by the narration feature or a co-reader, these feature might go unnoticed. Having identified the characters in the first level of analysis, at this level we may look for clues as to how these representations are being constructed. The boy and the dog are the central characters of the narrative.
In the visual text, this meaning is suggested by the use of colour. The use of colour, thus, attributes salience to these two characters, it attracts the eye of the reader and suggest their importance in the story. The sound is loud and uncomfortable, thus justifying the complaint from the neighbour. And what does it mean in this story? How do we know that the meaning is different? What aspects of the visual text suggest that? Ideological analysis The ideological analysis is the most complex level of analysis and requires the articulation of elements that are present in the text with elements that are not, necessarily, visible, such as systems of power and oppression, the historical context in which the text has been created and also the understanding of the process of production and distribution of texts.
This contextualization can be explored by the teacher before or during the analysis of the text. In the case of picturebook apps, it is also possible to explore the differences between print and digital texts and their different processes of production and reception, contributing to the development of digital literacy. The notion of authorship, for example, can be analysed in the ideological level.
In this discussion, it is important to consider the paratextual elements — which can, in fact, be analysed at every level — and, thus, to discuss the Frederico, Aline. In this app, the authors of the writing and of the illustration appear at the first scene, equivalent to the book cover in the print counterpart, thus showing great importance; they are also presented in detail at the end of the narrative, in an introduction screen.
On the other hand, the authors of the soundscape and sound effects are only seen at the credits list. Therefore, different forms of authorship are valued differently in the publishing system of digital picturebooks. What are the advantages and disadvantages of print and digital texts? For instance, it can be discussed that children with a lower socio-economic status may not have access to a tablet computer and thus to the app, and in most cases this kind of publication is also not present in public libraries.
On the other hand, a child that lives in a town where bookshops and libraries are not present might not be able to access the print book at all, but might be able to download the app from their homes or schools.
These questions not only expand the reading possibilities of the narrative in question, but stimulate critical reflection about the communicational environment we live in and their consequences in the lives of individuals. Another ideological aspect that can be discussed in this narrative refers to the power relations between children, adults and animals. The boy and the dog, on the other hand, are approximately of the same size, suggesting power equality.
In which period of time does the narra- tive take place? And of the time frame when the narrative takes place? How can we infer who the audience is? Or why not? Is the story only the words?
Are the images part of the story? What about the sounds? How can we find this information in the app? Which aspects of the text indicate that? And how do they relate to the historical aspects of this reality? The analysis presented above is not by any means exhaustive. This and any story present numerous aspects that can be explored with this model of analysis, but the aim was to exemplify, within the limits of this paper, some of the possibilities.
This analysis also does not aim to be definitive. One central aspect of multimodal social semiotics is that texts have a meaning potential, and this potential may be unfolded or not depending on the interests, moti- vations and experiences of the reader, and yet in accordance with the socio- -cultural context in question; therefore, meanings are not fixed, but fluid.
Frederico, Aline. Thus, it is up to the teacher to adapt the questions to the level of the pupils, and progressively challenge them with more complex questions.
To discuss the ideological aspects of a text it is not necessary to talk about ideology directly. Final notes Unfortunately, the access to electronic devices were one can download and read picturebook apps in Brazil is still limited and almost inexistent in the public education system.
Nevertheless, it is fundamental that teachers are informed about these materials and the immense potential they have in promoting reading and multiliteracies in the first years of schooling so that they can vindicate this technology for their schools. Therefore, even in the case of more privileged schools, it is important to support to parents regarding the best uses of this technology and how and where to find high quality content, especially literary content.
Tell About This Elementary This versatile pre-writing or publishing tool is easy for young storytellers to use. Dozens of photos sorted into categories including culture, people, family and fun, serve as inspiration for prompts. Kids can tell stories using the in-app recording feature. Teachers can also create custom prompts with their own images and voice. Giving ELLs a safe space to tell stories about their lives and experiences validates their unique contributions to the class community.
They can capture screengrabs from an interactive map, safely search for images from the Web and access image archives from trusted sources like the Library of Congress. Kids put the slides in order, add text, music and narration, and then export the final project as a video file. Shadow Puppet Edu supports ELLs in developing academic vocabulary in both collaborative groups and independently. Students can use it to review new concepts, present research, track progress, explain their thinking and more.
Kids move characters around each scene as they record narration and dialogue. For ELLs, Toontastic can be an invaluable tool for building writing skills or practicing story analysis. Students can storyboard a piece of original writing or a story they read in class, and then bring it to life with fun settings and quirky characters.
Once posted, projects can be open to text, voice or video comments from a select group or from all VoiceThread members. Alternately, teachers can create a VoiceThread to solicit student commentary. For ELLs who sometimes are hesitant to speak up in class, VoiceThread gives them a chance to thoughtfully craft their presentations or comments and contribute their ideas with confidence. Users can import photos, PDF files, movies and more from many sources to use in a presentation.