Results 1 - 20 of Mar 12, Oxford Picture Dictionary English/Farsi 2nd (second) Oxford Picture Dictionary Low Beginning Workbook Vocabulary Pdf. A new edition of the best selling picture dictionary, available in 13 bilingual editions that meet the language needs of high school Bilingual Dictionary for Farsi speaking teenage and adult students of English Our discounted price list (PDF). Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Jayme Adelson-Goldstein is an ESL teacher -trainer and.
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Realistic scenarios and modern artwork are easy to relate to and these, together with story pages and practice exercises, have been applauded for their success in promoting critical thinking skills. Content is fully supported by a range of components in English only - including Workbooks, Classroom Activities, Audio and website.
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Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews. We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book. Close X. Follow us. Please enter manually: Because of its reputation, it was widely sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century , once in Sicily and again in Spain. His Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres,  in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe.
He estimated the Sun was at an average distance of 1, Earth radii, while the radius of the sphere of the fixed stars was 20, times the radius of the Earth. In the Phaseis Risings of the Fixed Stars , Ptolemy gave a parapegma, a star calendar or almanac , based on the appearances and disappearances of stars over the course of the solar year. He relied somewhat on the work of an earlier geographer, Marinos of Tyre , and on gazetteers of the Roman and ancient Persian Empire.
As with the model of the Solar System in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe.
Latitude was measured from the equator , as it is today, but Ptolemy preferred  to express it as climata, the length of the longest day rather than degrees of arc : the length of the midsummer day increases from 12h to 24h as one goes from the equator to the polar circle. In books 2 through 7, he used degrees and put the meridian of 0 longitude at the most western land he knew, the " Blessed Islands ", often identified as the Canary Islands , as suggested by the location of the six dots labelled the "FORTUNATA" islands near the left extreme of the blue sea of Ptolemy's map here reproduced.
A 15th-century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world map , reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geography circa AD , indicating the countries of " Serica " and " Sinae " China at the extreme east, beyond the island of "Taprobane" Sri Lanka , oversized and the " Aurea Chersonesus " Malay Peninsula.
Prima Europe tabula. A 15th-century copy of Ptolemy's map of Britain and Ireland. In the second part of the Geography, he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps. The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography, however, only date from about , after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes.
It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2—7 are cumulative texts — texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy. A printed map from the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the Ecumene , , Johannes Schnitzer, engraver.
Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenes , in the 3rd century BC, but Ptolemy improved map projections.
It is known from a speech by Eumenius that a world map, an orbis pictus, doubtless based on the Geography, was on display in a school in Augustodunum , Gaul in the third century. An edition printed at Ulm in , including woodcut maps, was the first one printed north of the Alps.
The maps look distorted when compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were inaccurate. One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth as too small: while Eratosthenes found stadia for a great circle degree on the globe, Ptolemy uses stadia in the Geography. It is highly probable that these were the same stadion, since Ptolemy switched from the former scale to the latter between the Syntaxis and the Geography, and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly.
See also Ancient Greek units of measurement and History of geodesy. Because Ptolemy derived many of his key latitudes from crude longest day values, his latitudes are erroneous on average by roughly a degree 2 degrees for Byzantium, 4 degrees for Carthage , though capable ancient astronomers knew their latitudes to more like a minute.
Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'.
He agreed Geography 1. When switching from stadia per degree to , he or Marinos expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly a point first realized by P. Gosselin in , resulting in serious over-stretching of the Earth's east-west scale in degrees, though not distance. Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in geography until the application of Galileo 's Jovian moon method in the 18th century.
It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony to the persistent popularity of this influential work in the history of cartography. Main article: Tetrabiblos The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian', as depicted by a 16th-century engraving  Ptolemy has been referred to as "a pro-astrological authority of the highest magnitude".