Preface Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive rhetoric the third edition will find these changes: the Fourth Edition • Part I, Writing a. Writing Academic English 3rd Edition by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Introduction to academic writing/Ann Hogue. Alice Oshimard ed. p. ern. Includes index. I. English language-Rhetoric-Handbooks. manuals. etc. 2. English.
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The North American Catawba Indians of the Southeast and the Tlingit of the Northwest both see the rainbow as a kind of bridge between heaven and earth.
A rainbow seen from an airplane is a complete circle. Many cultures interpret rainbows in positive ways. Rainbows are beautiful. The belief that you can find a pot of gold at a rainbow's end. Remember that the topic sentence is the most genyral statement in a paragraph. Read the following scrambled paragraphs and decide which sentence is the topic sentence.
Write TS on the line next to that sentence. Other capabilities include word processing, spreadsheets, and e-mail. A voice recorder that uses a built-in microphone and speaker works like a tape recorder. Basic tools include a calendar to keep track of your appointments, an address and phone number book, to-do lists, and a calculator.
MP3 playback lets you listen to digital music files, and a picture viewer lets you look at digital photos. Most personal digital assistants PDAs have tools for basic tasks as well as for multimedia functions. A few models also include a built-in digital camera and keyboard. Twelve years after Sputnik, the United States caught up by becoming the first nation to land a man on the moon.
The Europeans have joined the competition, vowing to land European astronauts on the moon by and on Mars by The number of nations competing in the "space race" has grown since the early days of space exploration. China joined the competition in when it launched Shenzhou 5. Initially, the former Soviet Union took the lead when it sent the first man into Earth orbit in the spaceship Sputnik in For almost 50 years, the United States and Russia were the only competitors in the contest to explore space using manned spacecraft.
Another important change was that people had the freedom to live and work wherever they wanted. The earliest significant change was for farming families, who were no longer isolated. The final major change brought by the automobile was the building of superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centers, and theme parks such as Disney World in Florida.
The automobile revolutionized the way of life in the United States. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently. In fact, people could work in a busy metropolitan city and dlive home to the quiet suburbs.
In time, this melted part rises as magma. The formation of a volcanic emption is a dramatic selies of events. As the plate" sinks, friction and Earth's heat cause part of it to melt. The magma produces heat, steam, and pressure.
First of all, most volcanoes are fGlIDed where two plates collide. Then one of the plates is forced under the other and sinks. When the heat, steam, and pressure from the magma finally reach the surface of Earth, a volcanic emption occurs.
The topic names the subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea limits Sentence or controls the topic to a specific area that you can discuss in the space of a single paragraph. The reader immediately lmows that this paragraph will discuss how easy it is to prepare convenience foods and perhaps give some examples canned soup, frozen dinners, and so on. A topic sentence should not have controlling ideas that are unrelated. The three parts of the following controlling idea are too unrelated for a single paragraph.
They require three separate paragraphs and perhaps more to explain fully. GOOD Independent films are characterized by experimental techniques. Cl'ICE '2. Circle the topic and underline the controlling idea in each of the following sentences.
Identifying the Parts of a Topic Sentence 1. Wanyreligious rules arose from the healthneeds-oLancienLtimes. Juxlrrytp' own an automobile in a large city-: CT1CE 3 A. Write good topic sentences for the following paragraphs. Remember to include both a topic and a controlling idea. Writing Topic Sentences Paragraph 1 English speakers relaxing at home, for example, may put on kimonos, which is a Japanese word. English speakers who live in a warm climate may take an afternoon siesta on an outdoor patio without realizing that these are Spanish words.
In their gardens, they may enjoy the fragrance of jasmine flowers, a word that came into English from Persian. They may even relax on a chaise while snacking on yogurt, words of French and Turkish origin, respectively. At night, they may shampoo their hair and put on pajamas, words from the Hindi language of India. Paragraph 2 In European universities, students are not required to attend classes.
In fact, professors in Germany generally do not know the names of the students enrolled in their courses. In the United States, however, students are required to attend all classes and may be penalized if they do not. Furthermore, in the European system, students usually take just one comprehensive examination at the end of their entire four or five years of study.
In the North American system, on the other hand, students usually have numerous quizzes, tests, and homework assignments, and they almost always have to take a final examination in each course at the end of each semester. Cbapter I I Paragraph Structure n Paragraph 3 For example, the Eskimos, living in a treeless region of snow and ice, sometimes build temporary homes out of thick blocks of ice.
People who live in deserts, on the other hand, use the most available materials, mud or clay, which provide good insulation from the heat. In Northern Europe, Russia, and other areas of the world where forests are plentiful, people usually construct their homes out of wood.
In the islands of the South Pacific, where there is an abundant supply of bamboo and palm, people use these tough, fibrous plants to build their homes. On a piece of paper, write two or three topic sentences for each of the following topics. In other words, give two or three controlling ideas for the same topic.
Example Topic: Using a cell phone while driving can be dangerous. There are certain rules of cell phone manners that everyone should know. Cell phones have changed the way we communicate. Topics Movies Your home town Word processors Advertising c. With your classmates, choose three topics that interest you as a group. Write a topic sentence for each topic. Be sure to include a controlling idea.
Supporting Sentences Supporting sentences explain or prove the topic sentence. One of the biggest problems in student writing is that student writers often fail to support their ideas adequately. They need to use specific details to be thorough and convincing. There are several kinds of specific supporting details: Step 1 Read Paragraphs A and B about red-light running.
Notice the different specific supporting details that have been added to Paragraph B. Supporting Step 2 Locate the topic sentence in Paragraph B. Circle the topic and Sentences underline the controlling idea. Step 3 Which supporting sentences in Paragraph B contain the kinds of details listed below? Give the sentence numbers of each kind. An example: Paragraph without Support Red-Light Running Although some people think that red-light running is a minor traffic violation that is no worse than jaywalking, I it can, in fact, become a deadly crime.
Red-light runners cause accidents all the time. Sometimes people are seriously injured and even killed. It is especially a problem in rush hour traffic. Everyone is in a hurry to get home, so drivers run red lights everywhere. The police do not do much about it because they are too busy.
The only time they pay attention is when there is an accident, and then it is too late. In conclusion, running a red light is a serious offense. Paragraph B: Paragraph with Support Red-Light Running "! Although some people think red-light running is a minor traffic violation that is no worse than jaywalking, it can, in fact, become a deadly crime.
ERed-light runners are seldom caught. Other types of support-facts, statistics, and quotations-are explained in Chapter 3. Examples Examples are perhaps the easiest kind of supporting detail to use because you can often take examples from your own knowledge and experience. You don't have to search the library or the Internet for supporting material. Furthermore, examples make your writing lively and interesting, and your reader is more likely to remem- ber your point if you support it with a memorable example.
Words and phrases that introduce examples include for example,for instance, and such as. See Transition Signals on pages in Chapter 2 for more information. Red Light Running. Cbapter 11 I Paragraph Structure 13 MODEE Language and Perception Paragraph II possess the same physical organs for sensing the w Supported with earing,noses for smelling, skin for feeling, and Examp'es n of the world depends to a great extent on the rding to a famous hypothesis3 proposed by lingu.
Edward enjamin Lee Whorf. They hypothesized that language is like a pair of eyeglasses through which we "see" the world in a particular way.
A classic example of the relationship between language and perception is the word snow. Eskimo languages have as many as 32 different words for snow. For instance, the Eskimos have different words for falling snow, snow on the ground, snow packed as hard as ice, slushy snow, wind-driven snow, and what we might call "cornmeal" snow.
The ancient Aztec languages of Mexico, in contrast, used only one word to mean snow, cold, and ice. Thus, if the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is correct and we can perceive only things that we have words for, the Aztecs perceived snow, cold, and ice as one and the same phenomenon.
What is the main idea of this paragraph? Underline the part of the topic sentence that expresses the main idea. What examples does the writer use to support this idea? Put brackets [ around them. What words and phrases introduce the examples? Circle them. The Concluding Sentence A concluding sentence serves two purposes: It signals the end of the paragraph. It leaves the reader with the most important ideas to remember.
It can do this in two ways: For single paragraphs, especially long ones, a concluding sentence is helpful to the reader because it is a reminder of the important points. However, a concluding sentence is not needed for every paragraph in a multiparagraph essay. You may want to begin your concluding sentence with one of the signals in the list on page You may also end a paragraph without a formal signal or perhaps by using an expression like those in the column on the right.
In brief, Therefore, There can be no doubt that. In conclusion, Thus, These examples show that. Indeed, To sum up, We can see that In short, Notes 1. Many writing teachers think In conclusion and In summary are overused and so will not want you to use them.
Do not use the phrase At last as an end-of-paragraph signal. At last means "at the end of a long period of time," as in this sentence: At last, you've come home. The models that follow demonstrate the two ways of writing a concluding sen- tence. As you read them, determine which concluding sentence summarizes the main points and which concluding sentence repeats the topic sentence in different words.
In the old days, the local drugstore had one rack display' maybe five or six basic kinds of cards. You could walk into the store and choose an appropriate card in five minutes or less. Nowadays, however, t e display space for greeting cards is as big as a soccer field, and it may take an hour or two to hunt down exactly the right card with exactly the right message.
There are at least 30 categories of birthday cards alone: There are cards for getting ajob, for retiring from a job, for acquiring a pet, for losing a pet, for becoming engaged, for breaking up. There are also greeting cards to send for no reason-"Thinking of you" or "Just because" cards. The newest type of card is the "encouragement card. In short, there is now a greeting card for every possible life event and for a few nonevents as well.
A end from the Hawaiian island uai explains how the naupaka flower, lower tha s on beaches ; got its unusual shape. The flower looks like alf a small. The legend says that the marriage of two young lovers on the island was opposed by both sets of parents. The parents found the couple together on a beach one day, and to prevent them from being together, one of the families moved to the mountains, separating the young couple forever.
As a result, the naupaka flower separated into two halves; one half moved to the mountains, and the other half stayed near the beach. This story is a good example of a legend invented by native people to interpret the world around them.
Writing Technique Questions 1. In which paragraph does the concluding sentence summarize the main points of the paragraph, which are not specifically stated in the topic sentence?
In which paragraph does the concluding sentence paraphrase repeat in different words the topic sentence? Circle the conclusion signals in each paragraph.
Never introduce a new idea in the concluding sentence. This is a new idea. Step 2 Add a good concluding sentence to each paragraph. You may either Writing paraphrase the topic sentence or summarize the main points. Concluding Sentences Step 3 Practice using end-of-paragraph signals by starting each concluding sentence with one.
Paragraph 1 You can be a good conversationalist by being a good listener. When you are conversing with someone, pay close attention to the speaker's words while looking at his or her face.
Show your interest by smiling and nodding. Furthermore, do not interrupt while someone is speaking; it is impolite to do so. If you have a good story, wait until the speaker is finished. Also, watch your body language; it can affect your communication whether you are the speaker or the listener.
For instance, do not sit slumped in a chair or make nervous hand and foot movements. Be relaxed and bend your body slightly forward to show interest in the person and the conversation. They feel buried under the large number of messages they receive daily. In addition to telephone calls, office workers receive dozens of e-mail and voice mail messages daily.
In one company, in fact, managers receive an average of messages a day. Because they do not have enough time to respond to these messages during office hours, it is common for them to do so in the evenings or on weekends at home. Review These are the important points covered in this chapter: It clearly states the main idea of the paragraph but does not include specific details. Writing Practice In the back of the book is an appendix outlining the steps in the writing process Appendix A, pages Following the writing process steps will help you write successfully.
Your instructor may direct you to follow some or all of them. Writing a Paragraph Step 1 Begin with a topic sentence that you wrote in Practice 3. Write several supporting sentences. Include at least one specific example. End with a concluding sentence. It is on page at the back of the book. Answer the questions on it and write a second draft if necessary. Tear the page out of the book and bling it with your paragraph to class.
Step 3 Exchange papers with a classmate and check each other's paragraph using Peer-Editing Worksheet 1 on page It is on the back side of the Self-Editing Worksheet. After your classmate has completed the checklist, discuss it with him or her and decide what changes you should make. Step 4 At home or in class as your instructor directs , write a final copy of your paragraph, making any improvements you discussed with your peer editor.
Step 5 Hand in your first draft, your second draft, and the page containing the two editing worksheets. These assignments give you practice in thinking and wliting quickly,-as you will have to do for essay examinations. Your instmctor may choose to change the time Writing under Pressure limit or assign other topics depending on the needs and interests of the class. Choose one of the suggested topics and write a well-organized paragraph.
Your instructor will give you a time limit. Try to use a specific example to support your topic sentence. Unity means that a paragraph discusses one and only one main idea from beginning to end.
For example, if your paragraph is about the advantages of owning a compact car, discuss only that. Do not discuss the disadvantages. Furthermore, discuss only one advantage, such as gas economy, in each paragraph.
If you begin to discuss another advantage, start a new paragraph. Sometimes it is possible to discuss more than one aspect of the same idea in one paragraph if they are closely related to each other. For example, you could discuss gas economy and low maintenance costs in the same paragraph because they are closely related, but you should not discuss both gas economy and easier parking in the same paragraph because they are not closely related.
The second part of unity is that every supporting sentence must directly explain or prove the main idea. The three paragraphs that follow all discuss the same topic.
Only one of them shows unity. First read the paragraphs. Then answer these questions. Which paragraph has unity? Which paragraph does not have unity because it discusses two different topics? Which paragraph does not have unity because it has sentences that are not related to the main topic? Paragraph 1 Effects of Color Colors create biological reactions in our bodies.
These reactions, in turn, can change our behavior. In one study, prisoners were put in a pink room, and they underwent a drastic and measurable decrease in muscle strength and hostility within 2. In another study, athletes needing shortbW: Their muscle strength increased by Athletes needing more endurance for longer performances responded best when exposed to blue light.
Other studies have shown that the color green is calming. Green was a sacred color to the Egyptians, representing the hope and joy of spring. It is also a sacred color to Moslems. Many mosques and religious temples throughout the world use green the color of renewal and growth and blue the color of heaven to balance heavenly peace with spiritual growth.
To sum up, color influences us in many ways Daniels In another study, athletes needing short bursts of energy were exposed to red light. After London's Blackfriars Bridge was painted green, the number of suicides decreased by 34 percent.
These and other studies clearly demonstrate that color affects not only our moods but our behavior as well Daniels IDaniels, Amanda. In one study, athletes needing short bursts of energy were exposed to red light.
Blue is not a good color for dinnerware, however. Food looks less appetizing when it is served on blue plates, perhaps because very few foods in nature are of that color.
After London's Blackfriars Bridge was painted green, the number of suicides from it decreased by 34 percent. It is clear that color affects not just our moods, but our behavior as well Daniels Both of the following paragraphs break the rule of unity because they contain one or more sentences that are off the topic. Step 1 Locate and underline the topic sentence of each paragraph.
Step 2 Cross out the sentence or sentences that are off the topic. Paragraph 1 Adventure travel is the hot trend in the tourism industry. Ordinary people are no longer content to spend their two weeks away from the office resting on a sunny beach in Florida. More and more often, they are choosing to spend their vacations rafting down wild rivers, hiking through steamy rain forests, climbing the world's highest mountains, or crossing slippery glaciers.
J People of all ages are choosing educational study tours for their vacations. Paragraph 2 DaredevW sports are also becoming popular. Young people especially are increasingly willing to risk life and limb3 while mountain biking, backcountry snowboarding, or high-speed skateboarding. Soccer is also popular in the United States now, although football is still more popular. One of the riskiest new sports is skysurfing, in which people jump out of airplanes with boards attached to their feet.
Skysurfing rivals4 skydiving and bungee jumping for the amount of thrills- and risk. Both of the following paragraphs not only have sentences that are off the topic but also discuss two or more topics. Step 1 Decide where each paragraph should be divided into two paragraphs. Underline the topic sentence of each. Step 2 Find sentence s that are off the topic and cross them out.
The question is-which language? Because the Internet grew up in the United States, the largest percentage of its content is now in English. Bill Gates, Microsoft's president, believes that English will remain valuable for a long time as a common language for international communication.
He says, "Unless you read English passably well, you miss out on some of the Internet experience. That day is decades away, however, because flawless machine translation is a very tough problem. Computer spelling checkers also exist for various languages.
Software that does crudes translations already exists. It is useful if all you are trying to do is understand the general idea of something you see on your computer screen. However, if you are trying to negotiate a contract or discuss a scientific subject where details are important, machine translation is totally useless Gates. For example, when someone offers you food or a beverage in the United States, accept it the first time it is offered.
If you say, "No, thank you" because it is polite to decline the first one or two offers in your culture, you could become very hungry and thirsty in the United States. There, a host thinks that "no" means "no" and will usually not offer again. Meals in the United States are usually more informal than meals in other countries, and the times of meals may be different. Although North Americans are usually very direct in social matters, there are a few occasions when they are not.
If a North American says, "Please drop by sometime," he mayor may not want you to visit him in his home. Your clue that this may not be a real invitation is the word "sometime. In other areas of the United States, however, "dropping by" is a friendly, neighborly gesture. Idioms are often difficult for newcomers to understand. Coherence Another element of a good paragraph is coherence. The Latin verb cohere means "hold together. There must be no sudden jumps. Each sentence should flow smoothly into the next one.
Syndicated column, Repeat key nouns. Use consistent pronouns. Use transition signals to link ideas. Arrange your ideas in logical order. Repetition The easiest way to achieve coherence is to repeat key nouns frequently in your para- ofKe!
Read the model paragraph about gold to see how it uses this technique to smooth the flow of sentences. The key noun in this paragraph is gold. Circle the word gold and all pronouns that refer to it. Gold Paragraph 1Gold, a precIous metal,is prized for two important characteristics. You should have circled the noun gold seven times, the pronoun it twice, and the pronoun its three times. The word it in sentence 5 refers to coin, not gold, so you should not have circled it.
There is no fixed rule about how often to repeat key nouns or when to substitute pronouns. You should repeat a key noun instead of using a pronoun when the mean- ing is not clear. Throughout the following paragraph, the word gold has been replaced by pro- nouns, making the paragraph much less coherent. Gold Paragraph Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of without all, it has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable Coherence for jewelry, coins, and ornamental purposes.
It never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. Another of its important characteristics is its usefulness to industry and science.
For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications, such as photography and dentistry. Its most recent use is in astronauts' suits. Astronauts wear heat shields made from it for protection when they go outside spaceships in space. In conclusion, it is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
In the following paragraph, the key noun is never repeated. Replace the pronoun it with the key noun English wherever you think doing so would Key Nouns make the paragraph more coherent. English 1English has almost become an international language. SSpanish is the official language of more countries in the world, but more countries have it as their official or unofficial second language. Bin international business, it is used more than any other language, and it is the language of airline pilots and air traffic controllers all over the world.
Brherefore, unless you plan to spend your life alone on a desert island in the middle--of the Pacific Ocean, it is a useful language to know.
In the following passage about dolphins, replace some of the pronouns with appropriate singular or plural nouns. Dolphins 1Dolphins are interesting because they display almost human behavior at times.
Blf one is sick, it sends out a m,essage, and others in the area swim to help it. B-rhey stay with it for days or weeks until it recovers or dies. Navy is training them to become underwater bomb disposal experts. For example, in sentence 8 of the first paragraph about gold, the writer substituted the noun use as a synonym for application in sentence 7, thereby smoothing the flow of thought from one sentence to the next.
Key Noun Substitutes Step 2 Then circle a repetitions of the key nouns, b pronouns that refer to them, and c synonyms that are substitutes for them.
You should have a total of 10 circles: Don't change from you to he or she change of person or from he to they change of number. Notice the changes the writer made for con- sistency in the following example.
I revelry: In the following paragraph, the pronouns are not consistent. Correct them to make this paragraph more coherent.
Using Consistent Pronouns Olympic Athletes Olympic athletes must be strong both physically and mentally. First of all, if you hope to compete in an Olympic sport, you must be physically strong. Furthermore, aspiring 4 Olympians must train rigorouslyS for many years. For the most demanding sports, they train several hours a day, five or six days a week, for ten or more years. In addition to being physically strong, athletes must also be mentally tough.
This means that you have to be totally dedicated to your sport, often giving up a normal school, family, and social life. Being mentally strong also means that he or she must be able to withstand the intense pressure of interna- tional competition with its accompanying media6 coverage.
Finally, not everyone can win a medal, so Olympians must possess the inner strength to live with defeat. Transition Transition signals are expressions such as first, finally, and however, or phrases such Signals as in conclusion, on the other hand, and as a result. Other kinds of words such as subordinators when, although , coordinators and, but , adjectives another, addi- tional , and prepositions because of, in spite of can serve as transition signals.
Transition signals are like traffic signs; they tell your reader when to go forward, tum around, slow down, and stop. In other words, they tell your reader when you are giving a similar idea similarly, and, in addition , an opposite idea on the other hand, but, in contrast , an example for example , a result therefore, as a result , or a conclusion in conclusion. Transition signals give a paragraph coherence because they guide your reader from one idea to the next.
Which paragraph contains transition signals and is more coherent? Circle all the transition signals you can identify. Transition Signa's Paragraph 1 One difference among the world's seas and oceans is that the salinity? There are reasons for this.
In warm climates, water evaporates8 rapidly. The concentration 9 of salt is greater. The surrounding land is dry and does not contribute much freshwater to dilute lO the salty seawater. In cold climate zones, water evaporates slowly.
The runoff created by melting snow adds a considerable amount of freshwater to dilute the saline seawater. There are two reasons for this. First of all, in warm climate zones, water evaporates rapidly; therefore, the concentration of salt is greater. Second, the surrounding land is dry; consequently, it does not contribute much freshwater to dilute the salty seawater.
In cold climate zones, on the other hand, water evaporates slowly. Free Download Here Introduction to Academic The immigrants had no a love affair at. Lists the reading and the answer key: alk details and clarify Effective academic aim of academic references, and prepared notes About the doc, ppt, pps Sheets Source 2: answer key writing academic english alice oshima. Filetype: pdf. Writing Academic English Answer Key Parts of text teaches academic how to support of this practical and identifying key nouns.
Or sentence. Facing the people who made up Writing Academic English - Answer Key For all council seats include a clear hardened Academic writing Writing Academic English: Answer Key by Alice Oshima , Home; Writing academic english answer key pdf: Online Writing Lab: Appendices offer easy reference for key writing , grammar, and research information. New to the Fourth Edition. Source 2: Writing Academic English Answer Key Repetition of Key Nouns. Use of Consistent Because most academic writing is expository in nature, we have purposely limit The Key to Academic … writing academic english answer key.
Oshima and ann hogue.