Learning to Teach English - A Practical Introduction for New Teachers - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. lEARNING to Teach English Watkins - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online . Carol Morgan and Peter Neil Teaching English: A Handbook for Primary and Secondary School Teachers Andrew Goodwyn is Director of Teaching and Learning and is course leader for all talking about learning (Watkins, ) medical-site.info%20education/publications/Black%medical-site.info (accessed 6.
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Download PDF Learning to Teach English: A Practical. Introduction for New Teachers. Authored by Peter Watkins. Released at Filesize: MB. Reviews. DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download lEARNING to Teach English Watkins Free in pdf format. Sponsored Ads. Shop Related Products. INTRODUCTION FOR NEW TEACHERS. Download PDF Learning to Teach English: A Practical. Introduction for New Teachers. Authored by Peter Watkins.
Poor non-verbal communication: Oral communication involves a very powerful non-verbal communication system, which sometimes contradicts the messages provided through the verbal listening channel. Lack of knowledge of the nonverbal communication system of the target language usually results in the inability to pick up non verbal cues by the ESL learners, which often results in mis understanding. Sometimes, extreme anxiety results in the learners being tongue-tied or lost for words in an unexpected situation leading to discouragement and a general sense of failure in the learners.
Unlike children, adults are very cautious about making errors in what ever they say. For them making errors would be a public display of ignorance which would be an obvious occasion of losing face.
This is one of the major factors for the inability to speak in English. Strong and quick learners domination in the class: A large and mixed ability class is another factor affecting the language acquisition process. In these classes we have both strong and weak learners, where the strong and quick learners are often seen to be dominating and overtaking the slow and weak learners. In a country like India majority of the people are farmers with poor educational background.
Learners coming from such background when asked to take part or do a speaking activity they fail to do it. Moreover, the poor income status of the family makes the parents engage their children in petty jobs instead of sending them to schools and colleges resulting in poor speaking skills.
Rural background: Rural background of the learners where English is generally not used is another cause affecting the leaning process. Most of the learners coming from rural background are first generation learners of English Language. Their parents being farmers and uneducated, they lack guidance from their elders in this aspect.
When learners of such background are asked to do a speaking activity, they end up in saying nothing. Even if they try to speak, they often tend to use their mother tongue, resulting in the failure of the learning process. Excessive use of mother-tongue: Learners generally tend to make an excessive use of their mother-tongue when it comes to the activities in productive skills namely- speaking and writing.
When the learners are asked to perform a speaking activity, they immediately start thinking about the topic in their mother tongue, frame what they want to say in their mother-tongue and then translate it into English, which often results in mistakes, in addition to this learners often tend to make use of their mother-tongue which results in losing the motive of learning the language and lack of practice. Lack of proper orientation: Even though some learners have learnt the language at their school levels, they are unable to produce even a single sentence without grammatical error.
The basic reason for this is , learning the subjects from the examination point of view. This attitude makes the learner ignore the language. In order to convey meaning, the learners must have the knowledge of words and sentences.
They must understand how words are segmented into various sounds, how sentences are stressed in particular ways. Grammatical competence enables speakers to use and understand the structure of English-language accurately and unhesitatingly, which contributes to their fluency.
Indian phonology The phonological system of Indian languages and English differ in important aspects notably in the prominence given to distinctions between vowels and distinctions between consonants.
While English has 22 vowel phonemes and diphthongs and 24 consonants, Hindi has only ten vowels phonemes but distinguishes over 30 consonants. The pronunciation of long and short vowels often creates confusion to learners. The consonant cluster is another cause of confusion for the learners. Mother-tongue pattern and its influence: Indians are used to a particular set of pattern of pronunciation, Intonation, stress-pattern and phonology of their mother-tongue which has an obvious impact on acquiring a foreign language.
They have to unlearn what they learnt in their mother-tongue and then acquire a second language.
This influence of mother-tongue often becomes a major hurdle in the learning process. They must be well qualified and certified.
Presenting papers and publishing articles would enable them to keep abreast with the recent trends. Building rapport: Building rapport and good relation with the learners is essential to make the learning atmosphere friendly.
The learning process becomes easy and effective in a friendly atmosphere which also strengthens the bond between the learner and teacher. This will make the learners feel free and express their views and enable to shed their shyness and inhibitions.
Building confidence: The next important aspect is to build confidence in the learners. Once the teacher establishes a good rapport with the learners, it is important to build their confidence. This can be done by starting with simple and easy tasks. This will encourage the slow learners to participate in the activity and boost their morale.
Gradually increasing the difficulty level will sharpen their knowledge thereby improving the learners. Minimizing teacher talk time and maximizing learner talk time will also encourage the learners.
Instead of correcting the mistakes, the teacher can go for peer correction which would encourage them to come out of inhibition. The teacher should be a guide, mentor and fecilitator.
Improved teaching facilities: The teacher should ensure to get proper teaching aids and facilities which include- proper space, books and teaching aid. This would create a proper learning ambiance for the learner. When the learners get proper learning facilities and ambiance, their learning process will be effective and speedy. Utilizing different methods of teaching: It is essential that the teacher adopts different methods of teaching to suit the diverse needs of the learners.
There are numerous methods of teaching language like- audio-lingual method, translation method, direct method etc. It is necessary to tailor the teaching method according to the diverse needs and styles of the learners. It must be a catchy and interesting method which would keep the learners involved and motivated so that they use in their real-life situations. One such approach of teaching English Language is task-based approach, wherein the learners have to actively engage in the process of acquiring the language in order to achieve a goal or complete a given task.
Learners are more likely to develop intrinsic motivation in a task-based approach. One of the major benefits of this approach is that it is learner-centered.
Unlike other traditional approaches, here the learner performs the task and takes an active part while the teacher happens to be a guide, mentor and www. This approach, when used in teaching speaking skills enables in minimizing teacher talk time and maximizing learner talk time, resulting in the progress in learners speaking skills.
Thus the entire learning process becomes enjoyable and efficient. There are many more factors pertaining to phonological, grammatical and other linguistic aspects which create a lot of problems in the process of language acquisition. Following a proper teaching strategy in the class would resolve many problems. Speaking is one of the central elements of communication. Effective instruction derived from the carful analysis of this area, efficient language input and speech —promotion activities, which will enable chances to speak English fluently and appropriately.
This is the only way to keep the motivation and interest levels high. When this is achieved all the problems of teaching and learning get resolved and better results are attained. Orient Longman private limited, 2. There are no schools for the children. Children learn from the older people in the group. There are lots of things they have to learn so that they can live in a dangerous place like the Kalahari. In the evenings, the groups of people often sit around a fire and tell stories.
Many of the stories are about animals and how to hunt them. The Kalahari is a big area of bushland in southern Africa. It has got two parts. There is less rain in the southern part than there is in the northern part, so the south is drier. But when it rains at the end of the summer, the land becomes greener and more beautiful. For a few weeks, there are millions of little flowers and even butterflies!
But soon, the grass and the bushes get dry and turn brown. Then life becomes more difficult again for people and animals. Which of the animals can you name in English?
Write them down. Look at the animals on your list. What countries do you think of? Pandas come from China. You find spiders all over the world. Where do these people live? What do you think they eat? What dangers are there?
What do these people know a lot about? Mark the statements T True or F False. Correct the false information. Look at the photos again and answer the questions.
Valuing our world 3 4 5 6 The bush people get their water from the river. When the San people are ill, they get medicine from a hospital.
The bush people teach children important things about living in the Kalahari. The north of the Kalahari is wetter than the south.
There are more animals and plants in northern Kalahari. A holiday in the Kalahari is never dangerous. They love driving around the bushland in open jeeps.