Environment Assisted Cracking 环境–辅助开裂 Environment – Assisted Cracking Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking (Cl-SCC) Corrosion. API pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Course Overview. API RP is the latest edition that describes damage mechanisms affecting equipment in the refining and petrochemical industries.
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Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) may be accessed from a pull. -down menu or from the Solver. Damage mechanisms shown on the PFDs are hyperlinked to the . For API API exam preparation you need API pdf dumps. Corrosion and Materials. Professional braindumps can actually save your skin if you haven't. API RP provides an in-depth look at over 60 different damage mechanisms that can occur to process equipment in refineries.
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It is very flammable. The cracking typically occurs in as-welded carbon steel fabrications as a network of very fine, oxide-filled cracks. The same requirement applies to repair welds and to internal and external attachment welds. Equipment should be water washed before steamout. Where steamout is required, only low-pressure steam should be used for short periods of time to minimize exposure.
Surface preparation by grit blasting, high pressure water blasting or other methods is usually required.
As water evaporates in the boiler, the concentration of sodium carbonate increases in the boiler. Sodium carbonate is used in softening of water by lime soda process, due to this some sodium carbonate maybe left behind in the water. As the concentration of sodium carbonate increases, it undergoes hydrolysis to form sodium hydroxide. This alkaline enter the base metal at break of oxide scale, as the water evaporates and hydroxide becomes concentrated. This sodium hydroxide attacks the surrounding material and the dissolves the iron of the boiler as Sodium Ferrate.
This causes embrittlement of boiler parts like rivets, bends and joints, which are under stress. Circumferential internal cracking that caused steam leak. Close-up view of branched cracking at edge of a fracture site. Photomicrograph of internal caustic SCC in the expansion joint. Photomicrograph showing cracking tip morphology. SEM photomicrograph showing a crack surface opened up, adjacent to fracture. SEM photomicrograph showing corrosion product present on the expansion joint fracture surface.
Susceptible alloys may suffer cracking under the combination of residual stress and chemical compounds.
Copper-zinc alloys brasses , including admiralty brass and aluminum brasses, are susceptible. A water phase with ammonia or ammoniacal compounds must be present.
Oxygen is necessary, but trace amounts are sufficient. Occurs at any temperature.
Residual stresses from fabrication or tube rolling are sufficient to promote cracking. Crack growth rates and cracking susceptibility with increasing temperature and can occur at ambient or refrigerated conditions. Contamination with air or oxygen increases tendency toward cracking. High residual stresses from fabrication and welding increase susceptibility. Surface breaking cracks may show bluish corrosion products.
Exchanger tubes show single or highly branched cracks on the surface. Cracking can be either transgranular Figure to or intergranular Figure Cracking will occur at exposed non-PWHT welds and heat-affected zones.
Cracking is primarily intergranular in nature. Figure — High magnification view of a cross-section of the tube in Figure showing transgranular cracking. The CuNi and CuNi alloys are nearly immune. SCC in steam service can sometimes be controlled by preventing the ingress of air. SCC of steel can be prevented through the addition of small quantities of water to the ammonia 0. Consideration must be given to vapor spaces could have less than 0. Weld hardness should not exceed BHN.
Prevent ingress of oxygen into storage facilities. Monitor pH and ammonia of water draw samples to assess susceptibility of copper alloys. Inspect heat exchanger tubes for cracking using EC or visual inspection. Rolled area is highly susceptible. WFMT welds inside tanks. Cracking can be very sudden and brittle in nature. Typical combinations of industrial significance are shown in Table Very small quantities of the low melting point metal are sufficient to cause LME.
Cracking under load can be extremely rapid such that cracks may pass through the wall within seconds of contact with the molten metal. Examples include melted zinc galvanizing, cadmium electrical housings, tin or lead from solders, and melted copper components. A common example is Series SS piping or vessels in contact with or previously rubbed against galvanized steel Figure and Figure 4- Figure Photomicrograph of a section of the elbow in Figure , illustrating Figure — Sketch of a stainless steel the intergranular nature elbow that suffered liquid metal embrittlement of zinc-filled cracks in as a result of dripping molten zinc during a fire.
LME can only be confirmed through metallography by the presence of intergranular cracks, usually filled with the low melting metal. For example, galvanized steel components should not be welded to Series SS. Hydrogen Embrittlement HE can occur during manufacturing, welding, or from services that can charge hydrogen into the steel in an aqueous, corrosive, or a gaseous environment. Welding — if wet electrodes or high moisture content flux weld electrodes are used, hydrogen can be charged into the steel delayed cracking.