Harappan civilization pdf


 

PDF | The Harappan Civilisation (HC) was spread over large parts of western region of the Indian Subcontinent. Its earliest roots can be found from BC in . Even though the Harappan civilisation has left behind very little by way of written records, cross discipline studies can provide a lot of insights into the civilisation. Since then, the archaeology of the Harappan Civilization has been growing, both in that the Indus Civilization is no longer confined to the Indus Valley.

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Harappan Civilization Pdf

Indus Valley or Harappan Civilization, existed along the the ancient Harappan people and treasures in. National Museum . Download this book in PDF from. The pdf version of the exhibition catalogue is available at . heritage of the Indus Valley Civilization, especially amongst the people who. Mayank N. Vahia. Nisha Yadav. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. ABSTRACT. The Harappan Civilisation (HC) was spread over large parts of western.

Ill, No. A change in the material culture, settlement location, population concentration and subsistence practices had taken place but several features of the Harappan cultural tradition continued to persist in three principal areas or regions Mughal ; and , each marked by its own distinctive traits and labelled differently by various scholars Fig. Late Harappan. The material evidence from each region is reviewed here to highlight the nature and degree of cultural changes. Most of the sites in Cholistan are settlement8 and those with industrial activities, distinguished by kilns and pottery firing areas. The pottery forms and decorations are mixed with other types of pottery comparable with those found associated v. The sites are mostly located to the north and northeast of Derawar Fort, an area which was essentially fed by a channel from the Sutlej River since the Mature Harappan times Fig.

Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Culture – Study Material PDF Free Download

The thoughtful planning of the streets aided the route that the drains followed4. The remains of urban centres portray their strength and show that they played an important role in trade6. The chronology for this civilization can be briefly divided into three phases — Early Harappan, Mature Harappan and Late Harappan.

It was during the Late Harappan phase that the cities declined7. Using carbon dating, the scholars ballpark the end of 22nd century BCE to be the commencement this decline8. History and Politics, Indus Valley. The Harappan Civilization, C. From the Stone Age to the 12th Century.

Pearson Education, Google Books. History and Politics. Calibration and Chronology. LE The main sources of information about the Harappan civilization initially were the records found in Mesopotamia9. Today it is believed that this referred to a region in the Indus Valley civilization.

Around the Old Akkadian period, artefacts from the Mature Harappan phase have been found Records like these were used earlier in order to form a chronology for the Harappan Civilization Other major sources are the ninety-seven excavated sites from India and Pakistan. The types of artefacts, settlements, frequency of funerary practices, etc. But certain characteristics are found across all these sites and can be used to recognise if it was a part of the Harappan civilization. Some of these include, the standardised ratio of brick size 1: Researchers like Ramprasad Chandra and Mortimer Wheeler were the main supporters of this theory The idea of the invasion stems from what has been written in the Rig Veda.

It is believed that the citizens of the civilization were attacked by a foreign tribe of Aryans in around 2nd century BCE. Stuart Piggot in his research has found some of the remains from Harappa which can be correlated to the sites in Iran which are said to have belonged to the Aryans.

From some of the burned and destructed levels found on sites in Baluchistan, he concludes that the attack was rather violent and involved a human massacre at Mohenjo-Daro According to Wheeler, the tittle of fort destroyer assigned to Indra in the Rig Veda was actually just a metaphor for the Aryans who massacred the people of the civilization.

He associated Harappa to a city named Hariyupiya mentioned in the holy text. While he later suggested that other factors may have also have something to do with the decline, he believed that the Aryan invasion was an equally important cause in the decline With the recent findings indicating that the time when the Harappan 9 Singh, Upinder.

Brunswig, Jr.

List of Indus Valley Civilisation sites

A Reply. LE civilization ended and when the Rig Veda was written are almost years apart, the accounting of this incidence may not be reliable The invasion can also be thought of as a military defeat for the civilization.

While the Aryans had cavalry to support them in their conquest, it may not be a reasonable explanation as to how the Indus Valley Civilization may have collapsed One of the evidences used to support this idea are the seals found from this region. Earlier excavated seals did not have depictions of wheels or chariots but the Aryans are believed to have used these both. However, some of the recent findings of seals show that wheel was in fact known in the Harappan Civilization Though, it needs to be taken into account that most of these depictions are from about the same time as when the decline started Considering that it was a well-established civilization when it was attacked, it is quite likely that they had an army to defend themselves The city walls, along with being effective against flood may also have acted as a shield to guard the people from foreign attacks Some of the refuters of the theory of Aryan Invasion have stated that the people from this civilization might have been Aryans themselves.

But those in support, point out that some of the characters from the script on Rig Veda are similar to those in the Dravidian group of languages.

According to them, it can be concluded that these characters were borrowed by the Aryans after having taken over the civilization However, this theory is controversial and still being researched upon because proving or disproving it will not only help establish historical facts but also throw light on the identity of people from various parts of the Indian subcontinent Another factor assumed to have caused deterioration of the civilization was that of climatic changes and its effects mainly on the rivers and agricultural practices.

It was during the late Holocene that the climate in Harappa started stabilizing and the place became habitable. The rivers in this region were monsoon-fed and with passing time, the increasing aridification caused them to either dry out or become seasonal rivers. One of the evidences used to support this idea are the seals found from this region. Earlier excavated seals did not have depictions of wheels or chariots but the Aryans are believed to have used these both.

However, some of the recent findings of seals show that wheel was in fact known in the Harappan Civilization Though, it needs to be taken into account that most of these depictions are from about the same time as when the decline started Considering that it was a well-established civilization when it was attacked, it is quite likely that they had an army to defend themselves The city walls, along with being effective against flood may also have acted as a shield to guard the people from foreign attacks Some of the refuters of the theory of Aryan Invasion have stated that the people from this civilization might have been Aryans themselves.

But those in support, point out that some of the characters from the script on Rig Veda are similar to those in the Dravidian group of languages. According to them, it can be concluded that these characters were borrowed by the Aryans after having taken over the civilization However, this theory is controversial and still being researched upon because proving or disproving it will not only help establish historical facts but also throw light on the identity of people from various parts of the Indian subcontinent Another factor assumed to have caused deterioration of the civilization was that of climatic changes and its effects mainly on the rivers and agricultural practices.

It was during the late Holocene that the climate in Harappa started stabilizing and the place became habitable. The rivers in this region were monsoon-fed and with passing time, the increasing aridification caused them to either dry out or become seasonal rivers.

The output of the crop as well as the types of crops grown changed because of this, forcing the settlers out of the areas of Punjab and Sindh and towards Haryana and Utter Pradesh While the Harappans initially benefited from the aridity, increase in it meant that 17 Possehl, Gregory L.

University of West Florida, n.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Fluvial Landscapes of the Harappan Civilization. Initially people may have tried to cope with it by growing drought-tolerant crops but at one point migration was the only option for them Also, the use of the Great Baths may have been changed from that of religious purposes to it being a reservoir to provide water to the residents of that city Since the Harappans had not developed canals for irrigation, they could not even make use of water the rivers in the region received from glaciers in the Himalayas.

Decrease in population at Harappa lead to decline of one of the most important urban centres of the civilization Sarasvati and Drishadvati were two more rivers that contributed to flourishing of settlements but then dried out eventually. Archaeological evidence from the site at Cholistan suggests that it was of prime importance when it came to cultivation of grains during the Mature Harappan phase. It can be deduced that the flow of water from these rivers became stronger from the Early to the Mature phase since the number of settlements found show an increase.

Eventually, a large number of inland deltas with sufficient water supply started decreasing and reached a point where the water obtained was not enough since Sarasvati diverted its course towards the east Loss of this natural irrigation meant that agriculture could no longer be done at the same scale.

Some contradictory theories suggest that it was not a drought but rather the floods from Indus that over time made settlements on its banks inhabitable. One of the other theories is that of coastal uplifting as not only does it affect the areas near the sea but its effects can spread up to miles.

According to some researches, the movement of tectonic plates near the lower Sindh and areas of Baluchistan caused the uplifting of these regions due to which the floods affected Mohenjo-Daro Even today this can be observed as geological evidence suggests that over the last years, the ports that lied across the Makran region and were on the shore of the Arabian Sea are now found inland The theory of coastal uplifting is used to explain the decline of settlements in Gujarat and the Makran region.

The settlements here were mainly used as ports with one of the major sites being that of Lothal. The coastal uplifting meant that the land rose from the sea level and the sites that were mainly used as ports lost their purpose.

However, water could still be dug out from the 26 Fitzsimons, Matthew A. Since three major Harappan seaports have been found beyond the Arabian Gulf34, it can be said that these ports were economically beneficial as trading could have taken place via sea routes Because of coastal uplifting, trade may not have been possible with those places where using water route was ideal and one example of this could be the termination of trade with the Persian Gulf in around BCE The Asian elephant probably was also domesticated, and its ivory tusks were freely used.

Minerals, unavailable from the alluvial plain , were sometimes brought in from far afield.

(PDF) The Decline of the Harappan Civilization | Aditi Trivedi - medical-site.info

Gold was imported from southern India or Afghanistan , silver and copper from Afghanistan or northwestern India present-day Rajasthan state , lapis lazuli from Afghanistan, turquoise from Iran Persia , and a jadelike fuchsite from southern India. Perhaps the best-known artifacts of the Indus civilization are a number of small seals , generally made of steatite a form of talc , which are distinctive in kind and unique in quality, depicting a wide variety of animals, both real—such as elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, and antelopes—and fantastic, often composite creatures.

Sometimes human forms are included. A few examples of Indus stone sculpture have also been found, usually small and representing humans or gods. There are great numbers of small terra-cotta figures of animals and humans.

Copyright J.

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